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Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
(Welsh pronunciation: [ˈoʊain ɡlɨ̞nˈduːr]; c. 1359 – c. 1415), or Owain Glyn Dŵr, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales ( Tywysog Cymru) but to many, viewed as an unofficial king. He instigated a fierce and long-running but ultimately unsuccessful revolt against the English rule of Wales. Glyndŵr was a descendant of the Princes of Powys through his father Gruffydd Fychan II, hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog
Powys Fadog
and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, and of those of Deheubarth
Deheubarth
through his mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn ab Owen.[1] On 16 September 1400, Glyndŵr instigated the Welsh Revolt against the rule of Henry IV of England. The uprising was initially very successful and rapidly gained control of large areas of Wales, but it suffered from key weaknesses – particularly a lack of artillery, which made capturing defended fortresses difficult, and of ships, which made their coastlands vulnerable. The uprising was eventually suppressed by the superior resources of the English. Glyndŵr was driven from his last strongholds in 1409, but he avoided capture and the last documented sighting of him was in 1412. He twice ignored offers of a pardon from his military nemesis, the new king Henry V of England, and despite the large rewards offered, Glyndŵr was never betrayed to the English. His death was recorded by a former follower in the year 1415. Glyndŵr is portrayed in William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, Part 1 (anglicised as Owen Glendower) as a wild and exotic man ruled by magic and emotion. With his death Owain acquired a mythical status along with Cadwaladr, Cynan and Arthur as the hero awaiting the call to return and liberate his people. In the late 19th century the Cymru Fydd movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Siblings 3 Welsh revolt 1400–1415

3.1 Tripartite indenture and the year of the French 3.2 Rebellion founders

4 Disappearance and death 5 Marriage and issue 6 Ancestors 7 Legacy

7.1 Tudor period 7.2 As a Welsh national hero 7.3 Fiction

8 References 9 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit]

Banner of Owain Glyndŵr. Arms: Quarterly or and gules, four lions rampant armed and langued azure counterchanged. Crest. A dragon, or wyvern, gules. Mantling. Red lined white.[2]

Glyndŵr was born around 1349 (possibly 1359) to a prosperous landed family, part of the Anglo-Welsh gentry of the Welsh Marches
Welsh Marches
(the border between England and Wales) in northeast Wales.[3] This group moved easily between Welsh and English societies and languages, occupying important offices for the Marcher Lords while maintaining their position as uchelwyr — nobles descended from the pre-conquest Welsh royal dynasties — in traditional Welsh society. His father, Gruffydd Fychan II, hereditary Tywysog of Powys Fadog
Powys Fadog
and Lord of Glyndyfrdwy, died some time before 1370, leaving Glyndŵr's mother Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn of Deheubarth
Deheubarth
a widow and Owain a young man of 16 years at most. The young Owain ap Gruffydd was possibly fostered at the home of David Hanmer, a rising lawyer shortly to be a justice of the Kings Bench, or at the home of Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel. Owain is then thought to have been sent to London to study law at the Inns of Court.[4] He probably studied as a legal apprentice for seven years. He was possibly in London during the Peasants' Revolt
Peasants' Revolt
of 1381. By 1383, he had returned to Wales, where he married David Hanmer's daughter, Margaret, started his large family and established himself as the Squire of Sycharth
Sycharth
and Glyndyfrdwy, with all the responsibilities that entailed. Glyndŵr entered the English king's military service in 1384 when he undertook garrison duty under the renowned Welshman Sir Gregory Sais, or Sir Degory Sais, on the English–Scottish border at Berwick-upon-Tweed.[3][5] In August 1385, he served King Richard under the command of John of Gaunt
John of Gaunt
again in Scotland.[4] On 3 September 1386, he was called to give evidence in the Scrope v Grosvenor
Scrope v Grosvenor
trial at Chester.[6] In March 1387, Owain was in southeast England under Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel, in the English Channel at the defeat of a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet off the coast of Kent. Upon the death in late 1387 of his father-in-law, Sir David Hanmer, knighted earlier that same year by Richard II, Glyndŵr returned to Wales
Wales
as executor of his estate. He possibly served as a squire to Henry Bolingbroke (later Henry IV of England), son of John of Gaunt, at the short, sharp Battle of Radcot Bridge
Battle of Radcot Bridge
in December 1387. He had gained three years concentrated military experience in different theatres and seen at first hand some key events and people. King Richard was distracted by a growing conflict with the Lords Appellant from this time on. Glyndŵr's opportunities were further limited by the death of Sir Gregory Sais in 1390 and the sidelining of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, and he probably returned to his stable Welsh estates, living there quietly for ten years during his forties. The bard Iolo Goch ("Red Iolo"), himself a Welsh lord, visited him in the 1390s and wrote a number of odes to Owain, praising Owain's liberality, and writing of Sycharth, "Rare was it there / to see a latch or a lock." Siblings[edit] The names and number of Owain Glyndŵr's siblings cannot be certainly known. The following are given by the Jacob Youde William Lloyd:[7]

Brother Tudur, Lord of Gwyddelwern, born about 1362, died 11 March 1405 at a battle in Brecknockshire in the wars of his brother. Brother Gruffudd who had a daughter and heiress, Eva. Sister Lowri, also spelled Lowry, married Robert Puleston of Emral. Sister Isabel married Adda ap Iorwerth Ddu of Llys Pengwern. Sister Morfudd married Sir Richard Croft of Croft Castle, in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and, secondly, David ab Ednyfed Gam of Llys Pengwern. Sister Gwenllian.

Tudur, Isabel and Lowri are given as his siblings by the more cautious Prof. R R Davies. That Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
had another brother Gruffudd is likely; that he possibly had a third, Maredudd, is suggested by one reference.[8] Welsh revolt 1400–1415[edit] Further information: Glyndŵr Rising

c.1400 – c.1416 Y Ddraig Aur (The Gold Dragon). The royal standard of Owain Glyndŵr, Prince of Wales, famously raised over Caernarfon during the Battle of Tuthill in 1401 against the English, it is evident in Glyndŵr's privy seals that his gold dragon had two legs.

In the late 1390s, a series of events began to push Owain towards rebellion, in what was later to be called the Welsh Revolt, the Glyndŵr Rising
Glyndŵr Rising
or (within Wales) the Last War of Independence. His neighbour, Baron Grey de Ruthyn, had seized control of some land, for which Glyndŵr appealed to the English Parliament. Owain's petition for redress was ignored. Later, in 1400, Lord Grey informed Glyndŵr too late of a royal command to levy feudal troops for Scottish border service, thus enabling him to call the Welshman a traitor in London court circles.[9] Lord Grey was a personal friend of King Henry IV. Glyndŵr lost the legal case[citation needed], and was under personal threat. However, an alternative source states that Glyndŵr was under threat because he had written an angry letter to Lord Grey, boasting that he had stolen some of Lord Grey's horses, and believing Lord Grey had threatened to "burn and slay" within his lands, he threatened retaliation in the same manner. Lord Grey then denied making the initial threat to burn and slay, and replied that he would take the incriminating letter to the King Henry IV's council, and that Glyndŵr would hang for the admission of theft and treason contained within the letter.[10] The deposed king, Richard II, had support in Wales, and in January 1400 serious civil disorder broke out in the English border city of Chester, after the public execution of an officer of Richard II.[11] These events led to Owain formally assuming his ancestral title of Prince of Powys on 16 September 1400. With a small band of followers which included his eldest son, his brothers-in-law, and the Bishop of St Asaph in the town of Corwen, possibly in the church of SS Mael & Sulien, he launched an assault on Lord Grey's territories.[6] After a number of initial confrontations between King Henry IV and Owain's followers in September and October 1400, the revolt began to spread in 1401. Much of northern and central Wales
Wales
went over to Owain. Henry IV appointed Henry Percy – the famous "Hotspur" – to bring the country to order. Hotspur issued an amnesty in March which applied to all rebels with the exception of Owain and his cousins, Rhys ap Tudur and Gwilym ap Tudur, sons of Tudur ap Gronw (forefather of King Henry VII of England). Both the Tudurs were pardoned after their capture of Edward I’s great castle at Conwy.

Monument to Owain Glyndŵr's victory at Hyddgen

In June, Owain scored his first major victory in the field at Mynydd Hyddgen on Pumlumon. Retaliation by Henry IV on the Strata Florida Abbey followed, but eventually led to Henry's retreat. In 1402, the English Parliament issued the Penal Laws against Wales, designed to establish English dominance in Wales, but actually pushing many Welshmen into the rebellion. In the same year, Owain captured his arch enemy, Baron Grey de Ruthyn. He was to hold him for almost a year until he received a substantial ransom from Henry. In June 1402, Owain defeated an English force led by Sir Edmund Mortimer
Mortimer
at the Battle of Bryn Glas, and Mortimer
Mortimer
was captured. Glyndŵr offered to release Mortimer
Mortimer
for a large ransom but, in sharp contrast to his attitude to de Grey, Henry IV refused to pay. Mortimer's nephew could be said to have had a greater claim to the English throne than Henry himself, so his speedy release was not an option. In response, Mortimer
Mortimer
negotiated an alliance with Owain and married one of Owain's daughters. It is also in 1402 that mention of the French and Bretons
Bretons
helping Owain was first heard. The French were certainly hoping to use Wales
Wales
as they had used Scotland: as a base to fight the English. In 1403 the revolt became truly national in Wales. Royal officials reported that Welsh students at Oxford University
Oxford University
were leaving their studies to join Owain, and Welsh labourers and craftsmen were abandoning their employers in England and returning to Wales. Owain could also draw on Welsh troops seasoned by the English campaigns in France and Scotland. Hundreds of Welsh archers and experienced men-at-arms left English service to join the rebellion.

A plaque at Machynlleth
Machynlleth
commemorates Owain Glyndŵr's 1404 parliament

In 1404, Owain held court at Harlech
Harlech
and appointed Gruffydd Young as his Chancellor. Soon afterwards, he called his first Parliament (or Cynulliad or "gathering") of all Wales
Wales
at Machynlleth, where he was crowned Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
and announced his national programme. He declared his vision of an independent Welsh state with a parliament and separate Welsh church. There would be two national universities (one in the south and one in the north) and a return to the traditional law of Hywel Dda. Senior churchmen and important members of society flocked to his banner. English resistance was reduced to a few isolated castles, walled towns and fortified manor houses. Tripartite indenture and the year of the French[edit]

Glyndwr's Parliament House, Machynlleth. 1814

Owain negotiated the "Tripartite Indenture" with Edmund Mortimer
Mortimer
and Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland. The Indenture agreed to divide England and Wales
Wales
among the three of them. Wales
Wales
would extend as far as the rivers Severn and Mersey, including most of Cheshire, Shropshire
Shropshire
and Herefordshire. The Mortimer
Mortimer
Lords of March would take all of southern and western England and the Percys would take the north of England.[12] R. R. Davies noted that certain internal features underscore the roots of Glyndŵr's political philosophy in Welsh mythology: in it, the three men invoke prophecy, and the boundaries of Wales
Wales
are defined according to Merlinic literature.

Owain Glyndŵr

Although negotiations with the lords of Ireland were unsuccessful, Owain had reason to hope that the French and Bretons
Bretons
might be more welcoming. He dispatched Gruffydd Young and his brother-in-law (Margaret's brother), John Hanmer, to negotiate with the French. The result was a formal treaty that promised French aid to Owain and the Welsh. The immediate effect seems to have been that joint Welsh and Franco-Breton forces attacked and laid siege to Kidwelly
Kidwelly
Castle. The Welsh could also count on semi-official fraternal aid from their fellow Celts in the then independent Brittany
Brittany
and Scotland. Scots and French privateers were operating around Wales
Wales
throughout Owain's war. Scottish ships had raided English settlements on the Llŷn Peninsula in 1400 and 1401. In 1403, a Breton squadron defeated the English in the Channel and devastated Jersey, Guernsey
Guernsey
and Plymouth, while the French made a landing on the Isle of Wight. By 1404, they were raiding the coast of England, with Welsh troops on board, setting fire to Dartmouth and devastating the coast of Devon. 1405 was the "Year of the French" in Wales. A formal treaty between Wales
Wales
and France was negotiated. On the continent the French pressed the English as the French army invaded English Plantagenet Aquitaine. Simultaneously, the French landed in force at Milford Haven
Milford Haven
in west Wales. They marched through Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and on into Worcestershire. They met the English army just ten miles from Worcester. The armies took up battle positions daily and viewed each other from a mile without any major action for eight days. Then, for reasons that have never become clear, the English retreated, and so did the French shortly afterwards. Rebellion founders[edit]

Charles VI of France
Charles VI of France
did not continue to support Glyndŵr's revolt

By 1405, most French forces had withdrawn after politics in Paris shifted toward the peace party. Early in the year, the Welsh forces, who had until then won several easy victories, suffered a series of defeats. English forces landed in Anglesey
Anglesey
from Ireland and would over time push the Welsh back, until the resistance in Anglesey
Anglesey
formally ended toward the end of 1406. At the same time, the English changed their strategy. Rather than focusing on punitive expeditions as favoured by his father, the young Prince Henry adopted a strategy of economic blockade. Using the castles that remained in English control, he gradually began to retake Wales
Wales
while cutting off trade and the supply of weapons. By 1407 this strategy was beginning to bear fruit, even though by this time Owain's rebel soldiers had achieved victories over the King's men as far as Birmingham, where the English were in retreat. In the autumn, Owain's Aberystwyth Castle
Aberystwyth Castle
surrendered while he was away fighting. In 1409, it was the turn of Harlech
Harlech
Castle. Edmund Mortimer
Mortimer
died in the final battle, and Owain's wife Margaret along with two of his daughters (including Catrin) and three of Mortimer's granddaughters were imprisoned in the Tower of London. They were all to die in the Tower before 1415. Owain remained free, but he had lost his ancestral home and was a hunted prince. He continued the rebellion, particularly wanting to avenge his wife. In 1410, after a suicide raid into rebel-controlled Shropshire, which took many English lives, some of the leading rebels are thought to have been captured. In 1412, Owain led one of the final successful raiding parties with his most faithful soldiers and cut through the King's men; and in an ambush in Brecon
Brecon
he captured, and later ransomed, a leading Welsh supporter of King Henry's, Dafydd Gam
Dafydd Gam
("Crooked David"). This was the last time that Owain was seen alive by his enemies. As late as 1414, there were rumours that the Herefordshire-based Lollard
Lollard
leader Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
was communicating with Owain, and reinforcements were sent to the major castles in the north and south. But by then things were changing. Henry IV died in 1413 and his son King Henry V began to adopt a more conciliatory attitude to the Welsh. Royal pardons were offered to the major leaders of the revolt and other opponents of his father's regime. Disappearance and death[edit]

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Nothing certain is known of Owain after 1412. Despite enormous rewards being offered, he was neither captured nor betrayed. He ignored royal pardons. Tradition has it that he died and was buried possibly in the church of Saints Mael and Sulien at Corwen
Corwen
close to his home, or possibly on his estate in Sycharth
Sycharth
or on the estates of his daughters' husbands — Kentchurch
Kentchurch
in south Herefordshire
Herefordshire
or Monnington in west Herefordshire.

Glyndwr's Coats of Arms; from A Tour in Wales
Wales
by Thomas Pennant (1726–1798) that chronicle the three journeys he made through Wales between 1773 and 1776.

In his book The Mystery of Jack of Kent and the Fate of Owain Glyndŵr, Alex Gibbon argues that the folk hero Jack of Kent, also known as Siôn Cent – the family chaplain of the Scudamore family – was in fact Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
himself. Gibbon points out a number of similarities between Siôn Cent and Glyndŵr (including physical appearance, age, education, and character) and claims that Owain spent his last years living with his daughter Alys, passing himself off as an aging Franciscan friar
Franciscan friar
and family tutor.[13] There are many folk tales of Glyndŵr donning disguises to gain advantage over opponents during the rebellion.[citation needed] Adam of Usk, a one-time supporter of Glyndŵr, made the following entry in his Chronicle under the year 1415: "After four years in hiding, from the king and the realm, Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
died, and was buried by his followers in the darkness of night. His grave was discovered by his enemies, however, so he had to be re-buried, though it is impossible to discover where he was laid." In 1875, the Rev. Francis Kilvert wrote in his diary that he saw the grave of "Owen Glendower" in the churchyard at Monnington "[h]ard by the church porch and on the western side of it ... It is a flat stone of whitish grey shaped like a rude obelisk figure, sunk deep into the ground in the middle of an oblong patch of earth from which the turf has been pared away, and, alas, smashed into several fragments."[14] In 2006, Adrien Jones, the president of the Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
Society, said, "Four years ago we visited a direct descendant of Glyndŵr, a John Skidmore, at Kentchurch
Kentchurch
Court, near Abergavenny. He took us to Mornington Straddle, in Herefordshire, where one of Glyndŵr's daughters, Alice, lived. Mr Skidmore told us that he (Glyndŵr) spent his last days there and eventually died there.... It was a family secret for 600 years and even Mr. Skidmore's mother, who died shortly before we visited, refused to reveal the secret. There's even a mound where he is believed to be buried at Mornington Straddle."[15][16] Marriage and issue[edit] Owain married Margaret Hanmer, also known by her Welsh name Marred ferch Dafydd, daughter of Sir David Hanmer
David Hanmer
of Hanmer, early in his life.[17] Owain's daughter Alys had secretly married Sir John Scudamore, the King's appointed Sheriff of Herefordshire. Somehow he had weathered the rebellion and remained in office. It was rumoured that Owain finally retreated to their home at Kentchurch. A grandchild of the Scudamores was Sir John Donne
Sir John Donne
of Kidwelly, a successful Yorkist courtier, diplomat and soldier, who after 1485 made an accommodation with his fellow Welshman, Henry VII. Through the Donne family, many prominent English families are descended from Owain, including the De Vere family, successive holders of the title Earl of Oxford, and the Cavendish family (Dukes of Devonshire). According to Lloyd, Owain and Margaret had five sons and four (p. 211) or five (p. 199) daughters:[17]

Gruffudd, born about 1375, was captured by the English, confined in Nottington Castle, and taken to the Tower of London
Tower of London
in 1410. He died in prison of bubonic plague about 1412. Madog Maredudd, whose date of birth is unknown, was still living in 1421 when he accepted a pardon. Thomas John Alys married Sir John Scudamore.[18] She was lady of Glyndyfrdwy
Glyndyfrdwy
and Cynllaith, and heiress of the Principalities of Powys, South Wales, and Gwynedd. Jane, who married Lord Grey de Ruthin.[citation needed] Janet, who married Sir John de Croft of Croft Castle, in Herefordshire. Margaret, who married Sir Richard Monnington of Monnington, in Herefordshire.

Although not named by Lloyd, a fifth daughter, Catrin, is recorded elsewhere. She married Sir Edmund Mortimer, son of Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, and died in 1413. Owain's sons were either taken prisoner or died in battle and had no issue. Owain had additional illegitimate children: David, Gwenllian, Ieuan, and Myfanwy.[17] Ancestors[edit]

 

 

 

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn m.1075

 

 

 

Rhys ap Tewdwr m. 1093

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maredudd ap Bleddyn m.1132

 

 

 

Gruffudd ap Rhys m. 1137

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madog ap Maredudd m.1160

 

 

 

Rhys ap Gruffudd (Yr Arglwydd Rhys) m. 1197

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gruffudd Maelor I m.1191

 

 

 

Gruffudd m. 1201

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madog ap Gruffudd Maelor m.1236

 

 

 

Owain m. 1235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gruffudd Maelor II m.1269

 

 

 

Maredydd ab Owain m. 1265

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gruffudd Fychan I m. 1289

 

 

 

Owain m. 1275

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madog Crypl c. 1275 - 1304

 

 

 

Llywelyn ab Owain m. 1308

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gruffudd

 

 

 

Tomos m. 1343

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gruffudd Fychan II m. cyn 1340

 

 

 

Elen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Owain Glyn Dŵr c. 1354 - c. 1414

Legacy[edit]

Sculpture of Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
by Alfred Turner at City Hall, Cardiff.

Tudor period[edit] After Owain's death, there was little resistance to English rule. The Tudor dynasty
Tudor dynasty
saw Welshmen become more prominent in English society. In Henry IV, Part 1, Shakespeare portrays him as Owen Glendower,[19] wild and exotic; a man who claims to be able to "call spirits from the vasty deep," ruled by magic and tradition in sharp contrast to the more logical but highly emotional Hotspur. Shakespeare further notes Glyndŵr as being not in the roll of common men and a worthy gentleman, exceedingly well read, and profited in strange concealments; valiant as a lion, and wondrous affable; and as bountiful as mines of India [Henry IV, Part I, Act 3, Scene i]. As a Welsh national hero[edit] With his death Owain acquired a mythical status along with Cadwaladr, Cynan and Arthur as the hero awaiting the call to return and liberate his people.[20] Thomas Pennant, in his Tours in Wales
Wales
(1778, 1781 and 1783), searched out and published many of the legends and places associated with his memory.[21] Previously, George Owen, in his A Dialogue of the present Government of Wales
Wales
(1594) had written against the Cruell lawes against Welshmen made by Henrie the ffourth in his attempts to quell the revolt.[22] But it was not until the late 19th century that Owain's reputation was revived. The "Young Wales" movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism. The discovery of Owain's Great Seal and his letters to the French in the Bibliothèque Nationale helped revise historical images of him as a purely local leader. In the First World War, the Welsh Prime Minister, David Lloyd George, unveiled a statue to him in Cardiff City Hall and a postcard showing Owain at the Battle of Mynydd Hyddgen
Mynydd Hyddgen
was sold to raise money for wounded Welsh soldiers. Folk memory in Wales
Wales
had always held him in high regard and almost every parish has some landmark or story about Owain. However, there is no road sign indicating the scene of one of his greatest battles at Bryn Glas in 1415. In 1808, the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
launched a 36-gun fifth-rate frigate, which it named the HMS Owen Glendower. She served in the Baltic during the Gunboat War
Gunboat War
where she participated in the seizure of Anholt Island, and then in the Channel. Between 1822 and 1824, she served in the West Africa Squadron (or 'Preventative Squadron') chasing down slave ships, capturing at least two.

A sketch of Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
as he appeared to William Blake
William Blake
in a late night vision. This is one of a number of such sketches known collectively as the Visionary Heads

He is now remembered as a national hero and numerous small groups have adopted his symbolism to advocate independence or nationalism for Wales. For example, during the 1980s, a group calling themselves "Meibion Glyndŵr" claimed responsibility for the burning of English holiday homes in Wales. The creation of the National Assembly for Wales
Wales
brought him back into the spotlight and in 2000 celebrations were held all over Wales
Wales
to commemorate the 600th anniversary of Glyndŵr's revolt, including an historic reenactment at the Millennium National Eisteddfod of Wales, Llanelli 2000.[23] Stamps were issued with his likeness in 1974 and 2008[24] and streets, parks, and public squares were named after him throughout Wales. Owain’s personal standard — the quartered arms of Powys and Deheubarth
Deheubarth
rampant — began to be seen all over Wales, especially at rugby union matches against the English. A campaign exists to make 16 September, the date Owain raised his standard, a public holiday in Wales. An annual award for achievement in the arts and literature, the Glyndŵr Award, is named after him. In 2007, popular Welsh musicians the Manic Street Preachers
Manic Street Preachers
wrote a song entitled "1404" based on Owain Glyndŵr. The song can be found on the CD single for 'Autumnsong'. A statue of Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
on horseback was installed in 2007 in The Square in Corwen, Denbighshire, to commemorate his life and his lasting influence on Wales. Also located on the Square in Corwen
Corwen
is the Owain Glyndwr Hotel. The waymarked long distance footpath Glyndŵr's Way
Glyndŵr's Way
runs through Mid Wales
Wales
near to his homelands. Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
came 2nd in the 100 Welsh Heroes poll of 2003/4.

Statue of Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
in Corwen

In 2008, Glyndŵr University
Glyndŵr University
was established in Wrexham, Wales.[25] Originally established as the Wrexham
Wrexham
School of Science and Art in 1887, it was until the name change known as the North East Wales Institute or "NEWI". Glyndŵr was born and lived much of his life around Wrexham
Wrexham
and the Welsh Marches. Glendower Residence, at the University of Cape Town
University of Cape Town
in South Africa was named after Owain Glyndŵr. The residence was opened in 1993 having previously been the Glendower Hotel. It now houses 139 male and female undergraduate students.[26] RGC 1404
RGC 1404
(Rygbi Gogledd Cymru/North Wales
Wales
Rugby) rugby union team is named in honour of Owain Glyndŵr Fiction[edit] Glyndŵr has been featured in a number of works of modern fiction, including

John Cowper Powys: Owen Glendower (1941) Edith Pargeter: A Bloody Field by Shrewsbury (1972) Martha Rofheart: "Glendower Country" (1973) Rosemary Hawley Jarman: Crown in Candlelight (1978) Roger Zelazny: A Night in the Lonesome October
A Night in the Lonesome October
(1993) Malcolm Pryce: A Dragon to Agincourt – Y Lolfa ISBN 0-86243-684-2 (2003) Rhiannon Ifans: Owain Glyndŵr: Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales
(2003) Rowland Williams: Owen Glendower: A Dramatic Biography and Other Poems (2008) T.I. Adams: The Dragon Wakes: A Novel of Wales
Wales
and Owain Glyndwr (2012) Maggie Stiefvater: The Raven Boys (2012), The Dream Thieves (2013), Blue Lily, Lily Blue (2014), and The Raven King (2016) N. Gemini Sasson: Uneasy Lies the Crown: A Novel of Owain Glyndwr (2012) BBC
BBC
TV Series Horrible Histories, series 5, episode 7, features a song about Glyndor[27] Terry Breverton: Owain Glyndŵr: The Story of the Last Prince of Wales (2014)

Glyndŵr was the hero of James Hill's UK TV movie Owain, Prince of Wales, broadcast in 1983 in the early days of Channel 4/S4C. Glyndŵr appeared briefly as a past Knight of the Word and a ghost who serves the Lady in Terry Brooks' Word/Void
Word/Void
trilogy. In the books, he is John Ross's ancestor. Glyndŵr appeared as an agent of the Light in Susan Cooper's novel Silver on the Tree, part of The Dark is Rising Sequence. For a study of the various ways Glyndŵr has been portrayed in Welsh-language literature of the modern period, see E. Wyn James, Glyndŵr a Gobaith y Genedl: Agweddau ar y Portread o Owain Glyndŵr yn Llenyddiaeth y Cyfnod Modern (English: Glyndŵr and the Hope of the Nation: Aspects of the Portrayal of Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
in the Literature of the Modern Period) (Aberystwyth: Cymdeithas Llyfrau Ceredigion, 2007). References[edit]

^ "'Owain Glyndwr'". Dictionary of Welsh Biography.  ^ A European Armourial; Historic Heraldry of Britain; Heraldry, Sources, Symbols and Meanings; Military Modelling; Knights in Armour. ^ a b "Historic Figures: Owain Glyn Dwr (c.1355 – c.1415)". BBC History.  ^ a b Davies, R.R. (1995). The revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198205081.  ^ Davies, R.R. (1995). "The revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr". Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198205081. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ a b Pierce, Thomas Jones. "Owain Glyndwr". Welsh Biography Online. The National Library of Wales.  ^ Lloyd, Jacob Youde William (1881). The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog. 1. London: T. Richards. p. 197.  ^ Parry, Charles (2010). Last mab darogan: the life and times of owain glyn dwr. [S.l.]: Novasys Limited. p. 186. ISBN 978-0956555304.  ^ Allday, D. Helen (1981). Insurrection in Wales: the rebellion of the Welsh led by Owen Glyn Dwr (Glendower) against the English Crown in 1400. Lavenham: Terence Dalton. p. 51. ISBN 0-86138-001-0.  ^ Ian Mortimer
Mortimer
(31 May 2013). The Fears of Henry IV: The Life of England's Self-Made King. Random House. pp. 226–. ISBN 978-1-4070-6633-2.  ^ Skidmore, Ian (1978). Owain Glyndŵr: Prince of Wales. Swansea: Christopher Davies. p. 24. ISBN 0715404725.  ^ Davies, John (1994). A History of Wales. London: Penguin Books. p. 195. ISBN 0-14-014581-8.  ^ Gibbon, Alex (2007). The mystery of Jack of Kent & the fate of Owain Glyndŵr. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-3320-9.  ^ Plomer, William (ed.) (1944). Kilvert's Diary. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) 6 April 1875 ^ "Glyndwr's burial mystery 'solved'". BBC
BBC
News. 6 November 2004.  ^ "The Society's Achievements". The Owain Glyndwr Society. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008.  ^ a b c Lloyd, J (1881). The History of the Princes, the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog. 1. London: T. Richards. pp. 199, 211–219.  ^ "Owain Glyndwr". Wales
Wales
History. BBC.  ^ "Owain Glyndŵr". Glyndŵr University. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ Davies, John; Jenkins, Nigel; Baines, Menna, eds. (2008). The Welsh Academy encyclopaedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales
Wales
Press. p. 635. ISBN 9780708319536.  ^ Google Books edition of Thomas Pennant's A Tour in Wales
Wales
(1810 edition) ^ The Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorian, Volumes 4–5. 1998. p. 9.  ^ " Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
Historic Reenactment". This Week Wales. 20 August 2000.  ^ "New Owain Glyndwr stamp unveiled". BBC
BBC
News. 29 February 2008.  ^ "About us". Glyndŵr University. 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.  ^ "UCT Residence System". Retrieved 18 March 2011.  ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PhC2T3API5w

Sources[edit]

J. E. Lloyd, Owen Glendower, 1931 classic. R. Rees Davies, The Revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr (1995) Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-285336-8 Geoffrey Hodge, Owain Glyn Dwr: The War of Independence in the Welsh Borders (1995) Logaston Press ISBN 1-873827-24-5 Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999. pp. 714, 1295 Jon Latimer, Deception in War, (2001), John Murray, pp. 12–13. A. G. Bradley, Owen Glyndwr and the Last Struggle for Welsh Independence. (1901) G. P. PUTNAM’S SONS

Further reading[edit]

Livingston, Michael, ed. (2013). Owain Glyndŵr: A Casebook. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-0-85989-884-3.  Williams, Gruffydd Aled (2017). The Last Days of Owain Glyndŵr. Y Lolfa. ISBN 978-1-7846-146-38. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Owain Glyndŵr.

The Owain Glyndŵr
Owain Glyndŵr
Society Two letters of Owain Glyndŵr, from Adam of Usk BBC
BBC
Wales
Wales
History – Profile of Owain Glyndŵr "Glyndŵr flag flies at city castle" – BBC
BBC
News 12 September 2005 "Glyndŵr's burial mystery 'solved'" – BBC
BBC
News Owain at 100 Welsh Heroes Medieval Soldier:Soldier of the Month December 2007 Cefn Caer Owen Glyndwr and the Last Struggle for Welsh Independence The Privy Seal of Owain Glyndwr

Preceded by Owain Lawgoch Titular Prince of Wales 1400 – c.1416 Succeeded by Vacant

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 47193131 LCCN: n83211826 ISNI: 0000 0001 2140 5902 GND: 119299852 SUDOC: 034499709 BNF: cb125250107 (data) SNAC: w60k4v10

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord Chief Justice Lord Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Es

.