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Topkapı (1460s–1853) Dolmabahçe (1853–1889; 1909–1922) Yıldız (1889–1909)

Appointer Hereditary

Pretender(s) Dündar Ali Osman

Ottoman Imperial Standard

Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1683, at the height of its territorial expansion in Europe.

The sultans of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(Turkish: Osmanlı padişahları), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
(House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922. At its height, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
spanned an area from Hungary
Hungary
in the north to Yemen
Yemen
in the south, and from Algeria
Algeria
in the west to Iraq
Iraq
in the east. Administered at first from the city of Bursa, the empire's capital was moved to Edirne
Edirne
in 1363 following its conquest by Murad I, and then to Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) in 1453 following its conquest by Mehmed II.[1] The Ottoman Empire's early years have been the subject of varying narratives due to the difficulty of discerning fact from legend. The empire came into existence at the end of the thirteenth century, and its first ruler (and the namesake of the Empire) was Osman I. According to later, often unreliable Ottoman tradition, Osman was a descendant of the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks.[2] The eponymous Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
he founded endured for six centuries through the reigns of 36 sultans. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
disappeared as a result of the defeat of the Central Powers
Central Powers
with whom it had allied itself during World War I. The partitioning of the Empire by the victorious Allies and the ensuing Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
led to the abolition of the sultanate in 1922 and the birth of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1922.[3]

Contents

1 State organisation of the Ottoman Empire 2 List of sultans 3 Interregnum period (1402–1413) 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

State organisation of the Ottoman Empire[edit] Main article: State organisation of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was an absolute monarchy during much of its existence. By the second half of the fifteenth century, the sultan sat at the apex of a hierarchical system and acted in political, military, judicial, social, and religious capacities under a variety of titles.[a] He was theoretically responsible only to God
God
and God's law (the Islamic شریعت‎ şeriat, known in Arabic as شريعة sharia), of which he was the chief executor. His heavenly mandate was reflected in Islamic titles such as "shadow of God
God
on Earth" (ظل الله في العالم‎ ẓıll Allāh fī'l-ʿalem) and "caliph of the face of the earth" (خلیفه روی زمین‎ Ḫalife-i rū-yi zemīn).[4] All offices were filled by his authority, and every law was issued by him in the form of a decree called firman (فرمان‎). He was the supreme military commander and had the official title to all land.[5] Osman (died 1323/4) son of Ertuğrul was the first ruler of the Ottoman state, which during his reign constituted a small principality (beylik) in the region of Bithynia
Bithynia
on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire. After the conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453 by Mehmed II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional use of the titles Caesar (قیصر‎ Qayser) of Rûm, and emperor,[4][6][7] as well as the caliph of Islam.[b] Newly enthroned Ottoman rulers were girded with the Sword of Osman, an important ceremony that served as the equivalent of European monarchs' coronation.[8] A non-girded sultan was not eligible to have his children included in the line of succession.[9] Although absolute in theory and in principle, the sultan's powers were limited in practice. Political decisions had to take into account the opinions and attitudes of important members of the dynasty, the bureaucratic and military establishments, as well as religious leaders.[5] Beginning in the last decades of the sixteenth century, the role of the Ottoman sultans in the government of the empire began to decrease, in a period known as the Transformation of the Ottoman Empire. Despite being barred from inheriting the throne,[10] women of the Imperial Harem—especially the reigning sultan's mother, known as the Valide Sultan—also played an important behind-the-scenes political role, effectively ruling the empire during the period known as the Sultanate of Women.[11] Constitutionalism was only established during the reign Abdul Hamid II, who thus became the empire's last absolute ruler and its reluctant first constitutional monarch.[12] Although Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
abolished the parliament and the constitution to return to personal rule in 1878, he was again forced in 1908 to reinstall constitutionalism and was deposed. Since 2017, the head of the House of Osman
House of Osman
and pretender to the defunct Ottoman throne has been Dündar Ali Osman, a great-grandson of Abdulhamid II.[13] List of sultans[edit] The table below lists Ottoman sultans, as well as the last Ottoman caliph, in chronological order. The tughras were the calligraphic seals or signatures used by Ottoman sultans. They were displayed on all official documents as well as on coins, and were far more important in identifying a sultan than his portrait. The "Notes" column contains information on each sultan's parentage and fate. For earlier rulers, there is usually a time gap between the moment a sultan's reign ended and the moment his successor was enthroned. This is because the Ottomans in that era practiced what historian Quataert has described as "survival of the fittest, not eldest, son": when a sultan died, his sons had to fight each other for the throne until a victor emerged. Because of the infighting and numerous fratricides that occurred, a sultan's death date therefore did not always coincide with the accession date of his successor.[14] In 1617, the law of succession changed from survival of the fittest to a system based on agnatic seniority (اکبریت‎ ekberiyet), whereby the throne went to the oldest male of the family. This in turn explains why from the 17th century onwards a deceased sultan was rarely succeeded by his own son, but usually by an uncle or brother.[15] Agnatic seniority was retained until the abolition of the sultanate, despite unsuccessful attempts in the 19th century to replace it with primogeniture.[16]

№ Sultan Portrait Reigned from Reigned until Tughra Notes

Rise of the Ottoman Empire (1299 – 1453)

1 Osman I ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

c. 1299 1323 — [c]

Son of Ertuğrul[17] and Halime Hatun.[18] Reigned until his death.

2 Orhan ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

1323 1362

Son of Osman I
Osman I
and Malhun Hatun.[18] Reigned until his death.[19]

3 Murad I SULTAN-İ AZAM (The Most Exalted Sultan) HÜDAVENDİGÂR (The devotee of God) ŞEHÎD (Martyr) [20][b]

1362 15 June 1389

Son of Orhan
Orhan
and Nilüfer Hatun.[18] Reigned until his death. Killed on the battlefield at the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
on June 15, 1389.[21]

4 Bayezid I SULTAN-İ RÛM ( Sultan
Sultan
of the Roman Empire) YILDIRIM (Lightning)

15 June 1389 20 July 1402

Son of Murad I
Murad I
and Gülçiçek Hatun.[18] Captured on the battlefield at the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
(de facto end of reign); Died in captivity in Akşehir
Akşehir
on 8 March 1403.[22]

Ottoman Interregnum
Ottoman Interregnum
(20 July 1402 – 5 July 1413)

5 Mehmed I ÇELEBİ (The Affable) KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support)

5 July 1413 26 May 1421

Son of Bayezid I
Bayezid I
and Devlet Hatun.[18] Reigned until his death.[23]

6 Murad II KOCA (The Great)

25 June 1421 1444

Son of Mehmed I
Mehmed I
and Emine Hatun;[18] Abdicated of his own free will in favour of his son Mehmed II.[24]

7 Mehmed II FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror) فاتح‬

1444 1446

Son of Murad II
Murad II
and Hüma Hatun.[18] Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries.[24]

— Murad II KOCA (The Great)

1446 3 February 1451

Second reign; Forced to return to the throne following a Janissary
Janissary
insurgence;[25] Reigned until his death.

Growth of the Ottoman Empire (1453 – 1550)

— Mehmed II KAYSER-İ RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire) FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror) فاتح‬

3 February 1451 3 May 1481

Second reign; Conquered Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1453; Reigned until his death.[26]

8 Bayezid II VELÎ (The Saint)

19 May 1481 25 April 1512

Son of Mehmed II
Mehmed II
and Gülbahar Hatun.[18] Abdicated. Died near Didymoteicho
Didymoteicho
on 26 May 1512.[27]

9 Selim I YAVUZ (The Strong) Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain (Servant of Mecca and Medina)

25 April 1512 21 September 1520

Son of Bayezid II
Bayezid II
and Gülbahar Hatun. Reigned until his death.[28]

10 Suleiman I MUHTEŞEM (The Magnificent) or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver) قانونى‬

30 September 1520 6 or 7 September 1566

Son of Selim I
Selim I
and Hafsa Sultan; Reigned until his death.[29]

Transformation of the Ottoman Empire (1550 – 1700)

11 Selim II SARI (The Blond)

29 September 1566 21 December 1574

Son of Suleiman I and Hürrem Sultan; Reigned until his death.[30]

12 Murad III

22 December 1574 16 January 1595

Son of Selim II
Selim II
and Nurbanu Sultan; Reigned until his death.[31]

13 Mehmed III ADLÎ (The Just)

27 January 1595 20 or 21 December 1603

Son of Murad III
Murad III
and Safiye Sultan; Reigned until his death;[32]

14 Ahmed I BAḪTī (The Fortunate)

21 December 1603 22 November 1617

Son of Mehmed III
Mehmed III
and Handan Sultan; Reigned until his death.[33]

15 Mustafa I DELİ (The Mad)

22 November 1617 26 February 1618

Son of Mehmed III
Mehmed III
and Halime Sultan; Deposed due to his mental instability in favour of his young nephew Osman II.[34]

16 Osman II GENÇ (The Young) ŞEHÎD (The Martyr) شهيد‬

26 February 1618 19 May 1622

Son of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
and Mahfiruz Hatun; Deposed in a Janissary
Janissary
riot on 19 May 1622; Murdered on 20 May 1622 by the Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Kara Davud Pasha.[35]

— Mustafa I DELİ (The Mad)

20 May 1622 10 September 1623

Second reign; Returned to the throne after the assassination of his nephew Osman II; Deposed due to his poor mental health and confined until his death in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 20 January 1639.[34]

17 Murad IV SAHİB-Î KIRAN The Conqueror of Baghdad ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) غازى‬

10 September 1623 8 or 9 February 1640

Son of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
and Kösem Sultan; Reigned until his death.[36]

18 Ibrahim DELİ (The Mad) The Conqueror of Crete ŞEHÎD

9 February 1640 8 August 1648

Son of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
and Kösem Sultan; Deposed on 8 August 1648 in a coup led by the Sheikh ul-Islam; Strangled in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 18 August 1648[37] at the behest of the Grand Vizier Mevlevî Mehmed Paşa (Sofu Mehmed Pasha).

19 Mehmed IV AVCI (The Hunter) ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) غازى‬

8 August 1648 8 November 1687

Son of Ibrahim and Turhan Sultan; Deposed on 8 November 1687 following the Ottoman defeat at the Second Battle of Mohács; Died in Edirne
Edirne
on 6 January 1693.[38]

20 Suleiman II ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

8 November 1687 22 June 1691

Son of Ibrahim and Aşub Sultan; Reigned until his death.[39]

21 Ahmed II ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince)

22 June 1691 6 February 1695

Son of Ibrahim and Muazzez Sultan; Reigned until his death.[40]

22 Mustafa II ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

6 February 1695 22 August 1703

Son of Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
and Gülnuş Sultan; Deposed on 22 August 1703 by a Janissary
Janissary
uprising known as the Edirne Event; Died in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 8 January 1704.[41]

Stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire (1700 – 1827)

23 Ahmed III Tulip Era Sultan ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

22 August 1703 1 or 2 October 1730

Son of Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
and Gülnuş Sultan; Deposed in consequence of the Janissary
Janissary
rebellion led by Patrona Halil; Died on 1 July 1736.[42]

24 Mahmud I ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior) KAMBUR (The Hunchback)

2 October 1730 13 December 1754

Son of Mustafa II
Mustafa II
and Saliha Sultan; Reigned until his death.[43]

25 Osman III SOFU (The Devout)

13 December 1754 29 or 30 October 1757

Son of Mustafa II
Mustafa II
and Şehsuvar Sultan; Reigned until his death.[44]

26 Mustafa III YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)

30 October 1757 21 January 1774

Son of Ahmed III
Ahmed III
and Mihrişah Kadın; Reigned until his death.[45]

27 Abdülhamid I Abd ūl-Hāmīd (The Servant of God) ISLAHATÇI (The Improver) ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

21 January 1774 6 or 7 April 1789

Son of Ahmed III
Ahmed III
and Şermi Kadın; Reigned until his death.[46]

28 Selim III BESTEKÂR (The Composer) NİZÂMÎ (Regulative - Orderly) ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)

7 April 1789 29 May 1807

Son of Mustafa III
Mustafa III
and Mihrişah Sultan; Deposed as a result of the Janissary
Janissary
revolt led by Kabakçı Mustafa against his reforms; Assassinated in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 28 July 1808[47] at the behest of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa IV.

29 Mustafa IV

29 May 1807 28 July 1808

Son of Abdülhamid I and Sineperver Sultan; Deposed in an insurrection led by Alemdar Mustafa Pasha; Executed in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 17 November 1808[48] by order of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II.

Modernization of the Ottoman Empire (1827 – 1908)

30 Mahmud II İNKILÂPÇI (The Reformer) ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

28 July 1808 1 July 1839

Son of Abdülhamid I and Nakşidil Sultan
Sultan
(adoptive mother of Mahmud II); Disbanded the Janissaries
Janissaries
in consequence of the Auspicious Event in 1826; Reigned until his death.[49]

31 Abdülmecid I TANZİMÂTÇI (The Strong Reformist or The Advocate of Reorganization) ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)

1 July 1839 25 June 1861

Son of Mahmud II
Mahmud II
and Bezmiâlem Sultan; Proclaimed the Hatt-ı Sharif (Imperial Edict) of Gülhane (Tanzimât Fermânı) that launched the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
period of reforms and reorganization on 3 November 1839 at the behest of reformist Grand Vizier
Grand Vizier
Great Mustafa Rashid Pasha; Accepted the Islâhat Hatt-ı Hümayun
Hatt-ı Hümayun
(Imperial Reform Edict) (Islâhat Fermânı) on 18 February 1856; Reigned until his death.[50]

32 Abdülaziz
Abdülaziz
I BAḪTSIZ (The Unfortunate) ŞEHĪD (The Martyr)

25 June 1861 30 May 1876

Son of Mahmud II
Mahmud II
and Pertevniyal Sultan; Deposed by his ministers; Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.[51]

33 Murad V

30 May 1876 31 August 1876

Son of Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
and Şevkefza Kadın; Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire; Ordered to reside in Çırağan Palace
Çırağan Palace
where he died on 29 August 1904.[52]

34 Abdülhamid II Ulû Sultân Abd ūl-Hāmīd Khan (The Sublime Khan)

31 August 1876 27 April 1909

Son of Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
and Tirimüjgan Kadın
Tirimüjgan Kadın
and later the adoptive son of Perestu Kadın). Reluctantly allowed the First Constitutional Era
First Constitutional Era
on 23 November 1876 and then suspended it and reverted to personal rule on 13 February 1878; Forced to restore the Second Constitutional Era
Second Constitutional Era
on 3 July 1908; Deposed after the 31 March Incident (on 13 April 1909); Confined to Beylerbeyi Palace
Beylerbeyi Palace
where he died on 10 February 1918.[53]

35 Mehmed V REŞÂD (Rashād) (The True Path Follower)

27 April 1909 3 July 1918

Son of Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
and Gülcemal Kadın; Reigned as a figurehead of Mehmed Talat, İsmail Enver, and Ahmed Cemal Pashas until his death.[54]

36 Mehmed VI VAHDETTİN (Wāhīd ād-Dīn) (The Unifier of Religion (Islam) or The Oneness of Islam)

4 July 1918 1 November 1922

Son of Abdülmecid I
Abdülmecid I
and Gülüstü Hanım; Sultanate abolished; Left Istanbul
Istanbul
on 17 November 1922; Died in exile in Sanremo, Italy on 16 May 1926.[55]

Caliph
Caliph
under the Republic (1 November 1922 – 3 March 1924)

— Abdülmecid II

18 November 1922 3 March 1924 — [c]

Son of Abdülaziz
Abdülaziz
I and Hayranidil Kadın;[56] Elected caliph by the TBMM; Exiled after the abolition of the caliphate;[57] Died in Paris, France
France
on 23 August 1944.[58]

Interregnum period (1402–1413)[edit]

№ Sultan Portrait Reigned from Reigned until Tughra Notes

Ottoman Interregnum[d] (20 July 1402 – 5 July 1413)

— İsa Çelebi The Co- Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia

1403–1405 ( Sultan
Sultan
of the Western Anatolian Territory) 1406 —

After the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
on July 20, 1402, İsa Çelebi
İsa Çelebi
defeated Musa Çelebi
Musa Çelebi
and began controlling the western part of Anatolian territory of the empire for approximately two years. Defeated by Mehmed Çelebi
Mehmed Çelebi
in the battle of Ulubat in 1405. Murdered in 1406.

— Emir (Amir) Süleyman Çelebi The First Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia

20 July 1402 17 February 1411[59] —

Acquired the title of The Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia
Rumelia
for the European portion of the empire, a short period after the Ottoman defeat of The Battle of Ankara
Ankara
on 20 July 1402 Murdered on 17 February 1411.[60]

— Musa Çelebi The Second Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia

18 February 1411 5 July 1413[61] —

Acquired the title of The Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia
Rumelia
for the European portion of the empire[62] on 18 February 1411, just after the death of Süleyman Çelebi. Killed on 5 July 1413 by Mehmed Çelebi’s forces in the battle of Çamurlu Derbent near Samokov
Samokov
in Bulgaria.[63]

— Mehmed Çelebi The Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia

1403–1406 ( Sultan
Sultan
of the Eastern Anatolian Territory)

1406–1413 (The Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia) 5 July 1413 —

Acquired the control of the eastern part of the Anatolian territory as the Co- Sultan
Sultan
just after the defeat of the Battle of Ankara
Battle of Ankara
on 20 July 1402. Defeated İsa Çelebi
İsa Çelebi
in the battle of Ulubat in 1405. Became the sole ruler of the Anatolian territory of the Ottoman Empire upon İsa’s death in 1406. Acquired the title of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed I
Mehmed I
Khan upon Musa’s death on 5 July 1413.

See also[edit]

Book: Sultans of the Ottoman Empire

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

Line of succession to the Ottoman throne Ottoman Emperors family tree Ottoman family tree
Ottoman family tree
(more detailed) List of Valide Sultans List of Ottoman Grand Viziers List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire List of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas

Notes[edit]

a1 2 : The full style of the Ottoman ruler was complex, as it was composed of several titles and evolved over the centuries. The title of sultan was used continuously by all rulers almost from the beginning. However, because it was widespread in the Muslim world, the Ottomans quickly adopted variations of it to dissociate themselves from other Muslim rulers of lesser status. Murad I, the third Ottoman monarch, styled himself sultan-i azam (سلطان اعظم, the most exalted sultan) and hüdavendigar (خداوندگار, emperor), titles used by the Anatolian Seljuqs and the Mongol Ilkhanids respectively. His son Bayezid I
Bayezid I
adopted the style Sultan
Sultan
of Rûm, Rûm being an old Islamic name for the Roman Empire. The combining of the Islamic and Central Asian heritages of the Ottomans led to the adoption of the title that became the standard designation of the Ottoman ruler: Sultan
Sultan
[Name] Khan.[64] Ironically, although the title of sultan is most often associated in the Western world
Western world
with the Ottomans, people within Turkey
Turkey
generally use the title of padishah far more frequently when referring to rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[65] b1 2 3 : The Ottoman Caliphate
Caliphate
was one of the most important positions held by rulers of the Ottoman Dynasty.[citation needed] The caliphate symbolized their spiritual power, whereas the sultanate represented their temporal power. According to Ottoman historiography, Murad I
Murad I
adopted the title of caliph during his reign (1362 to 1389), and Selim I
Selim I
later strengthened the caliphal authority during his conquest of Egypt in 1516-1517. However, the general consensus among modern scholars is that Ottoman rulers had used the title of caliph before the conquest of Egypt, as early as during the reign of Murad I (1362–1389), who brought most of the Balkans under Ottoman rule and established the title of sultan in 1383. It is currently agreed that the caliphate "disappeared" for two-and-a-half centuries, before being revived with the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, signed between the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Catherine II of Russia
Catherine II of Russia
in 1774. The treaty was highly symbolic, since it marked the first international recognition of the Ottomans' claim to the caliphate. Although the treaty made official the Ottoman Empire's loss of the Crimean Khanate, it acknowledged the Ottoman caliph's continuing religious authority over Muslims in Russia.[66] From the 18th century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly emphasized their status as caliphs in order to stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empire's Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism. When World War I
World War I
broke out, the sultan/caliph issued a call for jihad in 1914 against the Ottoman Empire's Allied enemies, unsuccessfully attempting to incite the subjects of the French, British and Russian empires to revolt. Abdülhamid II was by far the Ottoman sultan who made the most use of his caliphal position, and was recognized as caliph by many Muslim heads of state, even as far away as Sumatra.[67] He had his claim to the title inserted into the 1876 Constitution (Article 4).[68] c1 2 : Tughras were used by 35 out of 36 Ottoman sultans, starting with Orhan
Orhan
in the 14th century, whose tughra has been found on two different documents. No tughra bearing the name of Osman I, the founder of the empire, has ever been discovered,[69] although a coin with the inscription "Osman bin Ertuğrul" has been identified.[17] Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious and royal figurehead. d^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate (Turkish: Fetret Devri), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
which lasted from 1402 to 1413. It started following the defeat and capture of Bayezid I
Bayezid I
by the Turco-Mongol warlord Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara, which was fought on 20 July 1402. Bayezid's sons fought each other for over a decade, until Mehmed I emerged as the undisputed victor in 1413.[70] e^ : The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was a gradual process which started with the abolition of the sultanate and ended with that of the caliphate 16 months later. The sultanate was formally abolished on 1 November 1922. Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed VI
Mehmed VI
fled to Malta
Malta
on 17 November aboard the British warship Malaya.[55] This event marked the end of the Ottoman Dynasty, not of the Ottoman State nor of the Ottoman Caliphate. On 18 November, the Grand National Assembly (TBMM) elected Mehmed VI's cousin Abdülmecid II, the then crown prince, as caliph.[71] The official end of the Ottoman State was declared through the Treaty of Lausanne
Treaty of Lausanne
(24 July 1923), which recognized the new " Ankara
Ankara
government," and not the old Istanbul-based Ottoman government, as representing the rightful owner and successor state. The Republic of Turkey
Turkey
was proclaimed by the TBMM on 29 October 1923, with Mustafa Kemal as its first President.[72] Although Abdülmecid II
Abdülmecid II
was a figurehead lacking any political power, he remained in his position of caliph until the office of the caliphate was abolished by the TBMM on 3 March 1924.[68] Mehmed VI
Mehmed VI
later tried unsuccessfully to reinstall himself as caliph in the Hejaz.[73]

References[edit]

^ Stavrides 2001, p. 21 ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 122. That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century. It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it. 

Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6. Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that...  Lindner, Rudi Paul (1983). Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia. Indiana University Press. p. 10. In fact, no matter how one were to try, the sources simply do not allow the recovery of a family tree linking the antecedents of Osman to the Kayı of the Oğuz tribe. Without a proven genealogy, or even without evidence of sufficient care to produce a single genealogy to be presented to all the court chroniclers, there obviously could be no tribe; thus, the tribe was not a factor in early Ottoman history. 

^ Glazer 1996, "War of Independence" ^ a b Findley 2005, p. 115 ^ a b Glazer 1996, "Ottoman Institutions" ^ Toynbee 1974, pp. 22–23 ^ Stavrides 2001, p. 20 ^ Quataert 2005, p. 93 ^ d'Osman Han 2001, "Ottoman Padishah
Padishah
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Bibliography[edit]

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Istanbul
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Sultan
Abdulhamid II: Memoirs and Biography of Sultan
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Selim bin Hamid Han. Foreword by Manoutchehr M. Eskandari-Qajar. Santa Fe, NM: Sultana Pub. OCLC 70659193. Archived from the original on 2009-05-02. Retrieved 2009-05-02. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press
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of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelović (1453–1474). Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5. OCLC 46640850. Retrieved 2009-04-18.  Sugar, Peter F. (1993). Southeastern Europe under Ottoman Rule, 1354–1804 (3rd ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-96033-3. OCLC 34219399. Retrieved 2009-04-18.  Toprak, Binnaz (1981). Islam
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Uğur, Ali (2007). Mavi Emperyalizm [Blue Imperialism] (in Turkish). Istanbul: Çatı Publishing. ISBN 978-975-8845-87-3. OCLC 221203375. Retrieved 2009-04-19. 

Toynbee, Arnold J. (1974). "The Ottoman Empire's Place in World History". In Karpat, Kemal H. The Ottoman State and Its Place in World History. Social, Economic and Political Studies of the Middle East. 11. Leiden: Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-03945-2. OCLC 1318483. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 

External links[edit]

"Website of the 700th Anniversary of the Ottoman Empire". Retrieved 2009-02-06.  "Official website of the immediate living descendants of the Ottoman Dynasty". Retrieved 2009-02-06. 

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