Publius Ovidius Naso (Classical Latin: [ˈpu:.blɪ.ʊs
ɔˈwɪ.dɪ.ʊs ˈnaː.soː]; 20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as
Ovid (/ˈɒvɪd/) in the English-speaking world, was a
Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus. He was a
contemporary of the older
Virgil and Horace, with whom he is often
ranked as one of the three canonical poets of
Latin literature. The
Quintilian considered him the last of the
elegists. He enjoyed enormous popularity, but, in one of
the mysteries of literary history, was sent by
Augustus into exile in
a remote province on the Black Sea, where he remained until his death.
Ovid himself attributes his exile to carmen et error, "a poem and a
mistake", but his discretion in discussing the causes has resulted in
much speculation among scholars.
The first major Roman poet to begin his career during the reign of
Ovid is today best known for the Metamorphoses, a
15-book continuous mythological narrative written in the meter of
epic, and for works in elegiac couplets such as
Ars Amatoria ("The Art
of Love") and Fasti. His poetry was much imitated during Late
Antiquity and the Middle Ages, and greatly influenced
Western art and
Metamorphoses remains one of the most important
sources of classical mythology.
1.1 Birth, early life, and marriage
1.2 Literary success
1.3 Exile to Tomis
Heroides ("The Heroines")
2.2 Amores ("The Loves")
Medicamina Faciei Femineae ("Women's Facial Cosmetics")
Ars Amatoria ("The Art of Love")
Remedia Amoris ("The Cure for Love")
2.7 Fasti ("The Festivals")
2.8 Ibis ("The Ibis")
Epistulae ex Ponto ("Letters from the Black Sea")
2.11 Lost works
3 Spurious works
3.1 Consolatio ad Liviam ("Consolation to Livia")
3.2 Halieutica ("On Fishing")
3.3 Nux ("The Walnut Tree")
3.4 Somnium ("The Dream")
5.2 Ovid's influence
5.2.1 Literary and artistic
5.2.2 Retellings, adaptations, and translations of Ovidian works
7 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Ovid talks more about his own life than most other Roman poets.
Information about his biography is drawn primarily from his poetry,
Tristia 4.10, which gives a long autobiographical account
of his life. Other sources include
Seneca the Elder and Quintilian.
Birth, early life, and marriage
A second statue of
Ettore Ferrari in the Piazza XX
Settembre, Sulmona, Italy.
Ovid was born in
Sulmo (modern Sulmona), in an Apennine valley east of
Rome, to an important equestrian family, on 20 March, 43 BC. That was
a significant year in Roman politics.[b] He was educated in rhetoric
Rome under the teachers
Arellius Fuscus and
Porcius Latro with his
brother who excelled at oratory.
His father wanted him to study rhetoric toward the practice of law.
According to Seneca the Elder,
Ovid tended to the emotional, not the
argumentative pole of rhetoric. After the death of his brother at 20
years of age,
Ovid renounced law and began travelling to Athens, Asia
Minor, and Sicily. He held minor public posts, as one of
the tresviri capitales, as a member of the Centumviral
court and as one of the decemviri litibus
iudicandis, but resigned to pursue poetry probably around
29–25 BC, a decision of which his father apparently
Ovid's first recitation has been dated to around 25 BC, when he was
eighteen. He was part of the circle centered on the patron
Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus, and seems to have been a friend of
poets in the circle of Maecenas. In Trist. 4.10.41–54,
friendships with Macer, Propertius, Horace, Ponticus and Bassus (he
only barely met
Virgil and Tibullus, a fellow member of Messalla's
circle whose elegies he admired greatly).
He married three times and divorced twice by the time he was thirty
years old. He had one daughter, who eventually bore him
grandchildren. His last wife was connected in some way to
the influential gens Fabia and would help him during his exile in
Constanta in Romania).
The first 25 years of Ovid's literary career were spent primarily
writing poetry in elegiac meter with erotic themes. The
chronology of these early works is not secure; tentative dates,
however, have been established by scholars. His earliest extant work
is thought to be the Heroides, letters of mythological heroines to
their absent lovers, which may have been published in 19 BC, although
the date is uncertain as it depends on a notice in Am. 2.18.19–26
that seems to describe the collection as an early published
The authenticity of some of these poems has been challenged, but this
first edition probably contained the first 14 poems of the collection.
The first five-book collection of the Amores, a series of erotic poems
addressed to a lover, Corinna, is thought to have been published in
16–15 BC; the surviving version, redacted to three books according
to an epigram prefixed to the first book, is thought to have been
published c. 8–3 BC. Between the publications of the two editions of
the Amores can be dated the premiere of his tragedy Medea, which was
admired in antiquity but is no longer extant.
Ovid's next poem, the Medicamina Faciei, a fragmentary work on women's
beauty treatments, preceded the Ars Amatoria, the Art of Love, a
parody of didactic poetry and a three-book manual about seduction and
intrigue, which has been dated to AD 2 (Books 1–2 would go back to 1
Ovid may identify this work in his exile poetry as
the carmen, or song, which was one cause of his banishment. The Ars
Amatoria was followed by the
Remedia Amoris in the same year. This
corpus of elegiac, erotic poetry earned
Ovid a place among the chief
Roman elegists Gallus, Tibullus, and Propertius, of whom he saw
himself as the fourth member.
By AD 8, he had completed his most ambitious work, the Metamorphoses,
a hexameter epic poem in 15 books. The work encyclopedically
catalogues transformations in Greek and Roman mythology, from the
emergence of the cosmos to the apotheosis of Julius Caesar. The
stories follow each other in the telling of human beings transformed
to new bodies: trees, rocks, animals, flowers, constellations etc. At
the same time, he worked on the Fasti, a six-book poem in elegiac
couplets on the theme of the calendar of
Roman festivals and
astronomy. The composition of this poem was interrupted by Ovid's
exile,[c] and it is thought that
Ovid abandoned work on the piece in
Tomis. It is probably in this period, if they are indeed by Ovid, that
the double letters (16–21) in the
Heroides were composed.
Exile to Tomis
Main article: Exile of Ovid
In AD 8,
Ovid was banished to Tomis, on the Black Sea, by the
exclusive intervention of the Emperor Augustus, without any
participation of the Senate or of any Roman judge. This
event shaped all his following poetry.
Ovid wrote that the reason for
his exile was carmen et error – "a poem and a mistake",
claiming that his crime was worse than murder, more
harmful than poetry.
The Emperor's grandchildren,
Julia the Younger
Julia the Younger and Agrippa Postumus
(the latter adopted by him), were also banished around the same time.
Julia's husband, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, was put to death for
conspiracy against Augustus, a conspiracy
Ovid might have known
The Julian marriage laws of 18 BC, which promoted monogamous marriage
to increase the population's birth rate, were fresh in the Roman mind.
Ovid's writing in the
Ars Amatoria concerned the serious crime of
adultery. He may have been banished for these works, which appeared
subversive to the emperor's moral legislation. However, in view of the
long time that elapsed between the publication of this work (1 BC) and
the exile (AD 8), some authors suggest that
Augustus used the poem as
a mere justification for something more personal.
Ovid Banished from
Rome (1838) by J.M.W. Turner.
Ovid wrote two poetry collections,
Tristia and Epistulae ex
Ponto, that illustrated his sadness and desolation. Being far from
Rome, he had no access to libraries, and thus might have been forced
to abandon his Fasti, a poem about the Roman calendar, of which only
the first six books exist – January through June.
The five books of the elegiac Tristia, a series of poems expressing
the poet's despair in exile and advocating his return to Rome, are
dated to AD 9–12. The Ibis, an elegiac curse poem attacking an
adversary at home, may also be dated to this period. The Epistulae ex
Ponto, a series of letters to friends in
Rome asking them to effect
his return, are thought to be his last compositions, with the first
three books published in AD 13 and the fourth book between AD 14 and
16. The exile poetry is particularly emotive and personal. In the
Epistulae he claims friendship with the natives of Tomis (in the
Tristia they are frightening barbarians) and to have written a poem in
their language (Ex P. 4.13.19–20).
Yet he pined for Rome – and for his third wife, addressing many
poems to her. Some are also to the Emperor Augustus, yet others are to
himself, to friends in Rome, and sometimes to the poems themselves,
expressing loneliness and hope of recall from banishment or
The obscure causes of Ovid's exile have given rise to endless
explanations from scholars. The medieval texts that mention the exile
offer no credible explanations: their statements seem incorrect
interpretations drawn from the works of Ovid.
wrote many references to his offense, giving obscure or contradictory
In 1923, scholar J. J. Hartman proposed a theory that is little
considered among scholars of
Latin civilization today: that
never exiled from
Rome and that all of his exile works are the result
of his fertile imagination. This theory was supported and
rejected[clarification needed] in the 1930s, especially by
In 1985, a research paper by Fitton Brown advanced new arguments in
support of the theory. The article was followed by a
series of supports and refutations in the short space of five
years. Among the reasons given by Brown are: that Ovid's
exile is only mentioned by his own work, except in "dubious" passages
by Pliny the Elder and Statius, but no other
author until the 4th century; that the author of
Heroides was able to separate the poetic "I" of his own and real life;
and that information on the geography of Tomis was already known by
Herodotus and by
Ovid himself in his
Orthodox scholars, however, oppose these hypotheses. One
of the main arguments of these scholars is that
Ovid would not let his
Fasti remain unfinished, mainly because this poem meant his
consecration as an imperial poet.
In December 2017, Ovid's banishment was formally revoked by Rome's
Ovid died at Tomis in AD 17 or 18. It is thought that the
Fasti, which he spent time revising, were published
Heroides ("The Heroines")
Medea in a fresco from Herculaneum.
Main article: Heroides
See also: Double Heroides
Heroides ("Heroines") or Epistulae Heroidum are a collection of 21
poems in elegiac couplets. The
Heroides take the form of letters
addressed by famous mythological characters to their partners
expressing their emotions at being separated from them, pleas for
their return, and allusions to their future actions within their own
mythology. The authenticity of the collection, partially or as a
whole, has been questioned, although most scholars would consider the
letters mentioned specifically in Ovid's description of the work at
Am. 2.18.19–26 as safe from objection. The collection comprises a
new type of generic composition without parallel in earlier
The first 14 letters are thought to comprise the first published
collection and are written by the heroines Penelope, Phyllis, Briseis,
Phaedra, Oenone, Hypsipyle, Dido, Hermione, Deianeira, Ariadne,
Canace, Medea, Laodamia, and
Hypermestra to their absent male lovers.
Letter 15, from the historical
Sappho to Phaon, seems spurious
(although referred to in Am. 2.18) because of its length, its lack of
integration in the mythological theme, and its absence from Medieval
manuscripts. The final letters (16–21) are paired
compositions comprising a letter to a lover and a reply. Paris and
Helen, Hero and Leander, and
Cydippe are the addressees
of the paired letters. These are considered a later addition to the
corpus because they are never mentioned by
Ovid and may or may not be
Heroides markedly reveal the influence of rhetorical declamation
and may derive from Ovid's interest in rhetorical suasoriae,
persuasive speeches, and ethopoeia, the practice of speaking in
another character. They also play with generic conventions; most of
the letters seem to refer to works in which these characters were
significant, such as the
Aeneid in the case of Dido and
for Ariadne, and transfer characters from the genres of epic and
tragedy to the elegiac genre of the Heroides. The letters
have been admired for their deep psychological portrayals of mythical
characters, their rhetoric, and their unique attitude to the classical
tradition of mythology.[by whom?]
Amores ("The Loves")
Main article: Amores (Ovid)
The Amores is a collection in three books of love poetry in elegiac
meter, following the conventions of the elegiac genre developed by
Tibullus and Propertius.
Elegy originates with
Ovid is an innovator in the genre.
Ovid changes the
leader of his elegies from the poet, to Amor (love). This switch in
focus from the triumphs of the poet, to the triumphs of love over
people is the first of its kind for this genre of poetry. This Ovidian
innovation can be summarized as the use of love as a metaphor for
poetry. The books describe the many aspects of love and
focus on the poet's relationship with a mistress called Corinna.
Within the various poems, several describe events in the relationship,
thus presenting the reader with some vignettes and a loose narrative.
Book 1 contains 15 poems. The first tells of Ovid's intention to write
epic poetry, which is thwarted when
Cupid steals a metrical foot from
him, changing his work into love elegy.
Poem 4 is didactic and describes principles that
Ovid would develop in
the Ars Amatoria. The fifth poem, describing a noon tryst, introduces
Corinna by name. Poems 8 and 9 deal with Corinna selling her love for
gifts, while 11 and 12 describe the poet's failed attempt to arrange a
meeting. Poem 14 discusses Corinna's disastrous experiment in dyeing
her hair and 15 stresses the immortality of
Ovid and love poets.
The second book has 19 pieces; the opening poem tells of Ovid's
abandonment of a
Gigantomachy in favor of elegy. Poems 2 and 3 are
entreaties to a guardian to let the poet see Corinna, poem 6 is a
lament for Corinna's dead parrot; poems 7 and 8 deal with Ovid's
affair with Corinna's servant and her discovery of it, and 11 and 12
try to prevent Corinna from going on vacation. Poem 13 is a prayer to
Isis for Corinna's illness, 14 a poem against abortion, and 19 a
warning to unwary husbands.
Book 3 has 15 poems. The opening piece depicts personified Tragedy and
Elegy fighting over Ovid. Poem 2 describes a visit to the races, 3 and
8 focus on Corinna's interest in other men, 10 is a complaint to Ceres
because of her festival that requires abstinence, 13 is a poem on a
festival of Juno, and 9 a lament for Tibullus. In poem 11
not to love Corinna any longer and regrets the poems he has written
about her. The final poem is Ovid's farewell to the erotic muse.
Critics have seen the poems as highly self-conscious and extremely
playful specimens of the elegiac genre.
Medicamina Faciei Femineae ("Women's Facial Cosmetics")
Main article: Medicamina Faciei Femineae
About a hundred elegiac lines survive from this poem on beauty
treatments for women's faces, which seems to parody serious didactic
poetry. The poem says that women should concern themselves first with
manners and then prescribes several compounds for facial treatments
before breaking off. The style is not unlike the shorter Hellenistic
didactic works of
Nicander and Aratus.
Ars Amatoria ("The Art of Love")
Main article: Ars Amatoria
Si quis in hoc artem populo non
legat et lecto carmine doctus amet.
Ars Amatoria is a Lehrgedicht, a didactic elegiac poem in three
books that sets out to teach the arts of seduction and love. The first
book addresses men and teaches them how to seduce women, the second,
also to men, teaches how to keep a lover. The third addresses women
and teaches seduction techniques. The first book opens with an
invocation to Venus, in which
Ovid establishes himself as a praeceptor
amoris (1.17) – a teacher of love.
Ovid describes the places
one can go to find a lover, like the theater, a triumph, which he
thoroughly describes, or arena – and ways to get the girl to
take notice, including seducing her covertly at a banquet. Choosing
the right time is significant, as is getting into her associates'
Ovid emphasizes care of the body for the lover. Mythological
digressions include a piece on the Rape of the Sabine women,
Pasiphaë, and Ariadne. Book 2 invokes
Apollo and begins with a
telling of the story of Icarus.
Ovid advises men to avoid giving too
many gifts, keep up their appearance, hide affairs, compliment their
lovers, and ingratiate themselves with slaves to stay on their lover's
good side. The care of Venus for procreation is described as is
Apollo's aid in keeping a lover;
Ovid then digresses on the story of
Vulcan's trap for Venus and Mars. The book ends with
Ovid asking his
"students" to spread his fame. Book 3 opens with a vindication of
women's abilities and Ovid's resolution to arm women against his
teaching in the first two books.
Ovid gives women detailed
instructions on appearance telling them to avoid too many adornments.
He advises women to read elegiac poetry, learn to play games, sleep
with people of different ages, flirt, and dissemble. Throughout the
Ovid playfully interjects, criticizing himself for undoing all
his didactic work to men and mythologically digresses on the story of
Procris and Cephalus. The book ends with his wish that women will
follow his advice and spread his fame saying Naso magister erat, "Ovid
was our teacher".
Remedia Amoris ("The Cure for Love")
Main article: Remedia Amoris
This elegiac poem proposes a cure for the love
Ovid teaches in the Ars
Amatoria, and is primarily addressed to men. The poem criticizes
suicide as a means for escaping love and, invoking Apollo, goes on to
tell lovers not to procrastinate and be lazy in dealing with love.
Lovers are taught to avoid their partners, not perform magic, see
their lover unprepared, take other lovers, and never be jealous. Old
letters should be burned and the lover's family avoided. The poem
Ovid as a doctor and utilizes medical imagery.
Some have interpreted this poem as the close of Ovid's didactic cycle
of love poetry and the end of his erotic elegiac project.
Engraved frontispiece of George Sandys’s 1632 London edition of
Main article: Metamorphoses
The Metamorphoses, Ovid's most ambitious and well-known work, consists
of a 15-book catalogue written in dactylic hexameter about
transformations in Greek and
Roman mythology set within a loose
mytho-historical framework. The word "metamorphoses" is of Greek
origin and means "transformations." Appropriately, the characters in
this work undergo many different transformations. Within an extent of
nearly 12,000 verses, almost 250 different myths are mentioned. Each
myth is set outdoors where the mortals are often vulnerable to
external influences. The poem stands in the tradition of mythological
and aetiological catalogue poetry such as Hesiod's Catalogue of Women,
Callimachus' Aetia, Nicander's Heteroeumena, and Parthenius'
The first book describes the formation of the world, the ages of man,
the flood, the story of Daphne's rape by
Apollo and Io's by Jupiter.
The second book opens with Phaethon and continues describing the love
of Jupiter with Callisto and Europa. The third book focuses on the
mythology of Thebes with the stories of Cadmus, Actaeon, and Pentheus.
The fourth book focuses on three pairs of lovers:
Pyramus and Thisbe,
Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, and
Perseus and Andromeda. The fifth book
focuses on the song of the Muses, which describes the rape of
Proserpina. The sixth book is a collection of stories about the
rivalry between gods and mortals, beginning with
Arachne and ending
with Philomela. The seventh book focuses on Medea, as well as Cephalus
and Procris. The eighth book focuses on Daedalus' flight, the
Calydonian boar hunt, and the contrast between pious Baucis and
Philemon and the wicked Erysichthon. The ninth book focuses on
Heracles and the incestuous Byblis. The tenth book focuses on stories
of doomed love, such as Orpheus, who sings about Hyacinthus, as well
as Pygmalion, Myrrha, and Adonis. The eleventh book compares the
Thetis with the love of
Ceyx and Alcyone. The
twelfth book moves from myth to history describing the exploits of
Achilles, the battle of the centaurs, and Iphigeneia. The thirteenth
book discusses the contest over Achilles' arms, and Polyphemus. The
fourteenth moves to Italy, describing the journey of Aeneas, Pomona
and Vertumnus, and Romulus. The final book opens with a philosophical
Pythagoras and the deification of Caesar. The end of the
Augustus and expresses Ovid's belief that his poem has
earned him immortality.
In analyzing the Metamorphoses, scholars have focused on Ovid's
organization of his vast body of material. The ways that stories are
linked by geography, themes, or contrasts creates interesting effects
and constantly forces the reader to evaluate the connections. Ovid
also varies his tone and material from different literary genres; G.
B. Conte has called the poem "a sort of gallery of these various
literary genres." In this spirit,
Ovid engages creatively
with his predecessors, alluding creatively to the full spectrum of
classical poetry. Ovid's use of Alexandrian epic, or elegiac couplets,
shows his fusion of erotic and psychological style with traditional
forms of epic.
Fasti ("The Festivals")
Main article: Fasti (poem)
Six books in elegiacs survive of this second ambitious poem that Ovid
was working on when he was exiled. The six books cover the first
semester of the year, with each book dedicated to a different month of
Roman calendar (January to June). The project seems unprecedented
in Roman literature. It seems that
Ovid planned to cover the whole
year, but was unable to finish because of his exile, although he did
revise sections of the work at Tomis, and he claims at Trist.
2.549–52 that his work was interrupted after six books. Like the
Metamorphoses, the Fasti was to be a long poem and emulated
aetiological poetry by writers like
Callimachus and, more recently,
Propertius and his fourth book. The poem goes through the Roman
calendar, explaining the origins and customs of important Roman
festivals, digressing on mythical stories, and giving astronomical and
agricultural information appropriate to the season. The poem was
probably dedicated to
Augustus initially, but perhaps the death of the
Ovid to change the dedication to honor Germanicus.
Ovid uses direct inquiry of gods and scholarly research to talk about
the calendar and regularly calls himself a vates, a priest. He also
seems to emphasize unsavory, popular traditions of the festivals,
imbuing the poem with a popular, plebeian flavor, which some have
interpreted as subversive to the Augustan moral
legislation. While this poem has always been invaluable to
students of Roman religion and culture for the wealth of antiquarian
material it preserves, it recently has been seen as one of Ovid's
finest literary works and a unique contribution to Roman elegiac
Ibis ("The Ibis")
Main article: Ibis (Ovid)
The Ibis is an elegiac poem in 644 lines, in which
Ovid uses a
dazzling array of mythic stories to curse and attack an enemy who is
harming him in exile. At the beginning of the poem,
Ovid claims that
his poetry up to that point had been harmless, but now he is going to
use his abilities to hurt his enemy. He cites Callimachus' Ibis as his
inspiration and calls all the gods to make his curse effective. Ovid
uses mythical exempla to condemn his enemy in the afterlife, cites
evil prodigies that attended his birth, and then in the next 300 lines
wishes that the torments of mythological characters befall his enemy.
The poem ends with a prayer that the gods make his curse effective.
Main article: Tristia
Tristia consist of five books of elegiac poetry composed by Ovid
in exile in Tomis.
Book 1 contains 11 poems; the first piece is an address by
Ovid to his
book about how it should act when it arrives in Rome. Poem 3 describes
his final night in Rome, poems 2 and 10 Ovid's voyage to Tomis, 8 the
betrayal of a friend, and 5 and 6 the loyalty of his friends and wife.
In the final poem
Ovid apologizes for the quality and tone of his
book, a sentiment echoed throughout the collection.
Book 2 consists of one long poem in which
Ovid defends himself and his
poetry, uses precedents to justify his work, and begs the emperor for
Book 3 in 14 poems focuses on Ovid's life in Tomis. The opening poem
describes his book's arrival in
Rome to find Ovid's works banned.
Poems 10, 12, and 13 focus on the seasons spent in Tomis, 9 on the
origins of the place, and 2, 3, and 11 his emotional distress and
longing for home. The final poem is again an apology for his work.
The fourth book has ten poems addressed mostly to friends. Poem 1
expresses his love of poetry and the solace it brings; while 2
describes a triumph of Tiberius. Poems 3–5 are to friends, 7 a
request for correspondence, and 10 an autobiography.
The final book of the
Tristia with 14 poems focuses on his wife and
friends. Poems 4, 5, 11, and 14 are addressed to his wife, 2 and 3 are
Augustus and Bacchus, 4 and 6 are to friends, 8 to an
enemy. Poem 13 asks for letters, while 1 and 12 are apologies to his
readers for the quality of his poetry.
Epistulae ex Ponto ("Letters from the Black Sea")
Main article: Epistulae ex Ponto
Epistulae ex Ponto is a collection in four books of further poetry
from exile. The Epistulae are each addressed to a different friend and
focus more desperately than the
Tristia on securing his recall from
exile. The poems mainly deal with requests for friends to speak on his
behalf to members of the imperial family, discussions of writing with
friends, and descriptions of life in exile. The first book has ten
pieces in which
Ovid describes the state of his health (10), his
hopes, memories, and yearning for
Rome (3, 6, 8), and his needs in
exile (3). Book 2 contains impassioned requests to
Germanicus (1 and
5) and various friends to speak on his behalf at
Rome while he
describes his despair and life in exile. Book 3 has nine poems in
Ovid addresses his wife (1) and various friends. It includes a
telling of the story of Iphigenia in Tauris (2), a poem against
criticism (9), and a dream of
Cupid (3). Book 4, the final work of
Ovid, in 16 poems talks to friends and describes his life as an exile
further. Poems 10 and 13 describe Winter and Spring at Tomis, poem 14
is halfhearted praise for Tomis, 7 describes its geography and
climate, and 4 and 9 are congratulations on friends for their
consulships and requests for help. Poem 12 is addressed to a
Tuticanus, whose name,
Ovid complains, does not fit into meter. The
final poem is addressed to an enemy whom
Ovid implores to leave him
alone. The last elegiac couplet is translated: "Where’s the joy in
stabbing your steel into my dead flesh?/ There’s no place left where
I can be dealt fresh wounds."
One loss, which
Ovid himself described, is the first five-book edition
of the Amores, from which nothing has come down to us. The greatest
loss is Ovid's only tragedy, Medea, from which only a few lines are
Quintilian admired the work a great deal and considered it
a prime example of Ovid's poetic talent.
from a lost translation by
Ovid of Aratus' Phaenomena, although the
poem's ascription to
Ovid is insecure because it is never mentioned in
Ovid's other works.
A line from a work entitled Epigrammata is cited by
Even though it is unlikely, if the last six books of the Fasti ever
existed, they constitute a great loss.
Ovid also mentions some
occasional poetry (Epithalamium, dirge, even a
rendering in Getic) which does not survive. Also lost is
the final portion of the Medicamina.
Consolatio ad Liviam ("Consolation to Livia")
The Consolatio is a long elegiac poem of consolation to Augustus' wife
Livia on the death of her son Nero Claudius Drusus. The poem opens by
Livia not to try to hide her sad emotions and contrasts
Drusus' military virtue with his death. Drusus' funeral and the
tributes of the imperial family are described as are his final moments
and Livia's lament over the body, which is compared to birds. The
laments of the city of
Rome as it greets his funeral procession and
the gods are mentioned, and Mars from his temple dissuades the Tiber
river from quenching the pyre out of grief.
Grief is expressed for his lost military honors, his wife, and his
mother. The poet asks
Livia to look for consolation in Tiberius. The
poem ends with an address by Drusus to
Livia assuring him of his fate
in Elysium. Although this poem was connected to the Elegiae in
Maecenatem, it is now thought that they are unconnected. The date of
the piece is unknown, but a date in the reign of
Tiberius has been
suggested because of that emperor's prominence in the
Halieutica ("On Fishing")
The Halieutica is a fragmentary didactic poem in 134 poorly preserved
hexameter lines and is considered spurious. The poem begins by
describing how every animal possesses the ability to protect itself
and how fish use ars to help themselves. The ability of dogs and land
creatures to protect themselves is described. The poem goes on to list
the places best for fishing, and which types of fish to catch.
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder mentions a Halieutica by Ovid, which was
composed at Tomis near the end of Ovid's life, modern scholars believe
Pliny was mistaken in his attribution and that the poem is not
Nux ("The Walnut Tree")
This short poem in 91 elegiac couplets is related to Aesop's fable of
"The Walnut Tree" that was the subject of human ingratitude. In a
monologue asking boys not pelt it with stones to get its fruit, the
tree contrasts the formerly fruitful golden age with the present
barren time, in which its fruit is violently ripped off and its
branches broken. In the course of this, the tree compares itself to
several mythological characters, praises the peace that the emperor
provides and prays to be destroyed rather than suffer. The poem is
considered spurious because it incorporates allusions to Ovid's works
in an uncharacteristic way, although the piece is thought to be
contemporary with Ovid.
Somnium ("The Dream")
This poem, traditionally placed at Amores 3.5, is considered spurious.
The poet describes a dream to an interpreter, saying that he sees
while escaping from the heat of noon a white heifer near a bull; when
the heifer is pecked by a crow, it leaves the bull for a meadow with
other bulls. The interpreter interprets the dream as a love allegory;
the bull represents the poet, the heifer a girl, and the crow an old
woman. The old woman spurs the girl to leave her lover and find
someone else. The poem is known to have circulated independently and
its lack of engagement with Tibullan or Propertian elegy argue in
favor of its spuriousness; however, the poem does seem to be datable
to the early empire.
Ovid is traditionally considered the final significant love elegist in
the evolution of the genre and one of the most versatile in his
handling of the genre's conventions. Like the other canonical elegiac
Ovid takes on a persona in his works that emphasizes
subjectivity and personal emotion over traditional militaristic and
public goals, a convention that some scholars link to the relative
stability provided by the Augustan settlement.
However, although Catullus,
Propertius may have been
inspired in part by personal experience, the validity of
"biographical" readings of these poets' works is a serious point of
Ovid has been seen as taking on a persona in his poetry that is far
more emotionally detached from his mistress and less involved in
crafting a unique emotional realism within the text than the other
elegists. This attitude, coupled with the lack of
testimony that identifies Ovid's Corinna with a real
person has led scholars to conclude that Corinna was never
a real person – and that Ovid's relationship with her is an
invention for his elegiac project. Some scholars have even
interpreted Corinna as a metapoetic symbol for the elegiac genre
Ovid has been considered a highly inventive love elegist who plays
with traditional elegiac conventions and elaborates the themes of the
Quintilian even calls him a "sportive"
elegist. In some poems, he uses traditional conventions in
new ways, such as the paraklausithyron of Am. 1.6, while other poems
seem to have no elegiac precedents and appear to be Ovid's own generic
innovations, such as the poem on Corinna's ruined hair (Am. 1.14).
Ovid has been traditionally seen as far more sexually explicit in his
poetry than the other elegists.
His erotic elegy covers a wide spectrum of themes and viewpoints; the
Amores focus on Ovid's relationship with Corinna, the love of mythical
characters is the subject of the Heroides, and the
Ars Amatoria and
the other didactic love poems provide a handbook for relationships and
seduction from a (mock-)"scientific" viewpoint. In his treatment of
elegy, scholars have traced the influence of rhetorical education in
his enumeration, in his effects of surprise, and in his transitional
Some commentators have also noted the influence of Ovid's interest in
love elegy in his other works, such as the Fasti, and have
distinguished his "elegiac" style from his "epic" style. Richard
Heinze in his famous Ovids elegische Erzählung (1919) delineated the
distinction between Ovid's styles by comparing the Fasti and
Metamorphoses versions of the same legends, such as the treatment of
Proserpina story in both poems. Heinze demonstrated that,
"whereas in the elegiac poems a sentimental and tender tone prevails,
the hexameter narrative is characterized by an emphasis on solemnity
and awe..." His general line of argument has been accepted
by Brooks Otis, who wrote:
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gods are "serious" in epic as they are not in elegy; the speeches in
epic are long and infrequent compared to the short, truncated and
frequent speeches of elegy; the epic writer conceals himself while the
elegiac fills his narrative with familiar remarks to the reader or his
characters; above all perhaps, epic narrative is continuous and
symmetrical... whereas elegiac narrative displays a marked
Otis wrote that in the Ovidian poems of love, he "was burlesquing an
old theme rather than inventing a new one." Otis states
Heroides are more serious and, though some of them are "quite
different from anything
Ovid had done before [...] he is here also
treading a very well-worn path" to relate that the motif of females
abandoned by or separated from their men was a "stock motif of
Hellenistic and neoteric poetry (the classic example for us is, of
Otis also states that Phaedra and Medea, Dido and Hermione (also
present in the poem) "are clever re-touchings of
Vergil." Some scholars, such as Kenney and Clausen, have
Ovid with Virgil. According to them,
Virgil was ambiguous and
Ovid was defined and, while
Ovid wrote only what he
Virgil wrote for the use of language.
A 1484 figure from Ovide Moralisé, edition by Colard Mansion.
Ovid's works have been interpreted in various ways over the centuries
with attitudes that depended on the social, religious and literary
contexts of different times. It is known that since his own lifetime,
he was already famous and criticized. In the Remedia Amoris, Ovid
reports criticism from people who considered his books
Ovid responded to this criticism with the
Gluttonous Envy, burst: my name’s well known already
it will be more so, if only my feet travel the road they’ve started.
But you’re in too much of a hurry: if I live you’ll be more than
many poems, in fact, are forming in my mind.
After such criticism subsided,
Ovid became one of the best known and
most loved Roman poets during the
Middle Ages and the
Writers in the
Middle Ages used his work as a way to read and write
about sex and violence without orthodox "scrutiny routinely given to
commentaries on the Bible". In the
Middle Ages the
voluminous Ovide moralisé, a French work that moralizes 15 books of
Metamorphoses was composed. This work then influenced Chaucer.
Ovid's poetry provided inspiration for the
Renaissance idea of
humanism, and more specifically, for many
Renaissance painters and
Arthur Golding moralized his own translation of the full 15
books, and published it in 1567. This version was the same version
used as a supplement to the original
Latin in the Tudor-era grammar
schools that influenced such major
Renaissance authors as Christopher
Marlowe and William Shakespeare. Many non-English authors were heavily
influenced by Ovid's works as well. Montaigne, for example, alluded to
Ovid several times in his Essais, specifically in his comments on
Education of Children when he says:
The first taste I had for books came to me from my pleasure in the
fables of the
Metamorphoses of Ovid. For at about seven or eight years
of age I would steal away from any other pleasure to read them,
inasmuch as this language was my mother tongue, and it was the easiest
book I knew and the best suited by its content to my tender
Cervantes also used the
Metamorphoses as a platform of inspiration
for his prodigious novel Don Quixote.
Ovid among the Scythians, 1859. National Gallery
In the 16th century, some
Jesuit schools of
Portugal cut several
passages from Ovid's Metamorphoses. While the Jesuits saw his poems as
elegant compositions worthy of being presented to students for
educational purposes, they also felt his works as a whole might
corrupt students. The Jesuits took much of their knowledge
Ovid to the Portuguese colonies. According to Serafim Leite (1949),
the ratio studiorum was in effect in
Colonial Brazil during the early
17th century, and in this period Brazilian students read works like
Epistulae ex Ponto to learn
Ovid is both praised and criticized by
Cervantes in his Don
Quixote where he warns against satires that can exile poets, as
happened to Ovid. In the 16th century, Ovid's works were
criticized in England. The
Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of
London ordered that a contemporary translation of Ovid's love poems be
publicly burned in 1599. The Puritans of the following century viewed
Ovid as pagan, thus as an immoral influence.
John Dryden composed a famous translation of the
stopped rhyming couplets during the 17th century, when
"refashioned [...] in its own image, one kind of Augustanism making
over another." The
Romantic movement of the 19th century,
in contrast, considered
Ovid and his poems "stuffy, dull,
over-formalized and lacking in genuine passion." Romantics
might have preferred his poetry of exile.
Ovid among the Scythians, painted by Delacroix, portrays
the last years of the poet in exile in Scythia, and was seen by
Baudelaire, Gautier and Edgar Degas.
Baudelaire took the
opportunity to write a long essay about the life of an exiled poet
like Ovid. This shows that the exile of
Ovid had some
influence in 19th century
Romanticism since it makes connections with
its key concepts such as wildness and the misunderstood
The exile poems were once viewed unfavorably in Ovid's
oeuvre. They have enjoyed a resurgence of scholarly
interest in recent years, though critical opinion remains divided on
several qualities of the poems, such as their intended audience and
Ovid was sincere in the "recantation of all that he stood for
Ovid as imagined in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493.
Literary and artistic
(c. 800–810) Moduin, a poet in the court circle of Charlemagne,
adopts the pen name Naso.
(12th century) The troubadours and the medieval courtoise literature.
In particular, the passage describing the Holy Grail in the Conte du
Chrétien de Troyes
Chrétien de Troyes contains elements from the
(13th century) The Roman de la Rose,
(14th century) Petrarch, Geoffrey Chaucer, Juan Ruiz
(15th century) Sandro Botticelli
(16th century–17th century) Luís de Camões, Christopher Marlowe,
William Shakespeare, John Marston,
Cephalus and Procris; Narcissus
(17th century) John Milton, Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Miguel de
Cervantes's Don Quixote, 1605 and 1615, Luis de Góngora's La Fábula
de Polifemo y Galatea, 1613, Landscape with
Nicolas Poussin, 1651, Stormy Landscape with Philemon and Baucis by
Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620, "Divine Narcissus" by Sor Juana Inés de
la Cruz c. 1689,
(1820s) During his
Alexander Pushkin compared himself to
Ovid; memorably versified in the epistle To
Ovid (1821). The exiled
Ovid also features in his long poem Gypsies, set in
and in Canto VIII of
Eugene Onegin (1825–1832).
(1916) James Joyce's
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man has a
quotation from Book 8 of
Metamorphoses and introduces Stephen Dedalus.
The Ovidian reference to "Daedalus" was in Stephen Hero, but then
metamorphosed to "Dedalus" in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
and in Ulysses.
(1920s) The title of the second poetry collection by Osip Mandelstam,
Tristia (Berlin, 1922), refers to Ovid's book. Mandelstam's collection
is about his hungry, violent years immediately after the October
Ovid by Benjamin Britten, for solo
oboe, evokes images of Ovid's characters from Metamorphoses.
(1960) God Was Born in Exile, the novel by the Romanian writer Vintila
Horia about Ovid's stay in exile (the novel received the Prix Goncourt
Bob Dylan has made repeated use of Ovid's wording,
imagery, and themes.
(2006) His album Modern Times contains songs with borrowed lines from
Ovid's Poems of Exile, from Peter Green's translation. The songs are
"Workingman's Blues #2", "Ain't Talkin'", "The Levee's Gonna Break",
and "Spirit on the Water".
(1978) Australian author David Malouf's novel
An Imaginary Life is
about Ovid's exile in Tomis.
(1998) In Pandora, by Anne Rice, Pandora cites
Ovid as a favorite poet
and author of the time, quoting him to her lover Marius de Romanus.
(2000) The Art of Love by Robin Brooks, a comedy, emphasizing Ovid's
role as lover. Broadcast May 23 on BBC Radio 4, with
Bill Nighy and
Anne-Marie Duff (not to be confused with the 2004 radio play by the
same title on Radio 3).
(2004) The Art of Love by Andrew Rissik, a drama, part of a trilogy,
which speculates on the crime that sent
Ovid into exile. Broadcast
April 11 on BBC Radio 4, with
Stephen Dillane and
Juliet Aubrey (not
to be confused with the 2000 radio play by the same title on Radio
(2007) Russian author Alexander Zorich's novel Roman Star is about the
last years of Ovid's life.
(2007) the play "The Land of Oblivion " by Russian-American dramatist
Mikhail Berman-Tsikinovsky was published in Russian by Vagrius Plus
(Moscow).The play was based on author's new hypothesis unrevealing the
mystery of Ovid's exile to Tomi by Augustus.
(2008) "The Love Song of Ovid", a two-hour radio documentary by
Damiano Pietropaolo, recorded on location in
Rome (the recently
restored house of
Augustus on the Roman forum),
Constanta (modern day Tomis, in Romania). Broadcast on
the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, CBC Radio One, Dec. 18 and 19,
(2012) The House Of Rumour, a novel by British author Jake Arnott,
opens with a passage from
Metamorphoses 12.39–63, and the author
muses on Ovid's prediction of the internet in that passage.
(2013) Another literary piece by Mikhail Berman-Tsikinovsky was
published by Aspekt Publishing (Boston) in Russian and English under
the title "To Ovid, 2000 years later, (A Road Tale). It was the
breathtaking description of the author's visits to the places of
Ovid's birth and death.
(2015) In The Walking Dead season 5, episode 5 ("Now"), Deanna begins
making a long-term plan to make her besieged community sustainable and
writes on her blueprint a
Latin phrase attributed to Ovid: "Dolor hic
tibi proderit olim". The phrase is an excerpt from the
longer phrase, "Perfer et obdura, dolor hic tibi proderit olim"
(English translation: Be patient and tough; someday this pain will be
useful to you").
(2017) Canadian composer
Marc Sabat and German poet Uljana Wolf
collaborated on a free homophonic translation of the first 88 lines of
Ovid's Metamorphoseon to create the cantata Seeds of skies, alibis
premiered by the vocal ensemble Ekmeles in New York on 22 February
Dante twice mentions him in:
De vulgari eloquentia, along with Lucan, Virgil, and
Statius as one of
the four regulati poetae (ii, vi, 7)
Inferno as ranking alongside Homer, Horace, Lucan, and Virgil
Retellings, adaptations, and translations of Ovidian works
(1609) The Wisdom of the Ancients, a retelling and interpretation of
Ovidian fables by Francis Bacon
Apollo et Hyacinthus, an early opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(1938) Daphne, an opera by Richard Strauss
(1949) Orphée, a film by Jean Cocteau, retelling of the
from the Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses (Translation in Blank Verse), by Brookes
Metamorphoses in European Culture (Commentary), by
The Last World by Christoph Ransmayr
(1997) Polaroid Stories by Naomi Iizuka, a retelling of Metamorphoses,
with urchins and drug addicts as the gods.
(1994) After Ovid: New
Metamorphoses edited by
Michael Hofmann and
James Lasdun is an anthology of contemporary poetry envisioning Ovid's
Tales from Ovid by
Ted Hughes is a modern poetic translation of
twenty four passages from Metamorphoses
Ovid Metamorphosed edited by Phil Terry, a short story
collection retelling several of Ovid's fables.
(2002) An adaptation of
Metamorphoses of the same name by Mary
Zimmerman was performed at the Circle in the Square
(2006) Patricia Barber's song cycle, Mythologies
(2008) Tristes Pontiques, translated from
Latin by Marie Darrieussecq
(2011) A stage adaptation of
Metamorphoses by Peter Bramley, entitled
Metamorphoses was performed by Pants on Fire, presented by the
Carol Tambor Theatrical Foundation at the
Flea Theater in New York
City and toured the United Kingdom
(2012) "The Song of Phaethon", a post-rock/musique concrete song
written and performed by Ian Crause (former leader of Disco Inferno)
in Greek epic style, based on a
Metamorphoses tale (as recounted in
Hughes' Tales from Ovid) and drawing parallels between mythology and
(2013), Clare Pollard, Ovid’s Heroines (Bloodaxe), new poetic
version of Heroides.
Ovid by Anton von Werner.
Ovid by Luca Signorelli.
Scythians at the Tomb of
Ovid (c.1640), by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld.
After Ovid: New Metamorphoses
Augustan literature (ancient Rome)
Cultural influence of Metamorphoses
List of characters in Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses (2014 film)
Ovid among the Scythians
Sexuality in ancient Rome
Metamorphoses after Ovid
Tales from Ovid
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a. ^ The cognomen Naso means "the one with the nose" (i.e.
Ovid habitually refers to himself by his nickname in his
poetry because the
Latin name Ovidius does not fit into elegiac metre.
b. ^ It was a pivotal year in the history of Rome. A year before
Ovid's birth, the murder of
Julius Caesar took place, an event that
precipitated the end of the republican regime. After Caesar's death, a
series of civil wars and alliances followed (See Roman civil wars),
until the victory of Caesar's nephew,
Octavius (later called Augustus)
Mark Antony (leading supporter of Caesar), from which arose a new
c. ^ Fasti is, in fact, unfinished.
Metamorphoses was already
completed in the year of exile, missing only the final
revision. In exile,
Ovid said he never gave a final review
on the poem.
Scythia in I 64, II 224, V 649, VII 407, VIII 788, XV
285, 359, 460, and others.
^ Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary: "Ovid"
^ a b Quint. Inst. 10.1.93
^ Fergus Millar, "
Ovid and the Domus Augusta:
Rome Seen from Tomoi,"
Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), p. 6.
^ Mark P.O. Morford, Robert J. Lenardon, Classical Mythology (Oxford
University Press US, 1999), p. 25. .mw-parser-output cite.citation
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.cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em ISBN 0195143388,
^ Seneca, Cont. 2.2.8 and 9.5.17
^ Trist. 1.2.77
^ Trist. 4.10.33–34
^ Trist. 2.93ff.; Ex P. 5.23ff.
^ Fast. 4.383–34
^ Trist. 4.10.21
^ Trist. 4.10.57–58
^ Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony; Eidinow, Esther (2014). The
Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Oxford University Press.
p. 562. ISBN 978-0198706779.
^ Brill's New Pauly: Encyclopaedia of the Ancient World s.v. Ovid
^ The most recent chart that describes the dating of Ovid's works is
in Knox. P. "A Poet's Life" in A Companion to
Ovid ed. Peter Knox
(Oxford, 2009) pp. xvii–xviii
^ a b Trist. 4.10.53–54
^ Hornblower, Simon; Antony Spawforth (1996). Oxford Classical
Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 1085.
^ See Trist. II, 131–32.
Epistulae ex Ponto 2.9.72
Epistulae ex Ponto 3.3.72
^ Norwood, Frances, "The Riddle of Ovid's Relegatio", Classical
Philology (1963) p. 158
^ José González Vázquez (trans.), Ov. Tristes e Pónticas
(Editorial Gredos, Madrid, 1992), p. 10 and Rafael Herrera Montero
(trans.), Ov. Tristes; Cartas del Ponto (Alianza Editorial, Madrid,
2002). The scholars also add that it was no more indecent than many
publications by Propertius,
Horace that circulated freely
in that time.
^ The first two lines of the
Tristia communicate his misery:Parve –
nec invideo – sine me, liber, ibis in urbem; ei mihi, quod domino
non licet ire tuo!
"Little book – for I don't begrudge it – go on to the city without
me; Alas for me, because your master is not allowed to go with you!"
^ J. C. Thibault, The Mystery of Ovid's Exile (Berkeley-L. A. 1964),
^ About 33 mentions, according to Thibault (Mystery, pp. 27–31).
^ A. W. J. Holleman, "Ovid's exile", Liverpool Classical Monthly 10.3
(1985), p. 48.H. Hofmann, "The unreality of Ovid's Tomitan exile once
again", Liverpool Classical Monthly 12.2 (1987), p. 23.
^ A. D. F. Brown, "The unreality of Ovid's Tomitan exile", Liverpool
Classical Monthly 10.2 (1985), pp. 18–22.
^ Cf. the summary provided by A. Alvar Ezquerra, Exilio y elegía
latina entre la Antigüedad y el Renacimiento (Huelva, 1997), pp.
^ Naturalis Historia, 32.152: "His adiciemus ab Ovidio posita
animalia, quae apud neminem alium reperiuntur, sed fortassis in Ponto
nascentia, ubi id volumen supremis suis temporibus inchoavit".
^ Silvae, 1.2, 254–55: "nec tristis in ipsis Naso Tomis".
^ Short references in
Jerome (Chronicon, 2033, an. Tiberii 4, an. Dom.
17: "Ovidius poeta in exilio diem obiit et iuxta oppidum Tomos
sepelitur") and in Epitome de Caesaribus (I, 24: "Nam [Augustus]
poetam Ovidium, qui et Naso, pro eo, quod tres libellos amatoriae
artis conscripsit, exilio damnavit").
^ A. D. F. Brown, "The unreality of Ovid's Tomitan exile", Liverpool
Classical Monthly 10.2 (1985), pp. 20–21.
^ J. M. Claassen, "Error and the imperial household: an angry god and
the exiled Ovid's fate", Acta classica: proceedings of the Classical
Association of South Africa 30 (1987), pp. 31–47.
^ Although some authors such as Martin (P. M. Martin, "À propos de
l'exil d'Ovide... et de la succession d'Auguste", Latomus 45 (1986),
pp. 609–11.) and Porte (D. Porte, "Un épisode satirique des Fastes
et l'exil d'Ovide", Latomus 43 (1984), pp. 284–306.) detected in a
passage of the Fasti (2.371–80) an Ovidian attitude contrary to the
Augustus to his succession, most researchers agree that this
work is the clearest testimony of support of Augustan ideals by Ovid
(E. Fantham, Ovid: Fasti. Book IV (Cambridge 1998), p. 42.)
^ Henley, Jon (16 December 2017). "Ovid's exile to the remotest
margins of the Roman empire revoked". The Guardian. Retrieved 16
^ Smith, R. Scott (2014-03-15). Ancient Rome: An Anthology of Sources.
Hackett Publishing. ISBN 978-1624661167.
^ Green, Steven J. (2004-01-01). Ovid, Fasti 1: A Commentary. Brill.
p. 22. ISBN 978-9004139855.
^ Knox, P. Ovid's Heroides: Select Epistles (Cambridge, 1995) pp.
^ Knox, P. pp. 12–13
^ Knox, P. pp. 18ff.
^ Athanassaki, Lucia (1992). "The Triumph of Love in Ovid's Amores 1,
2". Materiali e Discussioni per l'Analisi dei Testi Classici. No. 28
(28): 125–41. JSTOR 40236002.
^ Conte, G. p. 343
^ Book 1 Verse 1, 2: "If you do not know the art of love, read my
book, and you will be a 'doctor' of love in the future".
^ Conte, G.
Latin Literature a History trans. J. Solodow (Baltimore,
1994) p. 346
^ Conte, G. p. 352
^ Herbert-Brown, G. "Fasti: the Poet, the Prince, and the Plebs" in
Knox, P. (2009) pp. 126ff.
^ PoetryInTranslation.com, a translation of all of Ovid's exile poetry
can be found here by A. S. Kline, 2003
^ Quint. Inst. 10.1.98. Cfr. Tacitus, Dial. Orat. 12.
^ Lact. Div. Inst. 2.5.24. Another quotation by Probus ad Verg. Georg.
^ Inst. gramm. 5, 13, Gramm. Lat. 2, 149, 13 Keil.
^ Ex P. 1.2.131
^ Ex P. 1.7.30
^ Ex P. 4.13.19>
^ a b Knox, P. "Lost and Spurious Works" in Knox, P. (2009) p. 214
^ Pliny Nat. 32.11 and 32.152 and Knox, P. "Lost" in Knox, P. (2009)
^ Knox, P. "Lost" in Knox, P. (2009) pp. 212–13
^ Knox, P. "Lost" in Knox, P. (2009) pp. 210–11
^ Ettore Bignone, Historia de la literatura latina (Buenos Aires:
Losada, 1952), p. 309.
^ A. Guillemin, "L’élement humain dans l’élégie latine". In:
Revue des études Latines (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1940), p. 288.
^ In fact, it is generally accepted in most modern classical
scholarship on elegy that the poems have little connection to
autobiography or external reality. See Wycke, M. "Written
Women:Propertius' Scripta Puella" in JRS 1987 and Davis, J. Fictus
Adulter: Poet as Auctor in the Amores (Amsterdam, 1989) and Booth, J.
Ovid Making Love" in A Companion to
Ovid (Oxford, 2009)
^ Booth, J. pp. 66–68. She explains: "The text of the Amores hints
at the narrator's lack of interest in depicting unique and personal
emotion." p. 67
Apuleius Apology 10 provides the real names for every elegist's
mistress except Ovid's.
^ Barsby, J.
Ovid Amores 1 (Oxford, 1973) pp.16ff.
^ Keith, A. "Corpus Eroticum:
Elegiac Poetics and
Elegiac Puellae in
Ovid's 'Amores'" in Classical World (1994) 27–40.
^ Barsby, p. 17.
^ Booth, J. p. 65
^ Jean Bayet, Literatura latina (Barcelona: Ariel, 1985), p. 278 and
Barsby, pp. 23ff.
^ Quoted by Theodore F. Brunner, "Deinon vs. eleeinon: Heinze
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^ Kenney, E. J. y ClausenL, W. V. História de la literatura clásica
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^ Ov. Rem. VI, 6.
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^ a b c See chapters II and IV in P. Gatti,
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^ Michel de Montaigne, The complete essays of Montaigne (translated by
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Portugal (Faculdade de Letras da
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^ Serafim da Silva Leite, História da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil.
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^ Frederick A. De Armas,
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University of Toronto Press, 2010), pp. 11–12.
^ Ovid's Metamorphoses, Alan H. F. Griffin, Greece & Rome, Second
Series, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Apr., 1977), pp. 57–70. Cambridge University
^ Peter Green (trad.), The poems of exile:
Tristia and the Black Sea
letters (University of California Press, 2005), p. xiv.
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^ "Recent Acquisitions, A Selection: 2007–2008," in The Metropolitan
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^ Timothy Bell Raser, The simplest of signs: Victor Hugo and the
language of images in France, 1850–1950 (University of Delaware
Press, 2004), p. 127. ISBN 0874138671, 978-0874138672
^ Matt Cartmill, A View to a Death in the Morning: Hunting and Nature
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Ovid (2005). The Poems of Exile:
Tristia and the
Black Sea Letters.
Translated by Green, Peter. University of California Press.
p. xxxvi. ISBN 978-0520931374.
^ Claassen, Jo-Marie (2013).
Ovid Revisited: The Poet in Exile.
A&C Black. p. 2. ISBN 978-1472521439.
^ Peron, Goulven. L'influence des
Metamorphoses d'Ovide sur la visite
de Perceval au chateau du Roi Pecheur, Journal of the International
Arthurian Society, Vol. 4, Issue 1, 2016, pp. 113–34.
^ Tavard, George H. Juana Ines de la Cruz and the Theology of Beauty:
The First Mexican theology, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre
Dame, IN, 1991, pp. 104–05
^ Reynolds, Gillian (April 13, 2004). "Tune in, and turn back the
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^ Ovid. "
Elegy XI: Weary at Length of His Mistress' Infidelities, He
Swears that He Will Love Her No Longer". Sacred Texts. Retrieved
November 14, 2015.
^ Faherty, Allanah Faherty (November 9, 2015). "5 Things You Might
Have Missed in The Walking Dead 'Now'". MoviePilot. Archived from the
original on November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
^ "Seeds of skies, alibis".
^ TalkinBroadway.com, Review: Metamorphoses
^ ‹See Tfd›(in Portuguese) Met., Ovid, translation to Portuguese
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^ Carlos de Miguel Moura. O mistério do exílio ovidiano. In
Portuguese. In: Àgora. Estudos Clássicos em Debate 4 (2002), pp.
Tristia 1, 7, 14.
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Epistulae ex Ponto
Medicamina Faciei Femineae
Heroides (authorship uncertain)
vtePygmalion from Ovid's MetamorphosesCharacters
Il Pigmalione (1816)
Die schöne Galathée
Die schöne Galathée (1863 operetta)
Pygmalion, ou La Statue de Chypre
Pygmalion and Galatea (1871)
Pygmalion; or, The Statue Fair (1872)
Galatea, or Pygmalion Reversed (1883)
One Touch of Venus
One Touch of Venus (1943)
My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady (1956)
Pygmalion and the Image series
Pygmalion and Galatea (Gérôme)
"If I Had a Hammer"
A Mulher Invisível
Fall Out Toy Works
Pygmalion and Galatea (1898)
One Touch of Venus
One Touch of Venus (1948)
My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady (1964)
Ruby Sparks (2012)
Comic Potential (1998)
Apollo and Daphne" from Ovid's MetamorphosesCharacters
Gli amori d'
Apollo e di
The Wood of Suicides
Pyramus and Thisbe" from Ovid's MetamorphosesOperas
Pirame et Thisbé (1726 Francoeur and Rebel)
Thisbe (1745 Lampe)
Piramo e Tisbe
Piramo e Tisbe (1768 Hasse)
"Amoryus and Cleopes" (poem)
A Midsummer Night's Dream
Romeo and Juliet
historiography of the fall
Tribune of the Plebs
Frontiers and fortifications
Decorations and punishments
Conflict of the Orders
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Younger
Quintus Curtius Rufus
Seneca the Elder
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Dionysius of Halicarnassus
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