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The OTTOMAN DYNASTY was made up of the members of the imperial HOUSE OF OSMAN (Ottoman Turkish : خاندان آل عثمان‎, _Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān_; Turkish : _Osmanlı Hanedanı_). According to Ottoman tradition, the family originated from the Kayı tribe branch of the Oghuz Turks, under Osman I
Osman I
in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the district of Bilecik Söğüt
Söğüt
. The Ottoman dynasty, named after Osman I, ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from c. 1299 to 1922.

During much of the Empire's history, the sultan was the absolute regent, head of state, and head of government, though much of the power often shifted to other officials such as the Grand Vizier. During the First (1876–78) and Second Constitutional Eras (1908–20) of the late Empire, a shift to constitutional monarchy was enacted, with the Grand Viziertaking on a prime ministerial role as head of government and heading an elected General Assembly .

The imperial family was deposed from power and the sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 after the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence
. The Republic of Turkey
Republic of Turkey
was declared the following year. The living members of the dynasty were initially sent into exile as _persona non gratae _, though some have been allowed to return and live as private citizens in Turkey. In its current form, the family is known as the Osmanoğlu family. _ Ottoman Ceremonial Barbering Cape (detail), early 18th century, Turkey. Each day, the Sultan
Sultan
wore a different elaborately embroidered cape for his daily barbering. Public displays of extraordinary splendor were considered essential to the maintenance of Ottoman imperial authority. LACMA
LACMA
textile collection.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Expansion * 2.3 End of a dynasty

* 3 Chronology of Sultans * 4 Interregnum period (1402–1413) * 5 Titles * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

ORIGIN

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HISTORY

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EARLY HISTORY

EXPANSION

END OF A DYNASTY

CHRONOLOGY OF SULTANS

№ PORTRAIT SULTAN LIFESPAN REIGN START REIGN END TUGHRA NOTES

Rise of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1299 – 1453)

1

Osman I
Osman I
_ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. Unknown d. c. 1323/4 c. 1299 1323/4 —

* Son of Ertuğrul and an unknown woman. * Reigned until his death.

2

Orhan _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. c. 1281 d. March 1362 Aged 81 c. 1323/4 March 1362

* Son of Osman I
Osman I
and Malhun Hatun. * Reigned until his death.

3

Murad I
Murad I
_SULTAN-İ AZAM (The Most Exalted Sultan)_ _HÜDAVENDİGÂR_ _(The devotee of God)_ _ŞEHÎD (Martyr)_ b. 29 June 1326 d. 14 June 1389 Aged 62 1362 15 June 1389

* Son of Orhanand Nilüfer Hatun. * Reigned until his death. * Killed on the battlefield at the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
on June 15, 1389 .

4

Bayezid I _SULTAN-İ RÛM ( Sultan
Sultan
of the Roman Empire)_ _YILDIRIM (The Thunderbolt)_ b. c. 1354 d. 8 March 1403 Aged 48/9 15 June 1389 20 July 1402 _

* Son of Murad I
Murad I
and Gülçiçek Hatun. * Captured on the battlefield at the Battle of Ankara(de facto_ end of reign); * Died in captivity in Akşehir
Akşehir
on 8 March 1403.

Ottoman Interregnum (20 July 1402 – 5 July 1413)

5

Mehmed I _ÇELEBİ (The Affable)_ _KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker for his support)_ b. c. 1381 d. 26 May 1421 Aged 40 5 July 1413 26 May 1421

* Son of Bayezid Iand Devlet Hatun. * Reigned until his death.

6

Murad II _KOCA (The Great)_ b. June 1404 d. 3 February 1451 Aged 46 25 June 1421 1444

* Son of Mehmed Iand Emine Hatun; * Abdicated of his own free will in favour of his son Mehmed II
Mehmed II
.

7

Mehmed II
Mehmed II
_FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)_ فاتح b. 30 March 1432 d. 3 May 1481 Aged 49 1444 1446

* Son of Murad IIand Hüma Hatun. * Surrendered the throne to his father after having asked him to return to power, along with rising threats from Janissaries.

Murad II _KOCA (The Great)_ b. June 1404 d. 3 February 1451 Aged 46 1446 3 February 1451

* Second reign; * Forced to return to the throne following a Janissaryinsurgence; * Reigned until his death.

Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1453 – 1550)

Mehmed II
Mehmed II
_KAYSER-İ RÛM (Caesar of the Roman Empire )_ _FĀTİḤ (The Conqueror)_ فاتح b. 30 March 1432 d. 3 May 1481 Aged 49 3 February 1451 3 May 1481

* Second reign; * Conquered Constantinople in 1453; * Reigned until his death.

8

Bayezid II _VELÎ (The Saint)_ b. 3 December 1447 d. 26 May 1512 Aged 64 19 May 1481 25 April 1512

* Son of Mehmed II
Mehmed II
and Emine Gülbahar Hatun. * Abdicated. * Died near Didymoteichoon 26 May 1512.

9

Selim I
Selim I
_YAVUZ (The Strong)_ Hadim'ul Haramain'ish-Sharifain (Servant of Mecca and Medina) b. c. 1470/1 d. 21/22 September 1520 Aged 49 25 April 1512 21 September 1520

* Son of Bayezid IIand Gülbahar Sultan. * Reigned until his death.

10

Suleiman I _MUHTEŞEM (The Magnificent)_

or _KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver)_ قانونى b. 6 November 1494 d. 6 September 1566 Aged 71 30 September 1520 6 or 7 September 1566

* Son of Selim I
Selim I
and Ayşe Hafsa Sultan; * Reigned until his death.

Transformation of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1550 – 1700)

11

Selim II
Selim II
_SARI (The Blond)_ b. 28 May 1524 d. 12/15 December 1574 Aged 50 29 September 1566 21 December 1574

* Son of Suleiman I and Hürrem Sultan; * Reigned until his death.

12

Murad III
Murad III
b. 4 July 1546 d. 15/16 January 1595 Aged 48 22 December 1574 16 January 1595

* Son of Selim II
Selim II
and Nurbanu Sultan
Nurbanu Sultan
; * Reigned until his death.

13

Mehmed III _ADLÎ (The Just)_ b. 26 May 1566 d. 21/22 December Aged 37 27 January 1595 20 or 21 December 1603

* Son of Murad III
Murad III
and Safiye Sultan
Safiye Sultan
; * Reigned until his death;

14

Ahmed I
Ahmed I
_BAḪTī (The Fortunate)_ b. 18 April 1590 d. 22 November 1617 Aged 27 21 December 1603 22 November 1617

* Son of Mehmed IIIand Handan Sultan; * Reigned until his death.

15

Mustafa I
Mustafa I
_DELİ (The Deranged)_ b. 24 June 1591 d. 20 January 1639 Aged 47 22 November 1617 26 February 1618

* Son of Mehmed IIIand Halime Sultan; * Deposed due to his mental instability in favour of his young nephew Osman II.

16

Osman II _GENÇ (The Young)_ _ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)_ شهيد b. 3 November 1604 d. 20 May 1622 Aged 17 26 February 1618 19 May 1622

* Son of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
and Mahfiruz Hatice Sultan; * Deposed in a Janissaryriot on 19 May 1622; * Murdered on 20 May 1622 by the Grand VizierKara Davud Pasha.

Mustafa I
Mustafa I
_DELİ (The Deranged)_ b. 24 June 1591 d. 20 January 1639 Aged 47 20 May 1622 10 September 1623

* Second reign; * Returned to the throne after the assassination of his nephew Osman II ; * Deposed due to his poor mental health and confined until his death in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 20 January 1639.

17

Murad IV
Murad IV
_SAHİB-Î KIRAN_ _The Conqueror of Baghdad
Baghdad
_ _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ غازى b. 26 July 1612 d. 8 February 1640 Aged 27 10 September 1623 8 or 9 February 1640

* Son of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
and Kösem Sultan; * Reigned until his death.

18

Ibrahim _DELİ (The Deranged)_ _The Conqueror of Crete
Crete
_ _ŞEHÎD_ b. 5 November 1615 d. 18 August 1648 Aged 32 9 February 1640 8 August 1648 _

* Son of Ahmed I
Ahmed I
and Kösem Sultan; * Deposed on 8 August 1648 in a coup led by the Sheikh ul-Islam; * Strangled in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 18 August 1648 at the behest of the Grand VizierMevlevî Mehmed Paşa (Sofu Mehmed Pasha)_.

19

Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
_AVCI (The Hunter)_ _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ غازى b. 2 January 1642 d. 6 January 1693 Aged 51 8 August 1648 8 November 1687

* Son of Ibrahim and Turhan Hatice Sultan
Turhan Hatice Sultan
; * Deposed on 8 November 1687 following the Ottoman defeat at the Second Battle of Mohács ; * Died in Edirne
Edirne
on 6 January 1693.

20

Suleiman II _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b.15 April 1642 d. 22/23 June 1691 Aged 49 8 November 1687 22 June 1691

* Son of Ibrahim and Saliha Dilaşub Sultan
Sultan
; * Reigned until his death.

21

Ahmed II _ḪĀN ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior Prince)_ b. 25 February 1643 d. 6 February 1695 Aged 51 22 June 1691 6 February 1695

* Son of Ibrahim and Hatice Mû’azzez İkinci Haseki Sultân ; * Reigned until his death.

22

Mustafa II
Mustafa II
_ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. 6 February 1664 d. 29/30 December 1703 Aged 39 6 February 1695 22 August 1703

* Son of Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
and Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan; * Deposed on 22 August 1703 by a Janissaryuprising known as the Edirne
Edirne
Event ; * Died in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 8 January 1704.

Stagnation and reform of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1700 – 1827)

23

Ahmed III
Ahmed III
_Tulip Era Sultan
Sultan
_ _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. 30/31 December 1673 d. 1 July 1736 Aged 62 22 August 1703 1 or 2 October 1730

* Son of Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
and Emetullah Rabia Gülnuş Sultan; * Deposed in consequence of the Janissaryrebellion led by Patrona Halil ; * Died on 1 July 1736.

24

Mahmud I
Mahmud I
_ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ _KAMBUR (The Hunchback)_ b. 2 August 1696 d. 13 December 1754 Aged 58 2 October 1730 13 December 1754

* Son of Mustafa II
Mustafa II
and Saliha Sabkati; * Reigned until his death.

25

Osman III
Osman III
_SOFU (The Devout)_ b. 2/3 January 1699 d. 30 October 1757 Aged 58 13 December 1754 29 or 30 October 1757

* Son of Mustafa II
Mustafa II
and Şehsuvar Sultan
Sultan
; * Reigned until his death.

26

Mustafa III
Mustafa III
_YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)_ b. 28 January 1717 d. 21 January 1774 Aged 56 30 October 1757 21 January 1774

* Son of Ahmed III
Ahmed III
and Mihrişah kadın ; * Reigned until his death.

27

Abdülhamid I _Abd ūl-Hāmīd (The Servant of God)_ _ISLAHATÇI (The Improver)_ _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. 20 March 1725 d. 7 April 1789 Aged 64 21 January 1774 6 or 7 April 1789

* Son of Ahmed III
Ahmed III
and Rabia Sultan
Sultan
; * Reigned until his death.

28

Selim III
Selim III
_BESTEKÂR (The Composer)_ _NİZÂMÎ (Regulative - Orderly)_ _ŞEHÎD (The Martyr)_ b. 24 December 1761 d. 28 July 1808 Aged 45 7 April 1789 29 May 1807

* Son of Mustafa III
Mustafa III
and Mihrişah Valide Sultan
Sultan
; * Deposed as a result of the Janissaryrevolt led by Kabakçı Mustafa against his reforms; * Assassinated in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 28 July 1808 at the behest of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mustafa IV.

29

Mustafa IV b. 8 September 1779 d. 16 November 1808 Aged 29 29 May 1807 28 July 1808 _

* Son of Abdülhamid I and Bash Iqbal_ Nushatzaza _(Nüzhet-Zâdāh / Nükhet-Sedâ)_ Khānūm Effendi; * Deposed in an insurrection led by Alemdar Mustafa Pasha; * Executed in Istanbul
Istanbul
on 17 November 1808 by order of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud II
Mahmud II
.

Modernization of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1827 – 1908)

30

Mahmud II
Mahmud II
_İNKILÂPÇI (The Reformer)_ _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. 20 July 1784 d. 1 July 1839 Aged 54 28 July 1808 1 July 1839

* Son of Abdülhamid I and Nakşidil Sultan
Sultan
(adoptive mother of Mahmud II); * Disbanded the Janissaries
Janissaries
in consequence of the Auspicious Event in 1826; * Reigned until his death.

31

Abdülmecid I TANZİMÂTÇI (The Strong Reformist or The Advocate of Reorganization) _ĠĀZĪ (The Warrior)_ b. 25 April 1823 d. 25 June 1861 Aged 38 1 July 1839 25 June 1861 _

* Son of Mahmud II
Mahmud II
and Bezmialem; * Proclaimed the Hatt-ı Sharif (Imperial Edict) of Gülhane (Tanzimât Fermânı)_ that launched the Tanzimat
Tanzimat
period of reforms and reorganization on 3 November 1839 at the behest of reformist Grand Vizier
Vizier
Great Mustafa Rashid Pasha ; * Accepted the Islâhat Hatt-ı Hümayun(Imperial Reform Edict) _(Islâhat Fermânı)_ on 18 February 1856; * Reigned until his death.

32

AbdülazizI _BAḪTSIZ (The Unfortunate)_ _ŞEHĪD (The Martyr)_ b. 9 February 1830 d. 4 June 1876 Aged 46 25 June 1861 30 May 1876

* Son of Mahmud II
Mahmud II
and Pertevniyal; * Deposed by his ministers; * Found dead (suicide or murder) five days later.

33

Mehmed Murad V
Murad V
b. 21 September 1840 d. 29 August 1904 Aged 63 30 May 1876 31 August 1876

* Son of Abdülmecid Iand Shevkefza; * Deposed due to his efforts to implement democratic reforms in the empire; * Ordered to reside in Çırağan Palacewhere he died on 29 August 1904.

34

Abdülhamid II _Ulû Sultân Abd ūl-Hāmīd Khan_

(_The Sublime Khan_) b. 21 September 1842 d. 10 February 1918 Aged 75 31 August 1876 27 April 1909 _

* Son of Abdülmecid Iand Tirimüjgan Kadınefendiand later the adoptive son of Rahime Perestu(adoptive mother of Abdul Hamid II
Abdul Hamid II
). * Reluctantly allowed the First Constitutional Eraon 23 November 1876 and then suspended it and reverted to personal rule on 13 February 1878; * Forced to restore the Second Constitutional Eraon 3 July 1908; * Deposed after the 31 March Incident(on 13 April 1909)_ ; * Confined to Beylerbeyi Palacewhere he died on 10 February 1918.

Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1908 – 1922 )

35

Mehmed V
Mehmed V
_REŞÂD (Rashād)_

(_The True Path Follower_) b.2 November 1844 d. 3 July 1918 Aged 73 27 April 1909 3 July 1918

* Son of Abdülmecid Iand Gülcemal Kadınefendi; * Reigned as a figurehead of Mehmed Talat, İsmail Enver, and Ahmed Cemal Pashas until his death.

36

Mehmed VI
Mehmed VI
_VAHDETTİN (Wāhīd ād- Dīn)_

(_The Unifier of Religion ( Islam
Islam
)_ or _The Oneness of Islam
Islam
)_ b. 14 January 1861 d. 16 May 1926 Aged 65 4 July 1918 1 November 1922

* Son of Abdülmecid Iand Gülistü; * Sultanate abolished ; * Left Istanbul
Istanbul
on 17 November 1922; * Died in exile in Sanremo
Sanremo
, Italy on 16 May 1926.

Republican Caliphate
Caliphate
(1 November 1922 – 3 March 1924)

Abdülmecid II b. 30 May 1868 d. 23 August 1944 Aged 76 18 November 1922 3 March 1924 —

* Son of AbdülazizI and Hayrân-î-Dil Kadın Efendi ; * Elected caliph by the TBMM ; * Exiled after the abolition of the caliphate ; * Died in Paris
Paris
, France
France
on 23 August 1944.

INTERREGNUM PERIOD (1402–1413)

№ PORTRAIT SULTAN LIFESPAN REIGNED FROM REIGNED UNTIL TUGHRA NOTES

Ottoman Interregnum (20 July 1402 – 5 July 1413 )

İsa Çelebi _The Co- Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia
Anatolia
_ b. 1380 d. 1406 Aged 26 1403–1405 _( Sultan
Sultan
of the Western Anatolian Territory)_ 1406 —

* After the Battle of Ankaraon July 20, 1402, İsa Çelebidefeated Musa Çelebiand began controlling the western part of Anatolian territory of the empire for approximately two years. * Defeated by Mehmed Çelebi
Mehmed Çelebi
in the battle of Ulubatin 1405. * Murdered in 1406.

— _ Emir (Amir)_ Süleyman Çelebi _The First Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia
Rumelia
_ d. 17 February 1411 Aged 34 20 July 1402 17 February 1411 —

* Acquired the title of _The Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia
Rumelia
_ for the European portion of the empire, a short period after the Ottoman defeat of _The Battle of Ankara_ on 20 July 1402 * Murdered on 17 February 1411.

Musa Çelebi _The Second Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia
Rumelia
_ b. Unknown 5 July 1413 18 February 1411 5 July 1413 —

* Acquired the title of _The Sultan
Sultan
of Rumelia
Rumelia
_ for the European portion of the empire on 18 February 1411, just after the death of Süleyman Çelebi
Süleyman Çelebi
. * Killed on 5 July 1413 by Mehmed Çelebi
Mehmed Çelebi
’s forces in the battle of _Çamurlu Derbent_ near Samokov
Samokov
in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
.

Mehmed Çelebi
Mehmed Çelebi
_The Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia
Anatolia
_ b. 1381 d. 26 May 1421 Aged 40 1403–1406 _( Sultan
Sultan
of the Eastern Anatolian Territory)_

1406–1413 _(The Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia
Anatolia
)_ 5 July 1413 —

* Acquired the control of the eastern part of the Anatolian territory as the Co- Sultan
Sultan
just after the defeat of the Battle of Ankara on 20 July 1402. * Defeated İsa Çelebiin the battle of Ulubatin 1405. * Became the sole ruler of the Anatolian territory of the Ottoman Empire upon İsa’s death in 1406. * Acquired the title of Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IKhan upon Musa ’s death on 5 July 1413.

TITLES

_ This section is too long . Consider splitting it into new pages, adding subheadings , or condensing it. (October 2016)_

Before Orhan's proclamation of the dynasty, the tribe was known as the Bilecik Söğüt
Söğüt
Beylik or Beysbut was renamed _Osmanlı_ in honor of Osman.

The Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
is known in modern Turkish as _Osmanlı Hanedanı_, meaning "House of Osman"; in Ottoman Turkish it was known as _Hanedan-ı Âl-i Osman_, meaning " Dynasty
Dynasty
of the Family Osman".

The first rulers of the dynasty did not take the title of _ Sultan
Sultan
_, but rather _ Bey
Bey
_, a title roughly the Turkic equivalent of Lord, which would itself become a gubernatorial title and even a common military or honorific rank. Thus they still formally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
and its successor, the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm.

The first Ottoman ruler to actually claim the title of _ Sultan
Sultan
_ was Murad I
Murad I
, who ruled from 1362 to 1389. The holder of the title Sultan (سلطان in Arabic) was in Arabic-Islamic dynasties originally the power behind the throne of the Caliph
Caliph
in Bagdad and it was later used for various independent Muslim Monarchs . This title was senior to and more prestigious than that of Amir
Amir
; it was not comparable to the title of Malik
Malik
'King', a secular title not yet common among Muslim rulers, or the Persian title of Shah
Shah
, which was used mostly among Persian or Iranian related rulers.

The Ottoman sultans also claimed the title of Caliph
Caliph
starting with Murad I, who transformed the Ottoman state into a transcontinental empire.

With the Conquest of Constantinople in 1453, Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed II
Mehmed II
Fatih (1451 - 1481) claimed the title _Kaysar-i-Rûm_ "Emperor of Rome " and proclaimed himself the protector of the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
. He appointed the Patriarch of Constantinople Gennadius Scholarius, whom he protected and whose status he elevated into leader of all the Eastern Orthodox Christians. As Emperor of Rome he laid claim to all Roman territories, which at the time before the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
, however, extended to little more than the city itself plus some areas in Morea
Morea
( Peloponnese
Peloponnese
).

Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed II
Mehmed II
also took the title of _ Padishah
Padishah
_ (in Turkish 'Padişah') (پادشاه), a Persian title meaning "Master of Kings" and ranking as "Emperor", claiming superiority among the other kings. His full style was Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed II
Mehmed II
Khan, Fatih Ghazi 'Abu'l Fath (Victorious Conqueror, Father of Conquest), _Padishah, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Emperor of Rome, Grand Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia
Anatolia
and Rumelia, Khan of Khans of the Two Lands and the Two Seas, Emperor of the three Cities of Constantinople, Edirne
Edirne
and Bursa_. He was the first Ottoman ruler to adopt the imperial title of _Padishah_.

The Ottoman claim to caliphate was strengthened when they defeated the Mamluks in 1517 and annexed Egypt during the rule of Selim I
Selim I
. Selim also received the title "Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries", _Khadim al-Haramayn ash-Sharifayn_ in Arabic, from Barakat Effendi Grand Sharif of Meccawhen conquering Hijaz
Hijaz
and with it the Muslim Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina. Selim I
Selim I
full style was: _Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans of the Two Lands and the Two Seas, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Custodian of the Two Noble Sanctuaries, Emperor of the Three Cities of Constantinople, Adrianople and Bursa, Conqueror of the two Armies_ (i.e. the European and Persian armies).

In Europe, all Ottoman Emperors were commonly referred to by the title of _Sultan_, rather than by those of _Padishah_ or _Caliph_, which had a higher rank than that of Sultan, and were also often informally referred to by such terms unrelated to the Ottoman protocol as the _Grand Turk_ and the _Grand Seigneur_ or _Gran Signore_.

The sultans further adopted in time many secondary formal titles as well, such as "Sovereign of the House of Osman", " Sultan
Sultan
of Sultans ", and "Khan of Khans ", these two meaning King of Kings and roughly ranking as "Emperor". These titles were known in Ottoman Turkish respectively as _Hünkar-i Khanedan-i Âl-i Osman_, _Sultan us-Salatin_ and _Khakan_ (the latter enlarged as _Khakan ül-Berreyn vel-Bahreyn_ by Mehmet II
Mehmet II
, Bayezid IIand Selim I
Selim I
, meaning "Khan of Khans of the Two Lands (Europe and Asia) and the Two Seas (Mediterranean and Indian)".

As the empire grew, sultans adopted secondary titles expressing the empire's claim to be the legitimate successor of the absorbed states. Furthermore, they tended to enumerate even regular provinces, not unlike the long lists of -mainly inherited- feudal titles in the full style of many Christian European monarchs.

Some early Ottoman Sultans even had to accept the vassal status in the eyes of a foreign overlord. For example, Tamerlane
Tamerlane
appointed in 1402 the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Süleyman Çelebi
Süleyman Çelebi
(deposed in 1411), who was styled _as- Sultan
Sultan
ul-Azam, Sayyid
Sayyid
us-Saladin ul-Arab wal Ajam, Malik ur-Rikaab ul-Umam, Ghiyas ud-Daula wa ud-Dunya, Sultan
Sultan
ul-Islam wal-Muslimin, as- Sultan
Sultan
ibni us-Sultan, Hasib-i-Nasib-I-Zaman, Amir ul-Rumelia_ (Grand Sultan, Righteous Lord of Arabs, Helper of the State and the People, Sultan
Sultan
of Islam
Islam
and the Muslims, Sultan
Sultan
son of Sultans, Prince of Rumelia
Rumelia
). Again his brother, Mehmed I, who ended the Ottoman Interregnum, also held his post with a fief from Tamerlane; he took the title _Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia
Anatolia
and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philipopolis _. However, the vassalage of the Ottoman Sultanate ended with the death of Tamerlane
Tamerlane
during the reign of the next Ottoman ruler, Sultan
Sultan
Murad II, who took the style _Sultan ul-Mujahidin , Sovereign of the House of Osman, Khan of Khans, Grand Sultan
Sultan
of Anatolia
Anatolia
and Rumelia, and of the Cities of Adrianople and Philipopolis_.

After the fall of the Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
as Emperors of the Ottoman State (_Padishah-ı Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmaniyye_ in Ottoman Turkish), Abdulmecid II (1922) was still proclaimed Caliph
Caliph
with the title _Caliph_ ("Halife", in modern Turkish) by the republican Government of the Grand National Assembly of the city of Ankara on November 19, 1922. However, the Ottoman Caliphatetoo was abolished soon afterwards, and Abdulmecid II was utterly deposed and expelled from Turkey
Turkey
with the rest of the Ottoman dynasty
Ottoman dynasty
on 3 March 1924. He officially continued to hold the title of the throne as the _Head of the House of Osman_ ("Osmanlı Hanedanı Reisi", in modern Turkish) until his death.

SEE ALSO

* History of the Turkic peoples * List of Turkic dynasties and countries
List of Turkic dynasties and countries
* Amuca tribe * Osmanoğlu family, its current form * Ottoman Emperors family tree * Ottoman family tree(more detailed) * Line of succession to the Ottoman throne * List of admirals in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* List of the mothers of the Ottoman Sultans * List of Ottoman Grand Viziers * List of Ottoman Kaptan Pashas * List of Valide Sultans
List of Valide Sultans
* Tuğra-Sultan\'s Signature

NOTES

* ^ A claim which has come under criticism from many historians, who argue either that the Kayı genealogy was fabricated in the fifteenth century, or that there is otherwise insufficient evidence to believe in it.

REFERENCES

* ^ Kafadar, Cemal (1995). _Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State_. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7 . That they hailed from the Kayı branch of the Oğuz confederacy seems to be a creative "rediscovery" in the genealogical concoction of the fifteenth century. It is missing not only in Ahmedi but also, and more importantly, in the Yahşi Fakih-Aşıkpaşazade narrative, which gives its own version of an elaborate genealogical family tree going back to Noah. If there was a particularly significant claim to Kayı lineage, it is hard to imagine that Yahşi Fakih would not have heard of it

* Lowry, Heath (2003). _The Nature of the Early Ottoman State_. SUNY Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6 . Based on these charters, all of which were drawn up between 1324 and 1360 (almost one hundred fifty years prior to the emergence of the Ottoman dynastic myth identifying them as members of the Kayı branch of the Oguz federation of Turkish tribes), we may posit that... * Shaw, Stanford (1976). _History of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Modern Turkey_. Cambridge University Press. p. 13. The problem of Ottoman origins has preoccupied students of history, but because of both the absence of contemporary source materials and conflicting accounts written subsequent to the events there seems to be no basis for a definitive statement.

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