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The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Turkish: Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Reliable information about the early history of Ottoman Turks is scarce, but they take their Turkish name, Osmanlı ("Osman" being corrupted in some European languages as "Ottoman"), from the house of Osman I (reigned ca. 1299–1326), the founder of the dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
for its entire 624 years. After the expansion from its home in Bithynia, the Ottoman principality began incorporating other Turkish-speaking Muslims and non-Turkish Christians, becoming the Ottoman Turks and ultimately the Turks of the present. The Ottoman Turks blocked all land routes to Europe by conquering the city of Constantinople, the capital city of the Byzantine–East Roman Empire, and Europeans had to find other ways to trade with Eastern countries.[1]

Contents

1 Brief history 2 Culture and the arts

2.1 Ottoman calligraphy 2.2 Ottoman poetry 2.3 Ottoman painting

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References

5.1 Primary sources

Brief history[edit] Main article: Ottoman Empire The "Ottomans" became first known to the West in the 14th century when they migrated westward into the Seljuk Empire, in Anatolia. The Ottoman Turks created a state in Western Anatolia
Anatolia
under Ertugrul, the capital of which was Sögüt
Sögüt
in western Anatolia. Ertugrul
Ertugrul
established a principality as part of the decaying Seljuk empire. His son Osman expanded the principality; the empire and the people were named "Ottomans" by Europeans after him ("Ottoman" being a corruption of "Osman"). Osman's son Orhan expanded the growing Ottoman Empire, taking Nicaea
Nicaea
(present-day İznik) and crossed the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
in 1362. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
came into its own when Mehmed II captured the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire's capital, Constantinople
Constantinople
(Istanbul), in 1453.[2] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
came to rule much of the Balkans, the Caucasus, the Middle East
Middle East
(excluding Iran), and North Africa
North Africa
over the course of several centuries, with an advanced army and navy. The Empire lasted until the end of the First World War, when it was defeated by the Allies and partitioned. Following the successful Turkish War of Independence that ended with the Turkish national movement
Turkish national movement
retaking most of the land lost to the Allies, the movement abolished the Ottoman sultanate on November 1, 1922 and proclaimed the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. The movement nullified the Treaty of Sèvres and negotiated the enormously more favorable Treaty of Lausanne, assuring recognition of modern Turkish national borders, termed Misak-ı Milli
Misak-ı Milli
(National Pact). Not all Ottomans were Muslims and not all Ottoman Muslims were Turks, but by 1923, the majority of people living within the borders of the new Turkish republic identified as Turks. (Notable exceptions were the Kurds and the few remaining Armenians and Georgians and Greeks.) Culture and the arts[edit] Main article: Culture of the Ottoman Empire The conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
began to make the Ottomans the rulers of one of the most profitable empires, connected to the flourishing Islamic cultures of the time, and at the crossroads of trade into Europe. The Ottomans made major developments in calligraphy, writing, law, architecture, and military science, and became the standard of opulence. Ottoman calligraphy[edit] Because Islam
Islam
is a monotheistic religion that focuses heavily on learning the central text of the Quran, and because Islamic culture has historically tended towards discouraging or prohibiting figurative art, calligraphy became one of the foremost of the arts. The early Yâkût period was supplanted in the late 15th century by a new style pioneered by Şeyh Hamdullah (1429–1520), which became the basis for Ottoman calligraphy, focusing on the Nesih
Nesih
version of the script, which became the standard for copying the Quran
Quran
(see Islamic calligraphy). The next great change in Ottoman calligraphy came from the style of Hâfiz Osman
Hâfiz Osman
(1642–1698), whose rigorous and simplified style found favor with an empire at its peak of territorial extent and governmental burdens. The late calligraphic style of the Ottomans was created by Mustafa Râkim (1757–1826) as an extension and reform of Osman's style, placing greater emphasis on technical perfection, which broadened the calligraphic art to encompass the sülüs script as well as the Nesih script. Ottoman poetry[edit] Main article: Turkish literature Ottoman poetry included epic length verse, but is better Known for shorter forms such as the gazel. For example the epic poet Ahmedi (-1412) is remembered for his Alexander the Great. His contemporary Sheykhi wrote verses on love and romance. Yaziji-Oglu produced a religious epic on Mohammed's life, drawing from the stylistic advances of the previous generation and Ahmedi's epic forms. Ottoman painting[edit] Main article: Ottoman miniature By the 14th century, the Ottoman Empire's prosperity made manuscript works available to merchants and craftsmen, and produced a flowering of miniatures that depicted pagentry, daily life, commerce, cities and stories, and chronicled events. By the late 18th century, European influences in painting were clear, with the introduction of oils, perspective, figurative paintings, use of anatomy and composition. See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ottoman Turks.

Turkish people

Notes[edit]

^ Tolan, John; Veinstein, Gilles and Henry Laurens (2013). "Europe and the Islamic World: A History". Princeton University Press. pp. 167–188. ISBN 978-0-691-14705-5. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Tolan, John; Veinstein, Gilles and Henry Laurens (2013). "Europe and the Islamic World: A History". Princeton University Press. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-0-691-14705-5. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

References[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Library resources about Ottoman Turks

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Itzkowitz, Norman (1980). Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and Islamic Tradition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-38806-9. 

v t e

Ottoman Empire articles

History

Osman's Dream Rise

Gaza Thesis Interregnum Constantinople

Classical Age

Sultanate of Women

Transformation

Decline Thesis Köprülü

Stagnation and reform

Tulip

Decline and modernization

Tanzimat 1st Constitutional

Defeat and dissolution

2nd Constitutional Partitioning Abolition

Politics

Foreign relations Law

Constitution Armenian Constitution Electoral

Civil codes

Mecelle Halakha

Government

House of Osman

Ottoman dynasty

List of Ottoman sultans Ottoman Caliphate Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

Imperial Harem

Valide sultan Haseki sultan Kadınefendi Hanımefendi List of Ottoman sultans' mothers List of Ottoman sultans' consorts Kizlar Agha

Inner Palace Service

Kapi Agha Palace Schools

Central (Porte)

Imperial Council (Classic period)

Grand Vizier Viziers Kazaskers Defterdars/Ministers of Finance Nişancı Reis ül-Küttab

Imperial Government (constitutional period)

Assembly

Senate Chamber of Deputies

Millets

Islam

Shaykh al-Islām

Christianity

Rum Millet Bulgarian Millet Orthodox Armenian Syriac Orthodox Coptic Orthodox

Judaism

Hakham Bashi

Provincial

Eyalets

Beylerbeys

Vilayets Sanjaks

Sanjakbeys

Mutasarrifates Kazas/Kadiluks Vassal and tributary states

Military

Army

Classic period army Reform period

Nizam-i Djedid Sekban-i Djedid Mansure Army Hamidiye

Modernized army

Navy

Kapudan Pasha

List

Imperial Arsenal Admirals Naval battles Ships

Other

Aviation Conscription Weapons

Economy

By era

Enlargement Reformation

Agriculture Central bank Currency

Akçe Para Sultani Kuruş Lira

Taxation Transport

Society

Social structure Devshirme Ottomanism Ottoman court

Court Positions

Languages

Ottoman Turkish

Slavery

Culture

Architecture

Mosques

Art

Miniature Music

Clothing Cuisine Literature

Prose Poetry

Science and technology

Demographics

Armenians Greeks Jews

Religion

Islam Christianity and Judaism

Symbols

Anthem Coat of arms Flag Tughra

Outline Index Bibliography

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