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The OXFORD MOVEMENT was a movement of High Church
High Church
members of the Church of England
Church of England
which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism . The movement, whose original devotees were mostly associated with the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
, argued for the reinstatement of some older Christian traditions of faith and their inclusion into Anglican liturgy and theology. They thought of Anglicanism as one of three branches of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church .

The movement's philosophy was known as TRACTARIANISM after its series of publications, the _ Tracts for the Times _, published from 1833 to 1841. Tractarians were also disparagingly referred to as "Newmanites" (before 1845) and "Puseyites" (after 1845) after two prominent Tractarians, John Henry Newman and Edward Bouverie Pusey . Other well-known Tractarians included John Keble
John Keble
, Charles Marriott , Richard Froude , Robert Wilberforce , Isaac Williams and William Palmer .

CONTENTS

* 1 Origins and early period * 2 Publications * 3 Influence and criticism * 4 End of Newman\'s involvement and receptions into Roman Catholicism * 5 Others associated with Tractarianism * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

ORIGINS AND EARLY PERIOD

In the nineteenth century, in an attempt to broaden its reach, the Church of England
Church of England
assumed a latitudinarian perspective. During this period, the clergy consisted largely of Evangelicals, while universities became the grounds for the restoration of liturgical and devotional customs which borrowed heavily from traditions before the English Reformation as well as contemporary Roman Catholic traditions.

The immediate impetus for the Tractarian movement was a perceived attack by the reforming Whig administration on the structure and revenues of the Church of Ireland
Church of Ireland
(the established church in Ireland), with the Irish Church Temporalities Bill (1833). This bill not only legislated administrative changes of the hierarchy of the church (for example, with a reduction of bishoprics and archbishoprics) but also made changes to the leasing of church lands, which some (including a number of Whigs) feared would result in a secular appropriation of ecclesiastical property. John Keble
John Keble
criticised these proposals as " National Apostasy " in his Assize Sermon in Oxford in 1833. The Tractarians criticised theological liberalism . Their interest in Christian origins caused some of them to reconsider the relationship of the Church of England
Church of England
with the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
.

The Tractarians postulated the Branch Theory , which states that Anglicanism along with Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism form three "branches" of the historic Catholic Church. Tractarians argued for the inclusion of traditional aspects of liturgy from medieval religious practice, as they believed the church had become too "plain". In the final tract, " Tract XC ", Newman argued that the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church, as defined by the Council of Trent , were compatible with the Thirty-Nine Articles
Thirty-Nine Articles
of the 16th-century Church of England. Newman's eventual reception into the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in 1845, followed by Henry Edward Manning
Henry Edward Manning
in 1851, had a profound effect upon the movement.

PUBLICATIONS

Apart from the _Tracts for the Times_, the group began a collection of translations of the Church Fathers, which they termed the _Library of the Fathers _. The collection eventually comprised 48 volumes, the last published three years after Pusey's death. They were issued through Rivington's company with the imprint of the Holyrood Press. The main editor for many of these was Charles Marriott . A number of volumes of original Greek and Latin texts was also published. One of the main contributions that resulted from Tractarianism is the hymnbook entitled Hymns Ancient and Modern which was published in 1861.

INFLUENCE AND CRITICISM

Keble College, Oxford
Keble College, Oxford
, founded in 1870, was named after John Keble , a Tractarian, by the influence of Edward Pusey , another Tractarian

The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
was criticised for being a mere "Romanising " tendency, but it began to influence the theory and practice of Anglicanism more broadly. Paradoxically, the Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
was also criticised for being both secretive and collusive.

The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
resulted in the establishment of Anglican religious orders , both of men and of women. It incorporated ideas and practices related to the practice of liturgy and ceremony to incorporate more powerful emotional symbolism in the church. In particular it brought the insights of the Liturgical Movement into the life of the Church. Its effects were so widespread that the Eucharist gradually became more central to worship , vestments became common, and numerous Roman Catholic practices were re-introduced into worship. This led to controversies within churches that resulted in court cases, as in the dispute about ritualism .

Partly because bishops refused to give livings to Tractarian priests, many of them began working in slums . From their new ministries, they developed a critique of British social policy , both local and national. One of the results was the establishment of the Christian Social Union , of which a number of bishops were members, where issues such as the just wage, the system of property renting, infant mortality and industrial conditions were debated. The more radical Catholic Crusade was a much smaller organisation than the Oxford Movement. Anglo-Catholicism – as this complex of ideas, styles and organisations became known – had a significant influence on global Anglicanism.

END OF NEWMAN\'S INVOLVEMENT AND RECEPTIONS INTO ROMAN CATHOLICISM

One of the principal writers and proponents of Tractarianism was John Henry Newman , a popular Oxford priest who, after writing his final tract, " Tract 90 ", became convinced that the Branch Theory was inadequate. Concerns that Tractarianism was a disguised Roman Catholic movement were not unfounded; Newman believed that the Roman and Anglican churches were wholly compatible. He was received into the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
in 1845 and was ordained a priest of the Church the same year. He later became a cardinal (but not a bishop). Writing on the end of Tractarianism as a movement, Newman stated:

I saw indeed clearly that my place in the Movement was lost; public confidence was at an end; my occupation was gone. It was simply an impossibility that I could say any thing henceforth to good effect, when I had been posted up by the marshal on the buttery-hatch of every College of my University, after the manner of discommoned pastry-cooks, and when in every part of the country and every class of society, through every organ and opportunity of opinion, in newspapers, in periodicals, at meetings, in pulpits, at dinner-tables, in coffee-rooms, in railway carriages, I was denounced as a traitor who had laid his train and was detected in the very act of firing it against the time-honoured Establishment.

Newman was one of a number of Anglican clergy who were received into the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
during the 1840s who were either members of, or were influenced by, Tractarianism.

Other people influenced by Tractarianism who became Roman Catholics included:

* Thomas William Allies , Church historian and Anglican priest. * Edward Lowth Badeley , ecclesiastical lawyer. * Robert Hugh Benson , son of the Archbishop of Canterbury, novelist and monsignor . * John Chapman OSB , patristic scholar and Roman Catholic priest. * Augusta Theodosia Drane , writer and Dominican prioress. * Frederick William Faber , theologian, hymn writer, Oratorian and Roman Catholic priest. * Robert Stephen Hawker , poet and Anglican priest (became a Roman Catholic on his deathbed). * James Hope-Scott , barrister and Tractarian (received with Manning). * Gerard Manley Hopkins
Gerard Manley Hopkins
, poet and Jesuit
Jesuit
priest. * Ronald Knox , Biblical text translator and Anglican priest. * Thomas Cooper Makinson , Anglican priest. * Henry Edward Manning
Henry Edward Manning
, later Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster . * St. George Jackson Mivart , biologist (later interdicted by Cardinal Herbert Vaughan ). * John Brande Morris , Orientalist, eccentric and Roman Catholic priest. * Augustus Pugin , architect. * Richard Sibthorp, Anglican (and sometime Roman Catholic) priest (the first to convert; later reconverted) * William George Ward , theologian. * Benjamin Williams Whitcher , American Episcopal priest.

OTHERS ASSOCIATED WITH TRACTARIANISM

* Edward Burne-Jones * Richard William Church
Richard William Church
* Margaret Anna Cusack * George Anthony Denison * Philip Egerton * Alexander Penrose Forbes * William Ewart Gladstone
William Ewart Gladstone
* George Cornelius Gorham * Renn Dickson Hampden * Walter Farquhar Hook * William Lockhart

* John Medley
John Medley
* James Bowling Mozley * Thomas Mozley * John Mason Neale * William Upton Richards * Christina Rossetti * Lord Salisbury * Nathaniel Woodard

SEE ALSO

* _ Anglicanism portal

* Anglican Breviary
Anglican Breviary
_ * Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
* Cambridge Camden Society * Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament * Guild of All Souls * Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology

* Neo-Lutheranism * Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham * Society of the Holy Cross * Society of King Charles the Martyr * Society of Mary (Anglican)

REFERENCES

* ^ "The Church of England
Church of England
(the Anglican Church)". _victorianweb.org_. Retrieved 2015-12-07. * ^ "A Short History of the Oxford Movement". _Mocavo_. * ^ Walsh, Walter _The Secret History of the Oxford Movement, with a New Preface Containing a Reply to Critics_, London Church Association, 1899. * ^ "The Tractarian Movement". _victorianweb.org_. Retrieved 2015-12-07.

FURTHER READING

* Bexell, Oloph, "The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
as received in Sweden." _Kyrkohistorisk årsskrift. Publications of the Swedish Society of Church History_ 1:106 (2006). * Brown, Stewart J. & Nockles, Peter B. ed. _The Oxford Movement: Europe and the Wider World 1830–1930_, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. * Burgon, John , _Lives of Twelve Good Men_. Includes biography of Charles Marriott. * Chadwick, Owen. _Mind of the Oxford Movement,_ Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1960. * Church, R. W., _The Oxford Movement: Twelve Years, 1835–1845_, ed. and with an introd. by Geoffrey Best, in series, _Classics of British Historical Literature_, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. xxxii, , 280 p. ISBN 0-226-10619-5 (pbk.) * Church, R. W. _The Oxford Movement: Twelve Years, 1833–1845,_ London: Macmillan & Co., 1891. * Crumb, Lawrence N. _The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
and Its Leaders: a bibliography of secondary and lesser primary sources_. (ATLA Bibliography Series, 56). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2009. * Dilworth-Harrison, T. _Every Man's Story of the Oxford Movement_. London: A. R. Mowbray it examines the Tractarian parochial world from the 1830s to the 1870s) * Hutchison, William G. _The Oxford Movement, being a Selection from Tracts for the Times,_ London: Walter Scott Pub. Co., 1906. * Kelway, Clifton (1915) _The Story of the Catholic Revival_. London: Cope & Fenwick * Kendall, James. "A New Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
in England," _The American Catholic Quarterly Review_, Vol. XXII, 1897. * Leech, Kenneth & Williams, Rowan (eds) _Essays Catholic and Radical: a jubilee group symposium for the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
1833–1983_, London : Bowerdean, 1983ISBN 0-906097-10-X * Liddon, Henry Parry , _Life of E. B. Pusey_, 4 vols. London, 1893. The standard history of the Oxford Movement, which quotes extensively from their correspondence, and the source for much written subsequently. The _ Library of the Fathers _ is discussed in vol. 1 pp. 420–440. Available on archive.org. * Norman, Edward R. _Church and Society in England 1770–1970: a historical study_. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976, ISBN 0-19-826435-6 . * Nockles, Peter B. _The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
in Context: Anglican High Churchmanship 1760–1857_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. * Nockles, Peter B., "The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
and its historiographers. Brilioth's 'Anglican Revival' and 'Three Lectures on Evangelicalism and The Oxford Movement' revisited." _Kyrkohistorisk årsskrift. Publications of the Swedish Society of Church History_ 1:106 (2006). * Nye, George Henry Frederick. _The Story of the Oxford Movement: A Book for the Times,_ Bemrose, 1899. * Ollard, S. L. _A Short History of the Oxford Movement,_ A. R. Mowbray 70 (1973), p. 333ff. * Skinner, S. A. _Tractarians and the Condition of England: the social and political thought of the Oxford Movement_. (Oxford Historical Monographs.) Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004. * Wakeling, G. _The Oxford Church Movement: Sketches and Recollections,_ Swan Sonnenschein & Co., 1895. * Walworth, Clarence A. _The Oxford Movement
Oxford Movement
in America_. New York: United States Catholic Historical Society, 1974 (Reprint of the 1895 ed. published by the Catholic Book Exchange, New York). * Ward, Wilfrid. _The Oxford Movement,_ T. C. ;padding:3px">

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