OWAIN GLYNDŵR (Welsh pronunciation: ; c. 1359 – c. 1415), or
OWAIN GLYN DŵR, was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to
hold the title
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales (
Tywysog Cymru) but to many, viewed as
an unofficial king. He instigated a fierce and long-running but
ultimately unsuccessful revolt against the English rule of
Glyndŵr was a descendant of the Princes of Powys through his father
Gruffydd Fychan II , hereditary
Powys Fadog and Lord of
Glyndyfrdwy , and of those of
Deheubarth through his mother Elen ferch
Tomas ap Llywelyn ab Owen. On 16 September 1400, Glyndŵr instigated
the Welsh Revolt against the rule of
Henry IV of England
Henry IV of England . The
uprising was initially very successful and rapidly gained control of
large areas of Wales, but it suffered from key weaknesses –
particularly a lack of artillery, which made capturing defended
fortresses difficult, and of ships, which made their coastlands
vulnerable. The uprising was eventually suppressed by the superior
resources of the English. Glyndŵr was driven from his last
strongholds in 1409, but he avoided capture and the last documented
sighting of him was in 1412. He twice ignored offers of a pardon from
his military nemesis, the new king
Henry V of England
Henry V of England , and despite
the large rewards offered, Glyndŵr was never betrayed to the English.
His death was recorded by a former follower in the year 1415.
Glyndŵr is portrayed in
William Shakespeare 's play Henry IV, Part 1
(anglicised as OWEN GLENDOWER) as a wild and exotic man ruled by magic
With his death Owain acquired a mythical status along with Cadwaladr
, Cynan and Arthur as the hero awaiting the call to return and
liberate his people. In the late 19th century the
Cymru Fydd movement
recreated him as the father of
Welsh nationalism .
* 1 Early life
* 2 Siblings
* 3 Welsh revolt 1400–1415
* 3.1 Tripartite indenture and the year of the French
* 3.2 Rebellion founders
* 4 Disappearance and death
* 5 Marriage and issue
* 6 Ancestors
* 7 Legacy
* 7.1 Tudor period
* 7.2 As a Welsh national hero
* 7.3 Fiction
* 8 References
* 9 Sources
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
Banner of Owain Glyndŵr. Arms: Quarterly or and gules, four
lions rampant armed and langued azure counterchanged. Crest. A dragon,
or wyvern, gules. Mantling. Red lined white.
Glyndŵr was born around 1349 (possibly 1359) to a prosperous landed
family, part of the Anglo-Welsh gentry of the
Welsh Marches (the
border between England and Wales) in northeast Wales. This group
moved easily between Welsh and English societies and languages,
occupying important offices for the
Marcher Lords while maintaining
their position as uchelwyr — nobles descended from the pre-conquest
Welsh royal dynasties — in traditional Welsh society. His father,
Gruffydd Fychan II , hereditary
Powys Fadog and Lord of
Glyndyfrdwy, died some time before 1370, leaving Glyndŵr's mother
Elen ferch Tomas ap Llywelyn of
Deheubarth a widow and Owain a young
man of 16 years at most.
The young Owain ap Gruffydd was possibly fostered at the home of
David Hanmer , a rising lawyer shortly to be a justice of the Kings
Bench, or at the home of Richard FitzAlan, 3rd Earl of Arundel. Owain
is then thought to have been sent to London to study law at the Inns
of Court . He probably studied as a legal apprentice for seven years.
He was possibly in London during the Peasants\' Revolt of 1381. By
1383, he had returned to Wales, where he married David Hanmer's
daughter, Margaret , started his large family and established himself
as the Squire of
Sycharth and Glyndyfrdwy, with all the
responsibilities that entailed.
Glyndŵr entered the English king's military service in 1384 when he
undertook garrison duty under the renowned Welshman Sir Gregory Sais,
or Sir Degory Sais, on the English–Scottish border at
Berwick-upon-Tweed . In August 1385, he served King Richard under
the command of
John of Gaunt again in
Scotland . On 3 September 1386,
he was called to give evidence in the
Scrope v. Grosvenor trial at
Chester. In March 1387, Owain was in southeast England under Richard
Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel , in the English Channel at the defeat
of a Franco-Spanish-Flemish fleet off the coast of Kent. Upon the
death in late 1387 of his father-in-law, Sir David Hanmer, knighted
earlier that same year by Richard II, Glyndŵr returned to
executor of his estate. He possibly served as a squire to Henry
Henry IV of England
Henry IV of England ), son of John of Gaunt, at the
Battle of Radcot Bridge
Battle of Radcot Bridge in December 1387. He had gained
three years concentrated military experience in different theatres and
seen at first hand some key events and people.
King Richard was distracted by a growing conflict with the Lords
Appellant from this time on. Glyndŵr's opportunities were further
limited by the death of Sir Gregory Sais in 1390 and the sidelining of
Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, and he probably returned to his
stable Welsh estates, living there quietly for ten years during his
forties. The bard
Iolo Goch ("Red Iolo"), himself a Welsh lord,
visited him in the 1390s and wrote a number of odes to Owain, praising
Owain's liberality, and writing of
Sycharth , "Rare was it there / to
see a latch or a lock."
The names and number of Owain Glyndŵr's siblings cannot be certainly
known. The following are given by the
Jacob Youde William Lloyd :
* Brother Tudur , Lord of Gwyddelwern, born about 1362, died 11
March 1405 at a battle in Brecknockshire in the wars of his brother.
* Brother Gruffudd who had a daughter and heiress, Eva.
* Sister Lowri, also spelled Lowry, married
Robert Puleston of
* Sister Isabel married Adda ap Iorwerth Ddu of Llys Pengwern.
* Sister Morfudd married Sir Richard Croft of
Croft Castle , in
Herefordshire and, secondly, David ab Ednyfed Gam of Llys Pengwern.
* Sister Gwenllian.
Tudur, Isabel and Lowri are given as his siblings by the more
cautious Prof. R R Davies. That
Owain Glyndŵr had another brother
Gruffudd is likely; that he possibly had a third, Maredudd, is
suggested by one reference.
WELSH REVOLT 1400–1415
For more details on this topic, see
Glyndŵr Rising . c.1400 –
c.1416 Y Ddraig Aur (The Gold Dragon). The royal standard of Owain
Glyndŵr, Prince of Wales, famously raised over Caernarfon during the
Battle of Tuthill in 1401 against the English, it is evident in
Glyndŵr's privy seals that his gold dragon had two legs.
In the late 1390s, a series of events began to push Owain towards
rebellion, in what was later to be called the Welsh Revolt, the
Glyndŵr Rising or (within Wales) the Last War of Independence. His
neighbour, Baron Grey de Ruthyn , had seized control of some land, for
which Glyndŵr appealed to the English Parliament. Owain's petition
for redress was ignored. Later, in 1400, Lord Grey informed Glyndŵr
too late of a royal command to levy feudal troops for Scottish border
service, thus enabling him to call the Welshman a traitor in London
court circles. Lord Grey was a personal friend of King Henry IV.
Glyndŵr lost the legal case, and was under personal threat. However,
an alternative source states that Glyndŵr was under threat because he
had written an angry letter to Lord Grey, boasting that he had stolen
some of Lord Grey's horses, and believing Lord Grey had threatened to
"burn and slay" within his lands, he threatened retaliation in the
same manner. Lord Grey then denied making the initial threat to burn
and slay, and replied that he would take the incriminating letter to
the King Henry IV's council, and that Glyndŵr would hang for the
admission of theft and treason contained within the letter. The
deposed king, Richard II, had support in Wales, and in January 1400
serious civil disorder broke out in the English border city of Chester
, after the public execution of an officer of Richard II.
These events led to Owain formally assuming his ancestral title of
Prince of Powys on 16 September 1400. With a small band of followers
which included his eldest son, his brothers-in-law, and the Bishop of
St Asaph in the town of
Corwen , possibly in the church of SS Mael ">
Monument to Owain Glyndŵr's victory at Hyddgen
In June, Owain scored his first major victory in the field at Mynydd
Pumlumon . Retaliation by Henry IV on the Strata Florida
Abbey followed, but eventually led to Henry's retreat.
In 1402, the English Parliament issued the Penal Laws against
designed to establish English dominance in Wales, but actually pushing
many Welshmen into the rebellion. In the same year, Owain captured his
arch enemy, Baron Grey de Ruthyn. He was to hold him for almost a year
until he received a substantial ransom from Henry.
In June 1402, Owain defeated an English force led by Sir Edmund
Mortimer at the
Battle of Bryn Glas , and
Mortimer was captured.
Glyndŵr offered to release
Mortimer for a large ransom but, in sharp
contrast to his attitude to de Grey, Henry IV refused to pay.
Mortimer's nephew could be said to have had a greater claim to the
English throne than Henry himself, so his speedy release was not an
option. In response,
Mortimer negotiated an alliance with Owain and
married one of Owain's daughters. It is also in 1402 that mention of
the French and
Bretons helping Owain was first heard. The French were
certainly hoping to use
Wales as they had used Scotland: as a base to
fight the English.
In 1403 the revolt became truly national in Wales. Royal officials
reported that Welsh students at
Oxford University were leaving their
studies to join Owain, and Welsh labourers and craftsmen were
abandoning their employers in England and returning to Wales. Owain
could also draw on Welsh troops seasoned by the English campaigns in
France and Scotland. Hundreds of Welsh archers and experienced
men-at-arms left English service to join the rebellion. A plaque
Machynlleth commemorates Owain Glyndŵr's 1404 parliament
In 1404, Owain held court at
Harlech and appointed
Gruffydd Young as
Chancellor . Soon afterwards, he called his first Parliament (or
Cynulliad or "gathering") of all
Machynlleth , where he was
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales and announced his national programme. He
declared his vision of an independent Welsh state with a parliament
and separate Welsh church. There would be two national universities
(one in the south and one in the north) and a return to the
traditional law of
Hywel Dda . Senior churchmen and important members
of society flocked to his banner. English resistance was reduced to a
few isolated castles, walled towns and fortified manor houses .
TRIPARTITE INDENTURE AND THE YEAR OF THE FRENCH
Glyndwr's Parliament House, Machynlleth. 1814
Owain negotiated the "
Tripartite Indenture " with Edmund
Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland . The Indenture agreed to divide
Wales among the three of them.
Wales would extend as far
as the rivers Severn and Mersey , including most of
Herefordshire . The
Mortimer Lords of March would take
all of southern and western England and the Percys would take the
north of England. R. R. Davies noted that certain internal features
underscore the roots of Glyndŵr's political philosophy in Welsh
mythology: in it, the three men invoke prophecy, and the boundaries of
Wales are defined according to Merlinic literature. Owain
Although negotiations with the lords of Ireland were unsuccessful,
Owain had reason to hope that the French and
Bretons might be more
welcoming. He dispatched
Gruffydd Young and his brother-in-law
(Margaret 's brother), John Hanmer, to negotiate with the French. The
result was a formal treaty that promised French aid to Owain and the
Welsh. The immediate effect seems to have been that joint Welsh and
Franco-Breton forces attacked and laid siege to
Kidwelly Castle . The
Welsh could also count on semi-official fraternal aid from their
fellow Celts in the then independent
Brittany and Scotland. Scots and
French privateers were operating around
Wales throughout Owain's war.
Scottish ships had raided English settlements on the Llŷn Peninsula
in 1400 and 1401. In 1403, a Breton squadron defeated the English in
the Channel and devastated
Plymouth , while the
French made a landing on the
Isle of Wight . By 1404, they were
raiding the coast of England, with Welsh troops on board, setting fire
to Dartmouth and devastating the coast of
1405 was the "Year of the French" in Wales. A formal treaty between
Wales and France was negotiated. On the continent the French pressed
the English as the French army invaded English Plantagenet
Simultaneously, the French landed in force at
Milford Haven in west
Wales . They marched through
Herefordshire and on into Worcestershire
. They met the English army just ten miles from
Worcester . The armies
took up battle positions daily and viewed each other from a mile
without any major action for eight days. Then, for reasons that have
never become clear, the English retreated, and so did the French
Charles VI of France
Charles VI of France did not continue to support Glyndŵr's
By 1405, most French forces had withdrawn after politics in Paris
shifted toward the peace party. Early in the year, the Welsh forces,
who had until then won several easy victories, suffered a series of
defeats. English forces landed in
Anglesey from Ireland and would over
time push the Welsh back, until the resistance in
ended toward the end of 1406.
At the same time, the English changed their strategy. Rather than
focusing on punitive expeditions as favoured by his father, the young
Prince Henry adopted a strategy of economic blockade. Using the
castles that remained in English control, he gradually began to retake
Wales while cutting off trade and the supply of weapons. By 1407 this
strategy was beginning to bear fruit, even though by this time Owain's
rebel soldiers had achieved victories over the King's men as far as
Birmingham , where the English were in retreat. In the autumn, Owain's
Aberystwyth Castle surrendered while he was away fighting. In 1409, it
was the turn of
Harlech Castle . Edmund
Mortimer died in the final
battle, and Owain's wife Margaret along with two of his daughters
(including Catrin) and three of Mortimer's granddaughters were
imprisoned in the
Tower of London . They were all to die in the Tower
Owain remained free, but he had lost his ancestral home and was a
hunted prince. He continued the rebellion, particularly wanting to
avenge his wife. In 1410, after a suicide raid into rebel-controlled
Shropshire , which took many English lives, some of the leading rebels
are thought to have been captured.
In 1412, Owain led one of the final successful raiding parties with
his most faithful soldiers and cut through the King's men; and in an
Brecon he captured, and later ransomed, a leading Welsh
supporter of King Henry's,
Dafydd Gam ("Crooked David"). This was the
last time that Owain was seen alive by his enemies. As late as 1414,
there were rumours that the
Lollard leader Sir
John Oldcastle was communicating with Owain, and reinforcements were
sent to the major castles in the north and south.
But by then things were changing. Henry IV died in 1413 and his son
King Henry V began to adopt a more conciliatory attitude to the Welsh.
Royal pardons were offered to the major leaders of the revolt and
other opponents of his father's regime.
DISAPPEARANCE AND DEATH
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Nothing certain is known of Owain after 1412. Despite enormous
rewards being offered, he was neither captured nor betrayed. He
ignored royal pardons. Tradition has it that he died and was buried
possibly in the church of Saints Mael and Sulien at
Corwen close to
his home, or possibly on his estate in
Sycharth or on the estates of
his daughters' husbands —
Kentchurch in south
Monnington in west Herefordshire. Glyndwr's Coats of Arms; from A
Thomas Pennant (1726–1798) that chronicle the three
journeys he made through
Wales between 1773 and 1776.
In his book The Mystery of Jack of Kent and the Fate of Owain
Glyndŵr, Alex Gibbon argues that the folk hero Jack of Kent , also
Siôn Cent – the family chaplain of the Scudamore family
– was in fact
Owain Glyndŵr himself. Gibbon points out a number of
Siôn Cent and Glyndŵr (including physical
appearance, age, education, and character) and claims that Owain spent
his last years living with his daughter Alys, passing himself off as
Franciscan friar and family tutor. There are many folk tales
of Glyndŵr donning disguises to gain advantage over opponents during
Adam of Usk , a one-time supporter of Glyndŵr, made the following
entry in his Chronicle under the year 1415: "After four years in
hiding, from the king and the realm,
Owain Glyndŵr died, and was
buried by his followers in the darkness of night. His grave was
discovered by his enemies, however, so he had to be re-buried, though
it is impossible to discover where he was laid."
In 1875, the Rev.
Francis Kilvert wrote in his diary that he saw the
grave of "Owen Glendower" in the churchyard at Monnington "ard by the
church porch and on the western side of it ... It is a flat stone of
whitish grey shaped like a rude obelisk figure, sunk deep into the
ground in the middle of an oblong patch of earth from which the turf
has been pared away, and, alas, smashed into several fragments."
In 2006, Adrien Jones, the president of the
Owain Glyndŵr Society,
said, "Four years ago we visited a direct descendant of Glyndŵr, a
John Skidmore, at
Kentchurch Court , near
Abergavenny . He took us to
Mornington Straddle, in
Herefordshire , where one of Glyndŵr's
daughters, Alice, lived. Mr Skidmore told us that he (Glyndŵr) spent
his last days there and eventually died there.... It was a family
secret for 600 years and even Mr. Skidmore's mother, who died shortly
before we visited, refused to reveal the secret. There's even a mound
where he is believed to be buried at Mornington Straddle."
MARRIAGE AND ISSUE
Margaret Hanmer , also known by her Welsh name Marred
ferch Dafydd, daughter of Sir
David Hanmer of Hanmer, early in his
Owain's daughter Alys had secretly married Sir John Scudamore , the
King's appointed Sheriff of Herefordshire. Somehow he had weathered
the rebellion and remained in office. It was rumoured that Owain
finally retreated to their home at Kentchurch. A grandchild of the
Sir John Donne
Sir John Donne of
Kidwelly , a successful Yorkist
courtier, diplomat and soldier, who after 1485 made an accommodation
with his fellow Welshman, Henry VII . Through the Donne family, many
prominent English families are descended from Owain, including the De
Vere family, successive holders of the title
Earl of Oxford , and the
Cavendish family (Dukes of Devonshire ).
According to Lloyd, Owain and Margaret had five sons and four (p.
211) or five (p. 199) daughters:
* Gruffudd , born about 1375, was captured by the English, confined
in Nottington Castle, and taken to the
Tower of London in 1410. He
died in prison of bubonic plague about 1412.
* Maredudd , whose date of birth is unknown, was still living in
1421 when he accepted a pardon .
* Alys married Sir John Scudamore . She was lady of
Cynllaith, and heiress of the Principalities of Powys, South Wales,
* Jane, who married Lord Grey de Ruthin.
* Janet, who married Sir John de Croft of Croft Castle, in
* Margaret, who married Sir Richard Monnington of Monnington, in
Although not named by Lloyd, a fifth daughter, Catrin , is recorded
elsewhere. She married Sir Edmund
Mortimer , son of Edmund Mortimer,
3rd Earl of March , and died in 1413.
Owain's sons were either taken prisoner or died in battle and had no
issue. Owain had additional illegitimate children: David, Gwenllian,
Ieuan , and Myfanwy.
BLEDDYN AP CYNFYN
RHYS AP TEWDWR
MAREDUDD AP BLEDDYN
GRUFFUDD AP RHYS
MADOG AP MAREDUDD
Rhys ap Gruffudd
(Yr Arglwydd Rhys)
GRUFFUDD MAELOR I
MADOG AP GRUFFUDD MAELOR
GRUFFUDD MAELOR II
MAREDYDD AB OWAIN
GRUFFUDD FYCHAN I
c. 1275 - 1304
LLYWELYN AB OWAIN
GRUFFUDD FYCHAN II
m. cyn 1340
OWAIN GLYN DŵR
c. 1354 - c. 1414
Owain Glyndŵr by Alfred Turner at City Hall,
After Owain's death, there was little resistance to English rule. The
Tudor dynasty saw Welshmen become more prominent in English society.
Henry IV, Part 1 , Shakespeare portrays him as Owen Glendower,
wild and exotic; a man who claims to be able to "call spirits from the
vasty deep," ruled by magic and tradition in sharp contrast to the
more logical but highly emotional Hotspur. Shakespeare further notes
Glyndŵr as being not in the roll of common men and a worthy
gentleman, exceedingly well read, and profited in strange
concealments; valiant as a lion, and wondrous affable; and as
bountiful as mines of India .
AS A WELSH NATIONAL HERO
With his death Owain acquired a mythical status along with Cadwaladr
, Cynan and Arthur as the hero awaiting the call to return and
liberate his people.
Thomas Pennant , in his Tours in
1781 and 1783), searched out and published many of the legends and
places associated with his memory. Previously, George Owen , in his A
Dialogue of the present Government of
Wales (1594) had written against
the Cruell lawes against Welshmen made by Henrie the ffourth in his
attempts to quell the revolt. But it was not until the late 19th
century that Owain's reputation was revived. The "Young
movement recreated him as the father of Welsh nationalism. The
discovery of Owain's Great Seal and his letters to the French in the
Bibliothèque Nationale helped revise historical images of him as a
purely local leader. In the
First World War , the Welsh Prime Minister
David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George , unveiled a statue to him in Cardiff City Hall
and a postcard showing Owain at the Battle of
Mynydd Hyddgen was sold
to raise money for wounded Welsh soldiers. Folk memory in
always held him in high regard and almost every parish has some
landmark or story about Owain. However, there is no road sign
indicating the scene of one of his greatest battles at Bryn Glas in
In 1808, the
Royal Navy launched a 36-gun fifth-rate frigate, which
it named the HMS Owen Glendower . She served in the Baltic during the
Gunboat War where she participated in the seizure of Anholt Island,
and then in the Channel. Between 1822 and 1824, she served in the West
Africa Squadron (or 'Preventative Squadron') chasing down slave ships,
capturing at least two. A sketch of
Owain Glyndŵr as he appeared
William Blake in a late night vision. This is one of a number of
such sketches known collectively as the
He is now remembered as a national hero and numerous small groups
have adopted his symbolism to advocate independence or nationalism for
Wales. For example, during the 1980s, a group calling themselves
Meibion Glyndŵr " claimed responsibility for the burning of English
holiday homes in Wales.
The creation of the National Assembly for
Wales brought him back into
the spotlight and in 2000 celebrations were held all over
commemorate the 600th anniversary of Glyndŵr's revolt, including an
historic reenactment at the Millennium National Eisteddfod of Wales,
Llanelli 2000. Stamps were issued with his likeness in 1974 and 2008
and streets, parks, and public squares were named after him throughout
Wales. Owain’s personal standard — the quartered arms of Powys and
Deheubarth rampant — began to be seen all over Wales, especially at
rugby union matches against the English. A campaign exists to make 16
September, the date Owain raised his standard, a public holiday in
Wales. An annual award for achievement in the arts and literature, the
Glyndŵr Award , is named after him. In 2007, popular Welsh musicians
Manic Street Preachers
Manic Street Preachers wrote a song entitled "1404" based on Owain
Glyndŵr. The song can be found on the CD single for '
Autumnsong '. A
Owain Glyndŵr on horseback was installed in 2007 in The
Denbighshire , to commemorate his life and his
lasting influence on Wales. Also located on the Square in
Owain Glyndwr Hotel . The waymarked long distance footpath
Glyndŵr\'s Way runs through Mid
Wales near to his homelands.
Owain Glyndŵr came 2nd in the
100 Welsh Heroes poll of 2003/4.
Owain Glyndŵr in
Glyndŵr University was established in
Wrexham , Wales.
Originally established as the
Wrexham School of Science and Art in
1887, it was until the name change known as the North East Wales
Institute or "NEWI". Glyndŵr was born and lived much of his life
Wrexham and the Welsh Marches.
Glendower Residence, at the
University of Cape Town
University of Cape Town in South Africa
was named after Owain Glyndŵr. The residence was opened in 1993
having previously been the Glendower Hotel. It now houses 139 male and
female undergraduate students.
RGC 1404 (Rygbi Gogledd Cymru/North
Wales Rugby) rugby union team is
named in honour of
Glyndŵr has been featured in a number of works of modern fiction,
John Cowper Powys
John Cowper Powys : Owen Glendower (1941)
Edith Pargeter : A Bloody Field by Shrewsbury (1972)
Martha Rofheart : "Glendower Country" (1973)
Rosemary Hawley Jarman : Crown in Candlelight (1978)
Roger Zelazny :
A Night in the Lonesome October (1993)
* Malcolm Pryce: A Dragon to Agincourt – Y Lolfa ISBN
* Rhiannon Ifans: Owain Glyndŵr:
Prince of Wales
Prince of Wales (2003)
* Rowland Williams: Owen Glendower: A Dramatic Biography and Other
* T.I. Adams: The Dragon Wakes: A Novel of
Wales and Owain Glyndwr
Maggie Stiefvater : The Raven Boys (2012), The Dream Thieves
(2013), Blue Lily, Lily Blue (2014), and The Raven King (2016)
* N. Gemini Sasson: Uneasy Lies the Crown: A Novel of Owain Glyndwr
BBC TV Series Horrible Histories , series 5, episode 7, features a
song about Glyndor
Terry Breverton : Owain Glyndŵr: The Story of the Last Prince of
Glyndŵr was the hero of James Hill's UK TV movie Owain, Prince of
Wales, broadcast in 1983 in the early days of Channel 4/S4C.
Glyndŵr appeared briefly as a past Knight of the Word and a ghost
who serves the Lady in
Terry Brooks '
Word/Void trilogy. In the books,
he is John Ross 's ancestor.
Glyndŵr appeared as an agent of the Light in
Susan Cooper 's novel
Silver on the Tree, part of
The Dark is Rising Sequence .
For a study of the various ways Glyndŵr has been portrayed in
Welsh-language literature of the modern period, see E. Wyn James,
Glyndŵr a Gobaith y Genedl: Agweddau ar y Portread o Owain Glyndŵr
yn Llenyddiaeth y Cyfnod Modern (English: Glyndŵr and the Hope of the
Nation: Aspects of the Portrayal of
Owain Glyndŵr in the Literature
of the Modern Period) (Aberystwyth: Cymdeithas Llyfrau Ceredigion,
* ^ "\'Owain Glyndwr\'". Dictionary of Welsh Biography.
* ^ A European Armourial; Historic Heraldry of Britain; Heraldry,
Sources, Symbols and Meanings; Military Modelling; Knights in Armour.
* ^ A B "Historic Figures: Owain Glyn Dwr (c.1355 – c.1415)". BBC
* ^ A B Davies, R.R. (1995). The revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr. Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198205081 .
* ^ Davies, R.R. (1995). "The revolt of Owain Glyn Dŵr". Oxford
University Press. ISBN 9780198205081 . Retrieved 29 March 2016.
* ^ A B Pierce, Thomas Jones. "Owain Glyndwr". Welsh Biography
Online. The National Library of Wales.
* ^ Lloyd, Jacob Youde William (1881). The History of the Princes,
the Lords Marcher, and the Ancient Nobility of Powys Fadog. 1. London:
T. Richards. p. 197.
* ^ Parry, Charles (2010). Last mab darogan: the life and times of
owain glyn dwr. : Novasys Limited. p. 186. ISBN 978-0956555304 .
* ^ Allday, D. Helen (1981). Insurrection in Wales: the rebellion
of the Welsh led by Owen Glyn Dwr (Glendower) against the English
Crown in 1400. Lavenham: Terence Dalton. p. 51. ISBN 0-86138-001-0 .
* ^ Ian
Mortimer (31 May 2013). The Fears of Henry IV: The Life of
England\'s Self-Made King. Random House. pp. 226–. ISBN
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to OWAIN GLYNDŵR .
Owain Glyndŵr Society
* Two letters of