Our Lady of Guadalupe in Extremadura
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The shrine to Our Lady of Guadalupe was the most important
Marian shrine A shrine to the Virgin Mary (or Marian shrine) is a shrine marking an Marian apparitions, apparition or other miracle ascribed to the Blessed Virgin Mary, or a site on which is centered a historically strong Blessed Virgin Mary, Marian devotion. ...
in the
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
kingdom of Castile. The image is enshrined in the Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe, in today's
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
of Cáceres in the
Extremadura Extremadura ( , ; ext, Estremaúra; pt, Estremadura; Fala: ''Extremaúra'') is an autonomous community of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Es ...

Extremadura
autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish constitution of 1978, with the ...

autonomous community
of
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption = , image_map2 ...

Spain
. It is one of three
Black Madonna The term Black Madonna or Black Virgin tends to refer to statues or paintings in Western Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Chri ...

Black Madonna
s in Spain. The statue was
canonically crowned A canonical coronation ( la, coronatio canonica) is a pious institutional act of the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bisho ...
on 12 October 1928 by
Pope Pius XI Pope Pius XI ( it, Pio XI), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian c ...
with a crown designed and crafted by Father Felix Granda, and crowned in the presence of
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
Alfonso XIII of Spain Alfonso XIII (17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941), also known as El Africano or the African, was King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image ...
. It is not to be confused with
Our Lady of Guadalupe Our Lady of Guadalupe ( es, Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe ( es, Virgen de Guadalupe), is a Catholic title of Mary, mother of Jesus associated with a series of five Marian apparitions in December 1531, and ...

Our Lady of Guadalupe
, which is a separate title and devotion to a different image enshrined in the
Basilica of Guadalupe The Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe ( es, Basílica de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe) is a Roman Catholic church, basilica, and National shrine of Mexico which houses the cloak containing the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The 1709 shrine was bu ...
in
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...

Mexico
.


Shrine

The shrine houses a statue reputed to have been carved by
Luke the Evangelist Luke the Evangelist (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

Luke the Evangelist
and given to
Saint Leander Saint Leander of Seville ( es, San Leandro de Sevilla; la, Sanctus Leandrus; 534 AD, in Cartagena, Spain, Cartagena – 13 March 600 or 601, in Seville) was the Bishop of Seville. He was instrumental in effecting the conversion of the Visigothi ...
,
Archbishop of Seville The Archdiocese of Seville is part of the Catholic Church in Seville, Spain. The Diocese of Seville was founded in the 3rd century. It was raised to the level of an archdiocese in the 4th century. The current archbishop is Josep Àngel Sáiz Menes ...
, by
Pope Gregory I Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the from 3 September 590 to his death. He is known for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the , to convert the then- ...

Pope Gregory I
. According to local legend, when
Seville Seville (; es, Sevilla, Castilian Spanish , Andalusian Spanish (with yeísmo) ) is the capital and largest city of the Spain, Spanish autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville. It is situate ...

Seville
was taken by the
Moors '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors init ...

Moors
in 712, a group of priests fled northward and buried the statue in the hills near the Guadalupe River in
Extremadura Extremadura ( , ; ext, Estremaúra; pt, Estremadura; Fala: ''Extremaúra'') is an autonomous community of Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Es ...

Extremadura
. At the beginning of the 14th century, the Virgin Mary appeared to a humble cowboy named Gil Cordero who was searching for a missing animal in the mountains."Our Lady of Guadalupe in Spain", ''Our Lady in the Old World and New'', Medieval Southwest, Texas Tech University
/ref> Cordero claimed that the Virgin had ordered him to ask priests to dig at the place of her apparition. The priests rediscovered the hidden statue, and built a small shrine around it which became the nucleus of the present monastery.


Description

The
polychrome Polychrome is the "practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery Pottery is the process and the products of forming vesse ...

polychrome
d cedar sculpture is just over two feet in height. It is a
Black Madonna The term Black Madonna or Black Virgin tends to refer to statues or paintings in Western Christendom Christendom historically refers to the "Christian world": Christian state A Christian state is a country that recognizes a form of Chri ...

Black Madonna
, in the style known as ''
Sedes Sapientiae In Roman Catholic tradition, "Seat of Wisdom" or "Throne of Wisdom" (translating Latin ''sedes sapientiae'') is one of many devotional titles for Mary, mother of Jesus, Mary, the Mother of God. In "Seat of Wisdom" icons and sculptures, Mary is sea ...
'' or the "Seat of Wisdom", with the
Christ Child The Christ Child, also known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, and Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ Jesus, likely from he, יֵשׁוּעַ, translit=Yēšūaʿ, label=Hebrew Hebrew (, ...
on Mary's lap. Since at least the late 14th century, the wooden figure has been almost completely clothed in embroidered and brocaded vestments, leaving only the faces and hands of mother and child visible. Costly robes, deemed suitable for the
Queen of Heaven Queen of Heaven ( la, Regina Caeli) is a title given to the Virgin Mary According to the gospels Gospel originally meant the Christian message, but in the 2nd century it came to be used also for the books in which the message was se ...
, were often elaborately stitched in gold thread and set with precious gems, attesting to both the honor due the Virgin and the wealth of the donors. The underlying sculpture is rarely seen.Peterson, Jeanette Favrot. "The Virgin of Guadalupe, Extremadura, Spain", Initiative for the Study of Material and Visual Cultures of Religion, Yale University
/ref>


Pilgrimage

Pilgrims began arriving in 1326, and in 1340, King
Alfonso XI Alfonso XI (13 August 131126 March 1350), called the Avenger (''el Justiciero''), was the king of Castile, León and Galicia Galicia may refer to: Geographic regions * Galicia (Spain), a region and autonomous community of northwestern Spain ...

Alfonso XI
took a personal interest in the shrine's development, and had a
Hieronymite The Order of Saint Jerome or Hieronymites ( la, Ordo Sancti Hieronymi, abbreviated O.S.H.) is a Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised ...
monastery built there, attributing his victory over the Moors at the
Battle of Río Salado The Battle of Río Salado, also known as the Battle of Tarifa (30 October 1340) was a battle of the armies of King Afonso IV of Portugal Afonso IVEnglish: ''Alphonzo'' or ''Alphonse'', or ''Affonso'' (Archaic Portuguese), ''Alfonso'' or ''Alp ...
to the Virgin's intercession."The Story of Our Lady of Guadalupe", The International Shrine of Saint Jude
By 1386, copies of the statue were venerated in satellite chapels. Our Lady of Guadalupe, along with
Santiago de Compostela Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community In Spain, an autonomous community ( es, comunidad autónoma) is a first-level political divisions of Spain, political and administrative division, created in accordance with the S ...
and Nuestra Señora del Pilar, became rallying points for the Christian Spaniards in their ''
reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

reconquista
'' of the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region ...

Iberian Peninsula
. It was at the monastery that the monarchs Isabelle I of Castile and
Ferdinand II of Aragon Ferdinand II of Aragon ( an, Ferrando; ca, Ferran; eu, Errando; es, Fernando; 10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), also called ''Ferdinand the Catholic'', was King of Aragon from 1479, King of Sicily (as Ferdinand II) from 1469, List of monar ...
signed documents that authorized the first voyage of
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
to the
Americas The Americas (also collectively called America) is a landmass comprising the totality of North America, North and South America. The Americas make up most of the land in Earth's Western Hemisphere and comprise the New World. Along with th ...

Americas
in 1492. Due to the royal prerogatives granted by the two
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an, Aragón , ca, Aragó ) is an autonomous community eu, autonomia erkidegoa ca, comunitat autònoma gl, com ...
and their successors, the monastery of Guadalupe became one of the wealthiest ecclesiastical establishments in the country. Upon his return, Columbus went to the monastery to give thanks to God for a safe voyage.Segerstrom, Richard. "Another Lady of Guadalupe", ''Catholic Exchange Newswire'', January 13, 2012
/ref> The Monastery of Our Lady of Guadalupe was declared a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
in 1993."Guadalupe", Instituto De Turismo De Espaňa
/ref>


The Philippines


Virgen de Guadalupe of Loboc

A copy of the Extremaduran image is enshrined in
Loboc Church The San Pedro Apostol Parish Church (also ''Saint Peter the Apostle Parish Church'', Spanish language, Spanish: ''Iglesia Parroquial de San Pedro Apóstol''), commonly known as Loboc Church, is a Catholic church, Roman Catholic church in the muni ...

Loboc Church
in the island
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...

province
of
Bohol Bohol (), officially the Province of Bohol ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Bohol; tl, Lalawigan ng Bohol), is an island province of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Rep ...

Bohol
, and has documented miracles attributed to the Virgin. The most important of these is depicted in a fresco on the ceiling of the
nave The nave () is the central part of a church architecture, church, stretching from the (normally western) main entrance or rear wall, to the transepts, or in a church without transepts, to the chancel. When a church contains Aisle#Church archit ...

nave
by Cebuano painter Ray Francia. The account of the miracle says that when Loboc was engulfed in a devastating flood on 26 November 1876, the waters submerged the altar of the church. Miraculously, these stopped at the base of the image of the Virgin, which remained intact as the waters receded. In addition, the townsfolk escaped unharmed and with no casualties despite the widespread damage. Many devotees from throughout the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
join the residents of Loboc for the image’s feast in May, particularly childless women. They dance the ''Bolibongkingking'' before the image to ask for the Virgin’s intercession. Those who successsfully bear children return to the shrine in thanksgiving, often dedicating the miraculously conceived child to God. Rich devotees would sometimes offer new vestments and metal regalia to the Virgen as .


The ''Bolibongkingking'' Festival

The people of Loboc honor the Virgen de Guadalupe every 24 May. Named for the sounds of the indigenous drums (''bolibong'') and gongs (''kingking'') used in the ritual dance, Lobocanons begin celebrations
nine days Nine Days (stylized as ''ninedays'') is an American rock music, rock band from Long Island, New York. It was formed in 1994 by John Hampson and Brian Desveaux, and released three independent albums in the 1990s before their mainstream debut album ...

nine days
prior to the feast day with chanting of the ''Gozos'' to the Virgin preceding
Mass Mass is the quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude, which illustrate discontinuity and continuity. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value ...
on each day''.'' A ''Gozo'' is a type of
hymn A hymn is a type of song A song is a musical composition Musical composition can refer to an piece or work of , either or , the of a musical piece or to the process of creating or writing a new piece of music. People who create ...

hymn
in the Philippines, written in the
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
or
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...
, and is in the form of a
ballad A ballad is a form of verse, often a narrative set to music. Ballads derive from the medieval French ''chanson balladée'' or '' ballade'', which were originally "dance songs". Ballads were particularly characteristic of the popular poetry and ...
containing praises to God or a specific
patron saint A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Catholic Church, Catholicism, Anglicanism, or Eastern Orthodoxy is regarded as the heavenly advocacy, advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, c ...
. On the ''bísperás'' or vigil of the feast day, a fluvial
procession A procession is an organized body of people walking in a formal or ceremonial manner. History Processions have in all peoples and at all times been a natural form of public celebration, as forming an orderly and impressive ceremony. Religious ...

procession
is held on the
Loboc River The Loboc River (also called Loay River) is a river in the Bohol province Bohol (), officially the Province of Bohol ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Bohol; tl, Lalawigan ng Bohol), is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas Re ...

Loboc River
. The image is removed from its shrine and brought to a barge that is otherwise a floating restaurant, while Marian songs, marches, and hymns are played. Dignitaries from both church and state participate in the procession, which reenacts the miracle of the 1840s when a
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
epidemic ended after the townsfolk brought the image to the river. The actual ''Bolibongkingking'' Festival is held on the feast day proper. Considered a ritual of both healing and thanksgiving, the dance has devotees, facing the image, swaying to the rhythm of the drums and gongs lifting their hands and prayers to God through the intercession of the Virgen de Guadalupe.


References

{{DEFAULTSORT:Our Lady Of Guadalupe, Extremadura History of Extremadura Marian apparitions, Guadalupe, Extremadura Shrines to the Virgin Mary, Guadalupe (Extremadura), Our Lady of Titles of Mary Our Lady of Guadalupe