An outlaw motorcycle club, commonly referred to as a biker gang, is a motorcycle subculture
. It is generally centered on the use of cruiser
motorcycles, particularly Harley-Davidson
s and choppers
, and a set of ideals that purport to celebrate freedom, nonconformity to mainstream culture, and loyalty to the biker group.
In the United States, such motorcycle club
s (MCs) are considered "outlaw" not necessarily because they engage in criminal activity, but because they are not sanctioned by the American Motorcyclist Association
(AMA) and do not adhere to the AMA's rules. Instead the clubs have their own set of bylaws reflecting the outlaw biker culture.
The U.S. Department of Justice
defines "outlaw motorcycle gangs" (OMG) as "organizations whose members use their motorcycle clubs as conduits for criminal enterprises".
Organization and leadership
While organizations may vary, the typical internal organization of a motorcycle club consists of a president
, vice president
, road captain
, and sergeant-at-arms
(sometimes known as enforcer
). Localized groups of a single, large MC are called ''chapters'' and the first chapter established for an MC is referred to as the ''mother chapter''. The president of the mother chapter serves as the president of the entire MC, and sets club policy on a variety of issues.
Larger motorcycle clubs often acquire real estate for use as a clubhouse or private compound
Some "biker" clubs employ a process whereby members must pass several stages such as "friend of the club", "hang-around", and "prospect", on their way to becoming full-patch (see explanation of 'patching' below) members.
The actual stages and membership process can and often do vary widely from club to club. Often, an individual must pass a vote of the membership and swear some level of allegiance to the club.
[ Some clubs have a unique club patch (cut or top rocker) adorned with the term MC that are worn on the rider's vest, known as a kutte.
In these clubs, some amount of hazing may occur during the early stages (i.e. hang-around, prospecting) ranging from the mandatory performance of menial labor tasks for full patch members to sophomoric pranks, and, in rare cases with some outlaw motorcycle clubs, acts of violence. During this time, the prospect may wear the club name on the back of their vest, but not the full logo, though this practice may vary from club to club. To become a full member, the prospect or probate must be voted on by the rest of the full club members. Successful admission usually requires more than a simple majority, and some clubs may reject a prospect or a probate for a single dissenting vote. A formal induction follows, in which the new member affirms his loyalty to the club and its members. The final logo patch is then awarded. Full members are often referred to as "full patch members" or "patchholders" and the step of attaining full membership can be referred to as "being patched".
The majority of members of outlaw motorcycle clubs have no serious criminal record, and express their outlaw status on a social level, and equating the word "outlaw" with disregard for the law of groups like the American Motorcyclist Association, not the laws of government.
There are also non-outlaw motorcycle clubs, such as women's motorcycle clubs, who adopt similar insignia, colors, organizational structure and trappings, such as leather outfits typical of outlaw clubs, and, in the case of men, beards, making it difficult for outsiders (especially police) to tell the difference between the two. It has been said that these other groups are attracted by the mystique of the outlaw image while objecting to the suggestion that they are outlaws.]
Outlaw clubs are often prominent at charity events, such as toy runs. Charitable giving is frequently cited as evidence that these clubs do not deserve their negative media image. Outlaw clubs have been accused of using charity rides to mask their criminal nature.
[ The American Motorcyclist Association has frequently complained of the bad publicity for motorcycling in general caused by outlaw clubs, and they have said that the presence of outlaw clubs at charity events has actually harmed the needy by driving down public participation and reducing donations. Events such as a 2005 shootout between rival outlaw clubs in the midst of a charity toy drive in California have raised fears about the participation of outlaw biker clubs in charity events. Authorities have attempted to ban outlaw clubs from charity events, or to restrict the wearing of colors at events in order to avert the sort of inter-club violence that has happened at previous charity runs. In 2002, the Warlocks MC of Pennsylvania sued over their exclusion from a charity event.
The primary visual identification of a member of an outlaw motorcycle club is the vest adorned with a large club-specific patch or patches, predominantly located in the middle of the back. The patch(es) will contain a club logo, the name of the club, and the letters MC, and a possible state, province, or other chapter identification. This garment and the patches themselves are referred to as the ''colors'' or ''cut'' (a term taken from the early practice of cutting the collars and/or sleeves from a denim or leather jacket). Many non-outlaw motorcycle riding clubs such as the Harley Owners Group also wear patches on the back of their vests, without including the letters ''MC''.
The club patches always remain property of the club itself, not the member, and only members are allowed to wear the club's patches. Hang-arounds and/or support clubs wear support patches with the club's colors. A member must closely guard their colors, for allowing one's colors to fall into the hands of an outsider is an act of disgrace and may result in loss of membership in a club, or some other punishment.
One-, two-, and three-piece patches
The colors worn by members of some motorcycle clubs will sometimes follow a convention of using either a one-piece patch for nonconformist social clubs, two-piece patch for clubs ''paying dues'', a three-piece patch for ''outlaw'' clubs or side patches. The ''three-piece patch'' consists of the club logo and the top and bottom patches, usually crescent shaped, which are referred to as rockers. The number and arrangement of patches is somewhat indicative of the nature of the club. Though many motorcycle clubs wear the three-piece patch arrangement, this is not necessarily an indication that a club is an outlaw motorcycle club.
Law enforcement agencies have confiscated colors and other club paraphernalia of these types of clubs when they raid a clubhouse or the home of a MC member, and they often display these items at press conferences.
These items are then used at trial to support prosecution assertions that MC members perform criminal acts on behalf of their club. Courts have found that the probative value of such items is far outweighed by their unfairly prejudicial effects on the defence.
Some outlaw motorcycle clubs can be distinguished by a "1%" patch worn on the colors. This is said to refer to a comment by the American Motorcyclist Association (AMA) that 99% of motorcyclists were law-abiding citizens, implying the last one percent were outlaws.
The alleged AMA comment, supposedly a response to the Hollister riot in 1947, is denied by the AMA, who claim to have no record of such a statement to the press and that the story is a misquote. [In March 1972 (p.3), Chas Deane, the editor of ''Motorcycle Mechanics'', wrote: Motorcycling is a way of life, almost a religion to some and the next best thing to breathing for others. There is no such thing as a "typical motorcyclist"; on the one hand we're outcasts and "one percenters", while on the other hand we are the "in" people.]
The 1% diamond patch is often worn by the dominant outlaw club in an area or territory. Wearing the 1% diamond patch while not being a member of the dominant organization may draw their attention when seen.itation needed
Other patches may be worn by members, including phrases and symbols. The style or meaning of these other patches can vary between clubs. Some, such as a skull and crossbones patch, or the motto "Respect Few, Fear None", are worn in some clubs by members who commit murder or other acts of violence on behalf of the club.
There are also ''wings'' or ''biker's wings'', which are earned something like jump wings or pilot's wings, but with various color-coded meanings, e.g. in some clubs, it is said that a member who has had sex with a woman with venereal disease can wear ''green wings''. It has also been suggested that these definitions are a hoax, intended to make fools of those outside the outlaw biker world, and also to serve the purpose of provoking outrage among conservative public and authorities.
Frequently, additional patches may involve symbols, such as the use of Nazi swastikas or the SS ''Totenkopf''. These may not indicate Nazi sympathies, but serve to express the outlaw biker's total rejection of social constraints, and desire for the shock value among those who fail to understand the biker way.
Gender and race
Most outlaw motorcycle clubs do not allow women to become full-patch members. Rather, in some 1%er clubs, women have in the past been portrayed as submissive or victims to the men, treated as property, forced into prostitution or street-level drug trafficking, and often physically and sexually abused, their roles as being those of obedient followers and their status as objects. These women are claimed to pass over any pay they receive to their partners or sometimes to the entire club. This appears to make these groups extremely gender-segregated. This has not always been the case, as during the 1950s and 1960s, some Hells Angels chapters had women members.
Academic research has criticized the methodology of such previous studies as being "vague and hazy", and lacking in participant demographics.
[Depicting outlaw motorcycle club women using anchored and unanchored research methodologies. van den Eynde, Julie University of Queensland, Australia and Veno, Arthur Monash University, Australia] Such reports may have made clear statements and authoritative analyses about the role of women associated with outlaw motorcycle clubs, but few state how they have come to such conclusions; one admitting that, "isinterviews with biker women were limited lest isintentions were misinterpreted" by their male companions and that such views of women are mythic and "sexist research" in itself, using deeply flawed methodologies and serve two highly political purposes of maintaining a dominance myth of women by men and amplifying the deviance of the male club members.
These myths about the women are: that they are subservient working-class women, used as objects for club sexual rituals; are hard-bitten, unattractive, and politically conservative; and that they are 'money makers' for the biker men and clubs, i.e., prostitutes, topless barmaids or strippers who are forced to hand over their money to the club. A 1990 paper noted the changing role of women within outlaw motorcycle clubs, and a 2000 paper stated that they now have agency and political savvy, reframing the narratives of their lives. "We did it. We showed them we are real women dealing with real men. I'd much prefer to be living with an OMC member than some dork who is a pawn in the system", said one woman who felt she and her peers had "set the record straight". One woman in 2001 described the previous work done by men about women in the outlaw motorcycle club world by saying "the men that wrote that must be meatheads". They are part of the scene because they want to be and enjoy it. These women have broken from society's stereotypically defined roles and find freedom with the biker world.
High-profile outlaw bikers have historically been white and their clubs are typically exclusively racially homogeneous. Other sources state outright, that "With few exceptions, blacks are excluded from membership or riding with one-percenter biker clubs." The average age for a club studied was 34. There are black clubs, white clubs, and Mexican and other Spanish-speaking clubs. Although race does not appear to be important as a creed or philosophical orientation to them, virtually all of the clubs are racially unmixed. Bikers in American prisons, as prisoners generally do, band together along racial lines. It is claimed that racial discrimination within clubs has led to creation of rival clubs in the past, such as the Mongols Motorcycle Club after members were rejected by the local Hells Angels chapter. Some clubs or individual chapters are now multi-racial, but the number of "white supremacist biker clubs are growing nationwide".
Outlaw motorcycle clubs and crime
Some members of outlaw motorcycle clubs engage in criminal activities and organized crime.
Despite their connection with motorcycles and the "one percenter" subculture, law enforcement agencies perceive such individuals and motorcycle clubs as being unique among criminal groups because they maintain websites and businesses, identify themselves through patches and tattoos, write and obey constitutions and bylaws, trademark their club names and logos, and even hold publicity campaigns aimed at improving their public image. [
Outlaw motorcycle clubs as criminal enterprises
The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as "outlaw motorcycle gangs": the Hells Angels, the Pagans, the Outlaws, and the Bandidos, known as the "Big Four". These four have a large enough national impact to be prosecuted under the U.S. Federal Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations (RICO) statute. The California Attorney General also lists the Mongols and the Vagos Motorcycle Club as outlaw motorcycle gangs.
The FBI asserts that Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs) support themselves primarily through drug dealing, trafficking in stolen goods, and extortion, and that they fight over territory and the illegal drug trade and collect $1 billion in illegal income annually.
[Look Homeward Angel: Cycle Icon Sonny Barger Kick-Starts Life as a Free Man by Violating Parole]
by Philip Martin, Phoenix New Times, December 2, 1992.
[ a three-year, eleven-state FBI operation named Roughrider culminated in the largest OMG bust in history, with the confiscation of $2 million worth of illegal drugs, as well as an illegal arsenal of weapons, ranging from Uzi submachine guns to antitank weapons. In October 2008, the FBI announced the end of a six-month undercover operation by agents into the narcotics trafficking by the Mongols Motorcycle Club. The bust went down with 160 search warrants and 110 arrest warrants
Canada, especially, has in the late 20th century experienced a significant upsurge in crime involving outlaw motorcycle clubs, most notably in what has been dubbed the Quebec Biker War, which has involved more than 150 murders (plus a young bystander killed by an exploding car bomb), 84 bombings, and 130 cases of arson.] [Organized Crime Fact Sheet](_blank) The increased violence in Canada has been attributed to turf wars ovs for Tots]] in an attempt to legitimize themselves with public opinion.
Contrary to other criminal organizations, OMGs operate on an individual basis instead of top-down, which is how supporters can claim that only some members are committing crimes. Belonging guarantees to each member the option of running criminal activity, using other members as support—the main characteristic of OMGs being "amoral individualism", in contrast to the hierarchical orders and bonds of "amoral familism" of other criminal organizations such as the Mafia. U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) agent William Queen, who infiltrated the Mongols, wrote that what makes a group like them different from the Mafia is that crime and violence are not used as expedients in pursuit of profit, but that the priorities are reversed. Mayhem and lawlessness are inherent in living "The Life" and the money they obtain by illegal means is only wanted as a way to perpetuate that lifestyle.
Recently, authorities have tried tactics aimed at undermining the gang identity and breaking up the membership. But in June 2011 the High Court of Australia overturned a law that outlawed crime-focused motorcycle clubs and required members to avoid contact with one another.
- Public Safety Canada
In the U.S., a Federal judge rejected a prosecutor's request to seize ownership of the Mongols Motorcycle Club logo and name, saying the government had no right to the trademarks. Federal prosecutors had requested, as part of a larger criminal indictment, a court order giving the government ownership of the logo in order to prevent members from wearing the club's colors.
Relationships between outlaw motorcycle clubs
Certain large one-percent MCs have rivalries between each other and will fight over territory and other issues. Sometimes smaller clubs are forced into or willingly accept supportive roles for a larger one-percent club and are sometimes required to wear a "support patch" on their vests that shows their affiliation with the dominant regional club. Smaller clubs are often allowed to form with the permission of the dominant regional club. Clubs that resist have been forcibly disbanded by being told to hand over their colours on threat of aggression.
In Australia and the United States, many MCs have established statewide MC coalitions.
These coalitions are composed of MCs who have chapters in the state, and the occasional interested third party organization, and hold periodic meetings on neutral ground where representatives from each club meet in closed session to resolve disputes between clubs and discuss issues of common interest. Local coalitions or confederations of clubs have eliminated some of the inter-club rivalry and together they have acted to hire legal and PR representation. [Terry the Tramp: The Life and Dangerous Times of a One Percenter. K. Randall Ball. MotorBooks International, 30 Oct 2011]
Outlaw motorcyclists and their clubs have been frequently portrayed and parodied in movies and the media generally, giving rise to an "outlaw biker film" genre. It generally exists as a negative stereotype in the public's subconscious and yet has inspired fashion trends for both males and, as "biker babes", for females. The appearance has even been exploited by the fashion industry bringing it into legal conflict with some clubs and simultaneously encouraging a cultural specific fetishistic look that conveys sex, danger, rebelliousness, masculinity, and working class values.
The biker style has influenced the look of other sub-cultures such as punk, [Punk and Neo-Tribal Body Art. Daniel Wojcik. Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1995] heavy metal, leather subculture and cybergoth fashion, and, initially an American subculture, has had an international influence. Bikers, their clothing, and motorcycles have become cultural icons of mythic status, their portrayal generally exaggerating a criminal or deviant association exploited by the media for their own often financial interests.
In popular culture
* The outlaw biker film genre really took off in the mid-1960s, after the Hells Angels club became prominent in the media, in particular, after Hunter S. Thompson's book ''Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs'' (1966) was published.
* The mini-series ''The Last Chapter'' (2002) was set in Toronto and Montreal, and portrayed a fictional feud reminiscent of the Quebec Biker War in which The Triple Sixers MC attempted to establish a chapter in the province of Ontario. This show predated ''Sons of Anarchy'' by six years.
* ''Sons of Anarchy'' portrays a fictional outlaw motorcycle club, founded mainly by Vietnam War veterans, which is involved in various criminal activity and associated with underworld gangs. The show's creator thought it was too obvious to have them be methamphetamine dealers, and so instead they traffic illegal guns.
* ''True Detective'' season one portrays an antagonistic outlaw biker club located in Galveston, Texas called the Iron Crusaders. Homicide Detective Rust Cohle infiltrates the club as his former undercover alias "Crash" and joins some of its members on a failed home invasion in order to elicit information on their methamphetamine cook who is believed to have ties to serial murders in Louisiana.
* ''Bikie Wars: Brothers in Arms'': The six-episode series dramatises the story of the Milperra massacre, when the Bandidos and the Comanchero motorcycle clubs went to war on Father's Day, Sunday 2 September 1984. The massacre had its beginnings after a group of Comancheros broke away and formed the first Bandidos Motorcycle Club chapter in Australia. This resulted in intense rivalry between the two chapters. At a public swap meet at the Viking Tavern at Milperra, New South Wales, a brief but violent battle ensued with seven people shot dead, including a 14-year-old innocent female bystander. A further 28 people were wounded with 20 requiring hospitalisation. Each episode starts with a quote stated by Justice Adrian Roden when the clubs went before the New South Wales Supreme Court; "As patriotism can lead to jingoism and mateship can lead to cronyism, so bikie club loyalty can lead to bikie club war."
* ''Gangland Undercover'' is an American dramatized series inspired by the true story of police informant Charles Falco, who infiltrated several bike clubs in the United States in the early 2000s.
*''Mayans M.C.'' is a spin-off of ''Sons of Anarchy'' centered around the Sons' rivals turned allies, the predominantly Hispanic Mayans Motorcycle Club.
* ''Grand Theft Auto: The Lost and Damned'', a 2009 expansion to the video game ''Grand Theft Auto IV'', centers on the biker theme. The game follows the story of the eponymous Lost Motorcycle Club, based in the fictional Liberty City (inspired by New York), with the club's vice-president (later president) Johnny Klebitz as the protagonist. The story centers on Johnny's attempts to keep the club running when they are faced with various problems, including internal conflicts and the Mafia. The Lost were also featured briefly in ''Grand Theft Auto IV'' and its second expansion, ''The Ballad of Gay Tony''. Aside from The Lost, ''The Lost and Damned'' features two other biker gangs: their sworn rivals, the Angels of Death, and the Uptown Riders (although only two actual members of the latter are featured, who befriend Johnny).
* The Lost MC are also featured in ''Grand Theft Auto V'', having relocated to the state of San Andreas after the events of ''The Lost and Damned''. They mainly operate in the rural Blaine County, but also own a few businesses in the city of Los Santos. The Lost serve as one of the antagonist forces to Trevor Philips, one of the game's three protagonists, who kills Johnny and takes over most of their businesses in Blaine County. The Lost are also featured as minor antagonists in the game's multiplayer component, ''Grand Theft Auto Online'', mainly in the missions for Trevor. An outlaw biker-themed update, entitled ''GTA Online: Bikers'', was released on October 4, 2016, and introduced various biker-themed weapons, clothing, and vehicles, as well as the ability for players to join or start their own motorcycle clubs and generate profit via several illicit businesses, such as counterfeit cash factories and cocaine lockups.
* ''Days Gone'' is a 2019 post-apocalyptic survival game set in Oregon where the protagonist, Deacon St. John and his friend William "Boozer" Gray, are former members of an outlaw motorcycle club known as the Mongrels, and they still wear their club's colors.
* List of outlaw motorcycle clubs
* Mat Rempit
* Coulthart, Ross and McNab, Duncan, ''Dead Man Running: An Insider's Story on One of the World's Most Feared Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, the Bandidos'' Allen & Unwin, 2008, ()
* Hayes, Bill.
The Original Wild Ones: Tales of The Boozefighters Motorcycle Club, Est. 1946
'. St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks, 2005.
* Veno, Arthur, ''The Mammoth Book of Bikers'', Constable & Robinson, 2007 ()
* Vieth, Errol, "Angels in the Media: Constructing Outlaw Motorcyclists", in ''Consent and Consensus'', edited by Denis Cryle and Jean Hiliier, Perth, API Network, 2005, 97–116 ().