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The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty
Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of July 2017, 107 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1] In addition, the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 19 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC) in 1971.[5]

Contents

1 Key points 2 Responsibility for activities in space

2.1 Follow-ups

3 Status

3.1 List of parties 3.2 Partially recognized state abiding by treaty 3.3 States that have signed but not ratified

4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

Key points[edit] The Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
represents the basic legal framework of international space law. Among its principles, it bars states party to the treaty from placing weapons of mass destruction in Earth
Earth
orbit, installing them on the Moon
Moon
or any other celestial body, or otherwise stationing them in outer space. It exclusively limits the use of the Moon
Moon
and other celestial bodies to peaceful purposes and expressly prohibits their use for testing weapons of any kind, conducting military maneuvers, or establishing military bases, installations, and fortifications (Article IV). However, the Treaty
Treaty
does not prohibit the placement of conventional weapons in orbit and thus some highly destructive attack strategies such as kinetic bombardment are still potentially allowable.[6] The treaty also states that the exploration of outer space shall be done to benefit all countries and that space shall be free for exploration and use by all the States. The treaty explicitly forbids any government from claiming a celestial resource such as the Moon
Moon
or a planet.[7] Article II of the Treaty states that "outer space, including the Moon
Moon
and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means". However, the State that launches a space object retains jurisdiction and control over that object.[8] The State is also liable for damages caused by their space object.[9] Responsibility for activities in space[edit] Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
deals with international responsibility, stating that "the activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the Moon
Moon
and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty" and that States Parties shall bear international responsibility for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental entities. As a result of discussions arising from Project West Ford
Project West Ford
in 1963, a consultation clause was included in Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty: "A State Party to the Treaty
Treaty
which has reason to believe that an activity or experiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon
Moon
and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon
Moon
and other celestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment."[10][11] Follow-ups[edit]

The Rescue Agreement
Rescue Agreement
of 1968. The Space Liability Convention
Space Liability Convention
of 1972. The Registration Convention
Registration Convention
of 1976. The Moon
Moon
Treaty
Treaty
of 1979 was proposed after the Outer Space Treaty, but failed to be ratified by any major space-faring nation such as those capable of orbital spaceflight.[12]

The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) oversees[citation needed] these treaties and other questions of space jurisdiction. Status[edit] List of parties[edit] The Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of July 2017, 107 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification.[1] Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington, DC. Also indicated is whether the state became a party by way of signing the treaty and subsequent ratification, or by accession to the treaty after it had closed for signature.

State[1][2][3][4] Signed Deposited Method

 Afghanistan 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1967 (M) 000000001988-03-17-0000Mar 17, 1988 (L, M) 000000001988-03-21-0000Mar 21, 1988 (W) Ratification

 Algeria

000000001992-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1992 (W) Accession

 Antigua and Barbuda

000000001988-11-16-0000Nov 16, 1988 (W) 000000001988-12-26-0000Dec 26, 1988 (M) 000000001989-01-26-0000Jan 26, 1989 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom

 Argentina 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-04-18-0000Apr 18, 1967 (M) 000000001969-03-26-0000Mar 26, 1969 (M, W) Ratification

 Australia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Austria 000000001967-02-20-0000Feb 20, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-02-26-0000Feb 26, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Azerbaijan

000000002015-09-09-0000Sep 9, 2015 (L) Accession

 Bahamas

000000001976-08-11-0000Aug 11, 1976 (L) 000000001976-08-13-0000Aug 13, 1976 (W) 000000001976-08-30-0000Aug 30, 1976 (M) Succession from  United Kingdom

 Bangladesh

000000001986-01-14-0000Jan 14, 1986 (L) 000000001986-01-17-0000Jan 17, 1986 (W) 000000001986-01-24-0000Jan 24, 1986 (M) Accession

 Barbados

000000001968-09-12-0000Sep 12, 1968 (W) Accession

 Belarus 000000001967-02-10-0000Feb 10, 1967 (M) 000000001967-10-31-0000Oct 31, 1967 (M) Ratification

 Belgium 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M) 000000001967-02-02-0000Feb 2, 1967 (W) 000000001973-03-30-0000Mar 30, 1973 (W) 000000001973-03-31-0000Mar 31, 1973 (L, M) Ratification

 Benin

000000001986-06-19-0000Jun 19, 1986 (M) 000000001986-07-02-0000Jul 2, 1986 (L) 000000001986-07-07-0000Jul 7, 1986 (W) Accession

 Brazil 000000001967-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1967 (M) 000000001967-02-02-0000Feb 2, 1967 (L, W) 000000001969-03-05-0000Mar 5, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Bulgaria 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-03-28-0000Mar 28, 1967 (M) 000000001967-04-11-0000Apr 11, 1967 (W) 000000001967-04-19-0000Apr 19, 1967 (L) Ratification

 Burkina Faso 000000001967-03-03-0000Mar 3, 1967 (W) 000000001968-06-18-0000Jun 18, 1968 (W) Ratification

 Canada 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Chile 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-02-03-0000Feb 3, 1967 (L) 000000001967-02-20-0000Feb 20, 1967 (M) 000000001981-10-08-0000Oct 8, 1981 (W) Ratification

 China

000000001983-12-30-0000Dec 30, 1983 (W) 000000001984-01-06-0000Jan 6, 1984 (M) 000000001984-01-12-0000Jan 12, 1984 (L) Accession

 Cuba

000000001977-06-03-0000Jun 3, 1977 (M) Accession

 Cyprus 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-02-15-0000Feb 15, 1967 (M) 000000001967-02-16-0000Feb 16, 1967 (L) 000000001972-07-05-0000Jul 5, 1972 (L, W) 000000001972-09-20-0000Sep 20, 1972 (M) Ratification

 Czech Republic

000000001993-01-01-0000Jan 1, 1993 (M, W) 000000001993-09-29-0000Sep 29, 1993 (L) Succession from  Czechoslovakia

 Denmark 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Dominican Republic 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001968-11-21-0000Nov 21, 1968 (W) Ratification

 Ecuador 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-05-16-0000May 16, 1967 (L) 000000001967-06-07-0000Jun 7, 1967 (M) 000000001969-03-07-0000Mar 7, 1969 (W) Ratification

 Egypt 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (W) 000000001968-01-23-0000Jan 23, 1968 (M) Ratification

 El Salvador 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001969-01-15-0000Jan 15, 1969 (W) Ratification

 Equatorial Guinea

000000001989-01-16-0000Jan 16, 1989 (M) Accession

 Estonia

000000002010-04-19-0000Apr 19, 2010 (M) Accession

 Fiji

000000001972-07-18-0000Jul 18, 1972 (W) 000000001972-08-14-0000Aug 14, 1972 (L) 000000001972-08-29-0000Aug 29, 1972 (M) Succession from  United Kingdom

 Finland 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-07-12-0000Jul 12, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 France 000000001967-09-25-0000Sep 25, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001970-08-05-0000Aug 5, 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Germany 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001971-02-10-0000Feb 10, 1971 (L, W) Ratification

 Greece 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001971-01-19-0000Jan 19, 1971 (L) Ratification

 Guinea-Bissau

000000001976-08-20-0000Aug 20, 1976 (M) Accession

 Hungary 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-06-26-0000Jun 26, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Iceland 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-02-05-0000Feb 5, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 India 000000001967-03-03-0000Mar 3, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001982-01-18-0000Jan 18, 1982 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Indonesia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1967 (M) 000000001967-02-14-0000Feb 14, 1967 (L) 000000002002-06-25-0000Jun 25, 2002 (L) Ratification

 Iraq 000000001967-02-27-0000Feb 27, 1967 (L, W) 000000001967-03-09-0000Mar 9, 1967 (M) 000000001968-12-04-0000Dec 4, 1968 (M) 000000001969-09-23-0000Sep 23, 1969 (L) Ratification

 Ireland 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, W) 000000001968-07-17-0000Jul 17, 1968 (W) 000000001968-07-19-0000Jul 19, 1968 (L) Ratification

 Israel 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001977-02-18-0000Feb 18, 1977 (W) 000000001977-03-01-0000Mar 1, 1977 (L) 000000001977-04-04-0000Apr 4, 1977 (M) Ratification

 Italy 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001972-05-04-0000May 4, 1972 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Jamaica 000000001967-06-29-0000Jun 29, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001970-08-06-0000Aug 6, 1970 (W) 000000001970-08-10-0000Aug 10, 1970 (L) 000000001970-08-21-0000Aug 21, 1970 (M) Ratification

 Japan 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Kazakhstan

000000001998-06-11-0000Jun 11, 1998 (M) Accession

 Kenya

000000001984-01-19-0000Jan 19, 1984 (L) Accession

 North Korea

000000002009-03-05-0000Mar 5, 2009 (M) Accession

 South Korea 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-10-13-0000Oct 13, 1967 (W) Ratification

 Kuwait

000000001972-06-07-0000Jun 7, 1972 (W) 000000001972-06-20-0000Jun 20, 1972 (L) 000000001972-07-04-0000Jul 4, 1972 (M) Accession

 Laos 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1967 (L) 000000001967-02-02-0000Feb 2, 1967 (M) 000000001972-11-27-0000Nov 27, 1972 (M) 000000001972-11-29-0000Nov 29, 1972 (W) 000000001973-01-15-0000Jan 15, 1973 (L) Ratification

 Lebanon 000000001967-02-23-0000Feb 23, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001969-03-31-0000Mar 31, 1969 (L, M) 000000001969-06-30-0000Jun 30, 1969 (W) Ratification

 Libya

000000001968-07-03-0000Jul 3, 1968 (W) Accession

 Lithuania

000000002013-03-25-0000Mar 25, 2013 (W) Accession

 Luxembourg 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (M, W) 000000001967-01-31-0000Jan 31, 1967 (L) 000000002006-01-17-0000Jan 17, 2006 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Madagascar

000000001968-08-22-0000Aug 22, 1968 (W) Accession

 Mali

000000001968-06-11-0000Jun 11, 1968 (M) Accession

 Malta

000000002017-05-22-0000May 22, 2017 (L) Accession

 Mauritius

000000001969-04-07-0000Apr 7, 1969 (W) 000000001969-04-21-0000Apr 21, 1969 (L) 000000001969-05-13-0000May 13, 1969 (M) Succession from  United Kingdom

 Mexico 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-01-31-0000Jan 31, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Mongolia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (M) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (M) Ratification

 Morocco

000000001967-12-21-0000Dec 21, 1967 (L, M) 000000001967-12-22-0000Dec 22, 1967 (W) Accession

 Myanmar 000000001967-05-22-0000May 22, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001970-03-18-0000Mar 18, 1970 (L, M, W) Ratification

   Nepal 000000001967-02-03-0000Feb 3, 1967 (M, W) 000000001967-02-06-0000Feb 6, 1967 (L) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L) 000000001967-10-16-0000Oct 16, 1967 (M) 000000001967-11-22-0000Nov 22, 1967 (W) Ratification

 Netherlands 000000001967-02-10-0000Feb 10, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001969-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification

 New Zealand 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-05-31-0000May 31, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Nicaragua 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-02-13-0000Feb 13, 1967 (L) 000000002017-06-30-0000Jun 30, 2017 (W) 000000002017-08-14-0000Aug 14, 2017 (L) Ratification

 Niger 000000001967-02-01-0000Feb 1, 1967 (W) 000000001967-04-17-0000Apr 17, 1967 (L) 000000001967-05-03-0000May 3, 1967 (W) Ratification

 Nigeria

000000001967-11-14-0000Nov 14, 1967 (L) Accession

 Norway 000000001967-02-03-0000Feb 3, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001969-07-01-0000Jul 1, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Pakistan 000000001967-09-12-0000Sep 12, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-04-08-0000Apr 8, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Papua New Guinea

000000001980-10-27-0000Oct 27, 1980 (L) 000000001980-11-13-0000Nov 13, 1980 (M) 000000001981-03-16-0000Mar 16, 1981 (W) Succession from  Australia

 Paraguay

000000002016-12-22-0000Dec 22, 2016 (L) Accession

 Peru 000000001967-06-30-0000Jun 30, 1967 (W) 000000001979-02-28-0000Feb 28, 1979 (M) 000000001979-03-01-0000Mar 1, 1979 (L) 000000001979-03-21-0000Mar 21, 1979 (W) Ratification

 Poland 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Portugal

000000001996-05-29-0000May 29, 1996 (L) Accession

 Qatar

000000002012-03-13-0000Mar 13, 2012 (W) Accession

 Romania 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-04-09-0000Apr 9, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Russia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

000000001999-05-13-0000May 13, 1999 (L) Succession from  United Kingdom

 San Marino 000000001967-04-21-0000Apr 21, 1967 (W) 000000001967-04-24-0000Apr 24, 1967 (L) 000000001967-06-06-0000Jun 6, 1967 (M) 000000001968-10-29-0000Oct 29, 1968 (W) 000000001968-11-21-0000Nov 21, 1968 (M) 000000001969-02-03-0000Feb 3, 1969 (L) Ratification

 Saudi Arabia

000000001976-12-17-0000Dec 17, 1976 (W) Accession

 Seychelles

000000001978-01-05-0000Jan 5, 1978 (L) Accession

 Sierra Leone 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M) 000000001967-05-16-0000May 16, 1967 (W) 000000001967-07-13-0000Jul 13, 1967 (M) 000000001967-07-14-0000Jul 14, 1967 (W) 000000001967-10-25-0000Oct 25, 1967 (L) Ratification

 Singapore

000000001976-09-10-0000Sep 10, 1976 (L, M, W) Accession

 Slovakia

000000001993-01-01-0000Jan 1, 1993 (M, W) 000000001993-05-17-0000May 17, 1993 (L) Succession from  Czechoslovakia

 South Africa 000000001967-03-01-0000Mar 1, 1967 (W) 000000001968-09-30-0000Sep 30, 1968 (W) 000000001968-10-08-0000Oct 8, 1968 (L) 000000001968-11-14-0000Nov 14, 1968 (M) Ratification

 Spain

000000001968-11-27-0000Nov 27, 1968 (L) 000000001968-12-07-0000Dec 7, 1968 (W) Accession

 Sri Lanka 000000001967-03-10-0000Mar 10, 1967 (L) 000000001986-11-18-0000Nov 18, 1986 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Sweden 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-11-0000Oct 11, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

  Switzerland 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, W) 000000001967-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1967 (M) 000000001969-12-18-0000Dec 18, 1969 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Syria

000000001968-11-19-0000Nov 19, 1968 (M) Accession

 Thailand 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-09-05-0000Sep 5, 1968 (L) 000000001968-09-09-0000Sep 9, 1968 (M) 000000001968-09-10-0000Sep 10, 1968 (W) Ratification

 Togo 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001989-06-26-0000Jun 26, 1989 (W) Ratification

 Tonga

000000001971-06-22-0000Jun 22, 1971 (M) 000000001971-07-07-0000Jul 7, 1971 (L, W) Succession from  United Kingdom

 Tunisia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, W) 000000001967-02-15-0000Feb 15, 1967 (M) 000000001968-03-28-0000Mar 28, 1968 (L) 000000001968-04-04-0000Apr 4, 1968 (M) 000000001968-04-17-0000Apr 17, 1968 (W) Ratification

 Turkey 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001968-03-27-0000Mar 27, 1968 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Uganda

000000001968-04-24-0000Apr 24, 1968 (W) Accession

 Ukraine 000000001967-02-10-0000Feb 10, 1967 (M) 000000001967-10-31-0000Oct 31, 1967 (M) Ratification

 United Arab Emirates

000000002000-10-04-0000Oct 4, 2000 (W) Accession

 United Kingdom 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 United States 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, M, W) 000000001967-10-10-0000Oct 10, 1967 (L, M, W) Ratification

 Uruguay 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-01-30-0000Jan 30, 1967 (M) 000000001970-08-31-0000Aug 31, 1970 (W) Ratification

 Venezuela 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001970-03-03-0000Mar 3, 1970 (W) Ratification

 Vietnam

000000001980-06-20-0000Jun 20, 1980 (M) Accession

 Yemen

000000001979-06-01-0000Jun 1, 1979 (M) Accession

 Zambia

000000001973-08-20-0000Aug 20, 1973 (W) 000000001973-08-21-0000Aug 21, 1973 (M) 000000001973-08-28-0000Aug 28, 1973 (L) Accession

Partially recognized state abiding by treaty[edit] The Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 19 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the Republic of China's (ROC) ratification as "illegal." The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States
United States
has declared that they still consider them to be "bound by its obligations".[5]

State Signed Deposited Method

 Republic of China 000000001967-01-27-000027 Jan 1967 000000001970-07-24-000024 Jul 1970 Ratification

States that have signed but not ratified[edit] 23 states have signed by not ratified the treaty.

State Signed

 Bolivia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Botswana 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Burundi 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Cameroon 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Central African Republic 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Colombia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Democratic Republic of the Congo 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-04-29-0000Apr 29, 1967 (M) 000000001967-05-04-0000May 4, 1967 (L)

 Ethiopia 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, W) 000000001967-02-10-0000Feb 10, 1967 (M)

 Gambia 000000001967-06-02-0000Jun 2, 1967 (L)

 Ghana 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W) 000000001967-02-15-0000Feb 15, 1967 (M) 000000001967-03-03-0000Mar 3, 1967 (L)

 Guyana 000000001967-02-03-0000Feb 3, 1967 (W)

 Haiti 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Holy See 000000001967-04-05-0000Apr 5, 1967 (L)

 Honduras 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Iran 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L)

 Jordan 000000001967-02-02-0000Feb 2, 1967 (W)

 Lesotho 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Malaysia 000000001967-02-20-0000Feb 20, 1967 (W) 000000001967-02-21-0000Feb 21, 1967 (L) 000000001967-05-03-0000May 3, 1967 (M)

 Panama 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Philippines 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (L, W) 000000001967-04-29-0000Apr 29, 1967 (M)

 Rwanda 000000001967-01-27-0000Jan 27, 1967 (W)

 Somalia 000000001967-02-02-0000Feb 2, 1967 (W)

 Trinidad and Tobago 000000001967-07-24-0000Jul 24, 1967 (L) 000000001967-08-17-0000Aug 17, 1967 (M) 000000001967-09-28-0000Sep 28, 1967 (W)

See also[edit]

High-altitude nuclear explosion
High-altitude nuclear explosion
(HANE) Kármán line Lunar Flag Assembly Militarization of space Apollo 1
Apollo 1
– the first NASA astronaut spacecraft fatality (occurred on 27 January 1967, the day the Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
was signed) SPACE Act of 2015

References[edit]

^ a b c d " Treaty
Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2017-09-16.  ^ a b "TREATY ON PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE ACTIVITIES OF STATES IN THE EXPLORATION AND USE OF OUTER SPACE, INCLUDING THE MOON AND OTHER CELESTIAL BODIES". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2015-02-28.  " Treaty
Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
Moon
and other Celestial Bodies [ London
London
version]". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 2015-02-28.  ^ a b " Treaty
Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon
Moon
and other Celestial Bodies" (PDF). United States
United States
Department of State. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 2015-02-28.  ^ a b "Договор о принципах деятельности государств по исследованию и использованию космического пространства, включая Луну и другие небесные тела" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2015-08-28.  ^ a b "China: Accession to Outer Space Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved 2015-03-01.  ^ Bourbonniere, M; Lee, R. J (2007). "Legality of the Deployment of Conventional Weapons in Earth
Earth
Orbit: Balancing Space Law and the Law of Armed Conflict". European Journal of International Law. 18 (5): 873. doi:10.1093/ejil/chm051.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Jennifer Frakes, (2003) The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise? Wiscoscin International Law Journal, 21, at 409 ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
of 1967#Article VIII ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
of 1967#Article VII ^ Terrill Jr., Delbert R. (May 1999), Project West Ford, "The Air Force Role in Developing International Outer Space Law" (PDF), Air Force History and Museums:63–67 ^ Wikisource:Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
of 1967#Article IX ^ Status of international agreements relating to activities in outer space as at 1 January 2008 United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, 2008

Further reading[edit]

Annette Froehlich, et al.: A Fresh View on the Outer Space Treaty. Springer, Vienna 2018, ISBN 978-3-319-70433-3.

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Outer Space Treaty
Treaty
of 1967

International Institute of Space Law Full text of the " Treaty
Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, or Spanish Status of International Agreements relating to Activities in Outer Space (list of state parties to treaty), UN Office for Outer Space Affairs The Case for Withdrawing From The 1967 Outer Space Treaty Still Relevant (and Important) After All These Years: The case for supporting the Outer Space Treaty Squadron Leader KK Nair's "Space:The Frontiers of Modern Defence" Knowledge World Publishers, New Delhi, Chap-5 (Examining Space Law...), Pg 84–104, available at [1] Introductory note by Vladimír Kopal, procedural history note and audiovisual material on the Treaty
Treaty
on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies in the Historic Archives of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law Lecture by Vladimír Kopal entitled The Progressive Development of International Space Law by the United Nations in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law Lecture by Vladlen Stepanovich Vereshchetin entitled The Law of Outer Space in the General Legal Field (Commonalities and Particularities) in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 182928490 LCCN: no2005067929 GND: 42073

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