The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Ottoman Turkish : دولت عليه عثمانیه, _Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye_; Modern Turkish : _Osmanlı İmparatorluğu_ or _Osmanlı Devleti_), also known as the TURKISH EMPIRE, or OTTOMAN TURKEY, was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe , and with the conquest of the Balkans , the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire (known to the Ottomans as the _Roman_ Empire) with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror .
During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent , the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling much of Southeast Europe , parts of Central Europe , Western Asia , the Caucasus , North Africa , and the Horn of Africa . At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states . Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin , the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent , this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society, and military throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian Empires . The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the Tanzimat . Thus over the course of the nineteenth century the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans , where a number of new states emerged. The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers . While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, major atrocities were committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians , Assyrians and Pontic Greeks .
The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France . The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy .
* 1 Name
* 2 History
* 2.1 Rise (c. 1299–1453) * 2.2 Expansion and apogee (1453–1566)
* 2.3 Stagnation and reform (1566–1827)
* 2.3.1 Revolts, reversals, and revivals (1566–1683) * 2.3.2 Russian threat grows
* 2.4 Decline and modernization (1828–1908) * 2.5 Defeat and dissolution (1908–1922)
* 3 Historical debate on the origins and nature of the Ottoman state
* 4 Government
* 4.1 Law * 4.2 Military
* 5 Administrative divisions * 6 Economy
* 7 Demographics
* 7.1 Language
* 7.2 Religion
* 7.2.1 Islam * 7.2.2 Christianity and Judaism
* 8 Culture
* 8.1 Literature * 8.2 Architecture * 8.3 Decorative arts * 8.4 Music and performing arts * 8.5 Cuisine
* 9 Science and technology * 10 Sports * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References
* 14 Further reading
* 14.1 General surveys * 14.2 Early Ottomans * 14.3 Military * 14.4 Miscellaneous * 14.5 Historiography
* 15 External links
Main article: Names of the Ottoman Empire
The word _Ottoman_ is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I , the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty). Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name _ʿUthmān _ (عثمان). In Ottoman Turkish , the empire was referred to as _Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye_ (دولت عليه عثمانیه), (literally "The Supreme Ottoman State") or alternatively _ʿOsmānlı Devleti_ (عثمانلى دولتى). In Modern Turkish , it is known as _Osmanlı İmparatorluğu_ ("The Ottoman Empire") or _Osmanlı Devleti_ ("The Ottoman State").
The Turkish word for "Ottoman" (_Osmanlı_) originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, and subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" (_Türk_) was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, and in educated circles of Istanbul phrases such as "senseless Turks" were used as a term of abuse. In the early modern period , an urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker who was not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an _Osmanlı_ nor as a _Türk_, but rather as a _Rūmī_ (رومى), or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia . The term _Rūmī_ was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were often used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being increasingly favored both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character.
RISE (C. 1299–1453)
As the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks . One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire , was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman (d. 1323/4), a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River . It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the scarcity of the sources which survive from this period. One school of thought which was popular during the twentieth century argued that the Ottomans achieved success by rallying religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam. This theory, known as the Gaza Thesis , is now highly criticized and no longer generally accepted by historians, but no consensus on the nature of the early Ottoman state has yet emerged to replace it. Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.
In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans . Osman's son, Orhan , captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326, and made it the new capital of the Ottoman state. This conquest meant the loss of Byzantine control over northwestern Anatolia. The important city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387. The Ottoman victory at Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe. The Battle of Nicopolis in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages , failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks.
With the extension of Turkish dominion into the Balkans, the strategic conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective. The empire had managed to control nearly all former Byzantine lands surrounding the city, but in 1402 the Byzantines were temporarily relieved when the Turco-Mongol leader Timur , founder of the Timurid Empire , invaded Anatolia from the east. In the Battle of Ankara in 1402, Timur defeated the Ottoman forces and took Sultan Bayezid I as a prisoner, throwing the empire into disorder. The ensuing civil war lasted from 1402 to 1413 as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. It ended when Mehmed I emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power, bringing an end to the Interregnum , also known as the _Fetret Devri_.
Part of the Ottoman territories in the Balkans (such as Thessaloniki, Macedonia and Kosovo) were temporarily lost after 1402 but were later recovered by Murad II between the 1430s and 1450s. On 10 November 1444, Murad II defeated the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna , the final battle of the Crusade of Varna , although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist. Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army (of Hungarian and Wallachian forces) to attack the Turks but was again defeated by Murad II at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448.
EXPANSION AND APOGEE (1453–1566)
The son of Murad II, Mehmed the Conqueror , reorganized the state and the military, and conquered Constantinople on 29 May 1453. Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority. Because of bad relations between the states of western Europe and the later Byzantine Empire, the majority of the Orthodox population accepted Ottoman rule as preferable to Venetian rule. Albanian resistance was a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion on the Italian peninsula.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Empire entered a period of expansion . The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective Sultans . It also flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia.
Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating Shah Ismail of Safavid Persia , in the Battle of Chaldiran . Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt , and created a naval presence on the Red Sea . After this Ottoman expansion, a competition started between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region. Battle of Mohács in 1526
Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) captured Belgrade in 1521, conquered the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars , and, after his historic victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, he established Turkish rule in the territory of present-day Hungary (except the western part) and other Central European territories. He then laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city. In 1532, he made another attack on Vienna, but was repulsed in the Siege of Güns . Transylvania , Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia , became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. In the east, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535, gaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf . In 1555, the Caucasus became officially partitioned for the first time between the Safavids and the Ottomans, a _status quo _ that would remain until the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) . By this partitioning of the Caucasus as signed in the Peace of Amasya , Western Armenia , and Western Georgia fell into Ottoman hands, while Dagestan , Eastern Armenia , Eastern Georgia , and Azerbaijan remained Persian. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha defeats the Holy League of Charles V under the command of Andrea Doria at the Battle of Preveza in 1538
France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule, became strong allies. The French conquests of Nice (1543) and Corsica (1553) occurred as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I and Suleiman, and were commanded by the Ottoman admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis . A month before the siege of Nice, France supported the Ottomans with an artillery unit during the 1543 Ottoman conquest of Esztergom in northern Hungary. After further advances by the Turks, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547.
In 1559, after the first Ajuran-Portuguese war , the Ottoman Empire would later absorb the weakened east African Adal Sultanate into its domain. This expansion furthered Ottoman rule in Somalia and the Horn of Africa . This also increased its influence in the Indian Ocean to compete against the Portuguese with its close ally the Ajuran Empire .
By the end of Suleiman's reign, the Empire spanned approximately 877,888 sq mi (2,273,720 km2), extending over three continents. In addition, the Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean Sea . By this time, the Ottoman Empire was a major part of the European political sphere. The success of its political and military establishment was compared to the Roman Empire, by the likes of Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino and the French political philosopher Jean Bodin .
STAGNATION AND REFORM (1566–1827)
Revolts, Reversals, And Revivals (1566–1683)
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In the second half of the sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire came under increasing strain from inflation and the rapidly rising costs of warfare that were impacting both Europe and the Middle East. These pressures led to a series of crises around the year 1600, placing great strain upon the Ottoman system of government. The empire underwent a series of transformations of its political and military institutions in response to these challenges, enabling it to successfully adapt to the new conditions of the seventeenth century and remain powerful, militarily and economically. Historians of the mid-twentieth century once characterized this period as one of stagnation and decline, but this view is now rejected by the majority of academics.
The discovery of new maritime trade routes by Western European states allowed them to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly. The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488 initiated a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century. Despite the growing European presence in the Indian Ocean, Ottoman trade with the east continued to flourish. Cairo in particular benefitted from the rise of Yemeni coffee as a popular consumer commodity. As coffeehouses appeared in cities and towns across the empire, Cairo developed into a major center for its trade, contributing to its continued prosperity throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century.
Under Ivan IV (1533–1584), the Tsardom of Russia expanded into the Volga and Caspian region at the expense of the Tatar khanates. In 1571, the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray , supported by the Ottomans, burned Moscow . The next year, the invasion was repeated but repelled at the Battle of Molodi . The Crimean Khanate continued to invade Eastern Europe in a series of slave raids , and remained a significant power in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century.
In southern Europe, a Catholic coalition led by Philip II of Spain won a victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto (1571). It was a startling, if mostly symbolic, blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility, an image which the victory of the Knights of Malta against the Ottoman invaders in the 1565 Siege of Malta had recently set about eroding. The battle was far more damaging to the Ottoman navy in sapping experienced manpower than the loss of ships, which were rapidly replaced. The Ottoman navy recovered quickly, persuading Venice to sign a peace treaty in 1573, allowing the Ottomans to expand and consolidate their position in North Africa. Battle of Lepanto in 1571
By contrast, the Habsburg frontier had settled somewhat, a stalemate caused by a stiffening of the Habsburg defences. The Long War against Habsburg Austria (1593–1606) created the need for greater numbers of Ottoman infantry equipped with firearms, resulting in a relaxation of recruitment policy. This contributed to problems of indiscipline and outright rebelliousness within the corps, which were never fully solved. Irregular sharpshooters ( Sekban ) were also recruited, and on demobilization turned to brigandage in the Jelali revolts (1590–1610), which engendered widespread anarchy in Anatolia in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. With the Empire's population reaching 30 million people by 1600, the shortage of land placed further pressure on the government. In spite of these problems, the Ottoman state remained strong, and its army did not collapse or suffer crushing defeats. The only exceptions were campaigns against the Safavid dynasty of Persia , where many of the Ottoman eastern provinces were lost, some permanently. This 1603–1618 war eventually resulted in the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha , which ceded the entire Caucasus, except westernmost Georgia, back into Iranian Safavid possession. Map from 1654 Second Siege of Vienna in 1683
During his brief majority reign, Murad IV (1623–1640) reasserted central authority and recaptured Iraq (1639) from the Safavids . The resulting Treaty of Zuhab of that same year decisively parted the Caucasus and adjacent regions between the two neighbouring empires as it had already been defined in the 1555 Peace of Amasya . The Sultanate of women (1623–1656) was a period in which the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. The most prominent women of this period were Kösem Sultan and her daughter-in-law Turhan Hatice , whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651. During the Köprülü Era (1656–1703), effective control of the Empire was exercised by a sequence of Grand Viziers from the Köprülü family. The Köprülü Vizierate saw renewed military success with authority restored in Transylvania , the conquest of Crete completed in 1669, and expansion into Polish southern Ukraine , with the strongholds of Khotyn and Kamianets-Podilskyi and the territory of Podolia ceding to Ottoman control in 1676.
This period of renewed assertiveness came to a calamitous end in 1683 when Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha led a huge army to attempt a second Ottoman siege of Vienna in the Great Turkish War of 1683–1699. The final assault being fatally delayed, the Ottoman forces were swept away by allied Habsburg, German and Polish forces spearheaded by the Polish king John III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna . The alliance of the Holy League pressed home the advantage of the defeat at Vienna, culminating in the Treaty of Karlowitz (26 January 1699), which ended the Great Turkish War. The Ottomans surrendered control of significant territories, many permanently. Mustafa II (1695–1703) led the counterattack of 1695–96 against the Habsburgs in Hungary, but was undone at the disastrous defeat at Zenta (in modern Serbia), 11 September 1697.
Russian Threat Grows
The borders of the Ottoman Empire after the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz . Aside from the loss of the Banat and the temporary loss of Belgrade (1717–39), the Ottoman border on the Danube and Sava remained exceedingly stable during the eighteenth century. Austrian troops led by Prince Eugene of Savoy capture Belgrade in 1717
During this period Russian warm seas expansion presented a large and growing threat. Accordingly, King Charles XII of Sweden was welcomed as an ally in the Ottoman Empire following his defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava of 1709 in central Ukraine (part of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721.) Charles XII persuaded the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III to declare war on Russia, which resulted in an Ottoman victory in the Pruth River Campaign of 1710–1711, in Moldavia.
After the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718 the Treaty of Passarowitz confirmed the loss of the Banat , Serbia and "Little Walachia" (Oltenia) to Austria. The Treaty also revealed that the Ottoman Empire was on the defensive and unlikely to present any further aggression in Europe. The Austro-Russian–Turkish War , which was ended by the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739, resulted in the recovery of Serbia and Oltenia, but the Empire lost the port of Azov, north of the Crimean Peninsula, to the Russians. After this treaty the Ottoman Empire was able to enjoy a generation of peace, as Austria and Russia were forced to deal with the rise of Prussia .
Educational and technological reforms came about, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as the Istanbul Technical University . In 1734 an artillery school was established to impart Western-style artillery methods, but the Islamic clergy successfully objected under the grounds of theodicy . In 1754 the artillery school was reopened on a semi-secret basis. In 1726, Ibrahim Muteferrika convinced the Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha , the Grand Mufti , and the clergy on the efficiency of the printing press, and Muteferrika was later granted by Sultan Ahmed III permission to publish non-religious books (despite opposition from some calligraphers and religious leaders). Muteferrika's press published its first book in 1729 and, by 1743, issued 17 works in 23 volumes, each having between 500 and 1,000 copies. Ottoman troops attempt to halt advancing Russians during the Siege of Ochakov in 1788
In 1768 Russian-backed Ukrainian Haidamaks , pursuing Polish confederates, entered Balta , an Ottoman-controlled town on the border of Bessarabia in Ukraine, and massacred its citizens and burned the town to the ground. This action provoked the Ottoman Empire into the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 . The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1774 ended the war and provided freedom to worship for the Christian citizens of the Ottoman-controlled provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia. By the late 18th century, after a number of defeats in the wars with Russia led some people in the Ottoman Empire to conclude that the reforms of Peter the Great had given the Russians an edge, and the Ottomans would have to keep up with Western technology in order to avoid further defeats.
Selim III (1789–1807) made the first major attempts to modernize the army , but reforms were hampered by the religious leadership and the Janissary corps. Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, the Janissary created a revolt . Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II , who eliminated the Janissary corps in 1826. Selim III receiving dignitaries during an audience at the Gate of Felicity, Topkapı Palace .
The Serbian revolution (1804–1815) marked the beginning of an era of national awakening in the Balkans during the Eastern Question . In 1811, the fundamentalist Wahhabis of Arabia, led by the al-Saud family revolted against the Ottomans. Unable to defeat the Wahhabi rebels, the Sublime Porte had Mohammad Ali the Great, the _vali_ (governor) of Egypt tasked with retaking Arabia which ended with the destruction of the Emirate of Diriyah in 1818. The Suzerainty of Serbia as a hereditary monarchy under its own dynasty was acknowledged _de jure_ in 1830. In 1821, the Greeks declared war on the Sultan. A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese , which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth , became the first parts of the Ottoman Empire to achieve independence (in 1829). In 1830, the French invaded Algeria, which was lost to the empire. In 1831, Mohammad Ali revolted with the aim of making himself sultan and founding a new dynasty, and his French-trained army under his son Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Ottoman Army as it marched on Constantinople, coming within 200 miles of the capital. In desperation, the Sultan Mahmud II appealed to the empire's traditional archenemy Russia for help, asking the Emperor Nicholas I to sent an expeditionary force to save him. In return for signing the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi , the Russians sent the expeditionary force, which deterred Ibrahim from taking Constantinople. Under the terms of Peace of Kutahia, signed on 5 May 1833 Mohammad Ali agreed to abandon his claim to the throne, in exchange for which he was made the _vali_ of the _vilayets_ (provinces) of Crete, Aleppo, Tripoli, Damascus and Sidon (the latter four comprising modern Syria and Lebanon), and given the right to collect taxes in Adana. Had it not been for the Russian intervention, it is almost certain Mahumd II would have been overthrown and Mohammad Ali would had become the new sultan, marking the beginning of a recurring pattern where the Sublime Porte needed the help of outsiders to save itself. In 1839, the Sublime Porte attempted to take back what it lost to the de facto independent _vilayet_ of Egypt, and suffered a crushing defeat, leading to the Oriental Crisis as Mohammad Ali was very close to France, and the prospect of him as Sultan was widely viewed as putting the entire empire into the French sphere of influence. As the Sublime Porte had proved itself incapable of defeating the Egyptians, Britain and Austria intervened to defeat Egypt. By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man" by Europeans. The suzerain states – the Principality of Serbia , Wallachia, Moldavia and Montenegro – moved towards _de jure_ independence during the 1860s and 1870s.
DECLINE AND MODERNIZATION (1828–1908)
Main article: Decline of the Ottoman Empire
During the Tanzimat period (1839–1876), the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army , banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories. The Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Istanbul on 23 October 1840.
Samuel Morse received a Turkish patent for the telegraph in 1847, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention. Following this successful test, work on the first Turkish telegraph line (Istanbul- Edirne - Şumnu ) began on 9 August 1847. The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the _ Kanûn-u Esâsî _. The empire's First Constitutional era was short-lived. The parliament survived for only two years before the sultan suspended it.
The Christian population of the empire, owing to their higher educational levels, started to pull ahead of the Muslim majority, leading to much resentment on the part of the latter. In 1861, there were 571 primary and 94 secondary schools for Ottoman Christians with 140,000 pupils in total, a figure that vastly exceeded the number of Muslim children in school at the same time, who were further hindered by the amount of time spent learning Arabic and Islamic theology. Stone further suggested that the Arabic alphabet, which Turkish was written in until 1928, was very ill-suited to reflect the sounds of the Turkish language (which is a Turkic as opposed to Semitic language), which imposed a further difficulty on Turkish children. In turn, the higher educational levels of the Christians allowed them to play a larger role in the economy, with the rise in prominence of groups such as the Sursock family indicative of this shift in influence. In 1911, of the 654 wholesale companies in Istanbul, 528 were owned by ethnic Greeks. In many cases, Christians and also Jews were able to gain protection from European consuls and citizenship, meaning they were protected from Ottoman law and not subject to the same economic regulations as their Muslim comrades. _ The Bulgarian martyresses_ (1877) by Konstantin Makovsky , a Russian propaganda painting which depicts the rape of Bulgarian women by the bashi-bazouks during the April Uprising , with the purpose of mobilizing public support for the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) . Unrestrained by the laws that governed regular soldiers in the Ottoman Army , the bashi-bazouks became notorious for preying on civilians.
The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire . The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August 1854. The war caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars , about 200,000 of whom moved to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration. Toward the end of the Caucasian Wars , 90% of the Circassians were ethnically cleansed and exiled from their homelands in the Caucasus and fled to the Ottoman Empire, resulting in the settlement of 500,000 to 700,000 Circassians in Turkey. Some Circassian organisations give much higher numbers, totaling 1–1.5 million deported or killed. Crimean Tartar refugees in the late 19th century played an especially notable role in seeking to modernize Ottoman education and in first promoting both Pan-Turkicism and a sense of Turkish nationalism.
In this period, the Ottoman Empire spent only small amounts of public funds on education; for example in 1860–61 only 0.2 per cent of the total budget was invested in education. As the Ottoman state attempted to modernize its infrastructure and army in response to threats from the outside, it also opened itself up to a different kind of threat: that of creditors. Indeed, as the historian Eugene Rogan has written, "the single greatest threat to the independence of the Middle East" in the nineteenth century "was not the armies of Europe but its banks." The Ottoman state, which had begun taking on debt with the Crimean War, was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1875. By 1881, the Ottoman Empire agreed to have its debt controlled by an institution known as the Ottoman Public Debt Administration , a council of European men with presidency alternating between France and Britain. The body controlled swaths of the Ottoman economy, and used its position to insure that European capital continued to penetrate the empire, often to the detriment of local Ottoman interests.
The Ottoman bashi-bazouks brutally suppressed the Bulgarian uprising of 1876, massacring up to 100,000 people in the process. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) ended with a decisive victory for Russia. As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply; Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire, Romania achieved full independence. Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories. In 1878, Austria-Hungary unilaterally occupied the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Novi Pazar .
In return for British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli 's advocacy for restoring the Ottoman territories on the Balkan Peninsula during the Congress of Berlin , Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus in 1878, and later sent troops to Egypt in 1882 to put down the Urabi Revolt as the Sultan Abdul Hamid II was too paranoid to mobilize his own army, fearing this would result in a coup d'état, effectively gaining control in both territories. Abdul Hamid II, popularly known as "Abdul Hamid the Damned" on the account of his cruelty and paranoia was so fearful of the threat of a coup that he did not allow his army to conduct war games, least this serve as the cover for a coup, but he did see the need for military mobilization. In 1883, a German military mission under General Baron Colmar von der Goltz arrived to train the Ottoman Army, leading to the so-called "Goltz generation" of German-trained officers who were to play a notable role in the politics of the last years of the empire.
From 1894 to 1896, between 100,000 and 300,000 Armenians living throughout the empire were killed in what became known as the Hamidian massacres .
As the Ottoman Empire gradually shrank in size, some 7–9 million Muslims from its former territories in the Caucasus , Crimea , Balkans , and the Mediterranean islands migrated to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace . After the Empire lost the First Balkan War (1912–13), it lost all its Balkan territories except East Thrace (European Turkey). This resulted in around 400,000 Muslims fleeing with the retreating Ottoman armies (with many dying from cholera brought by the soldiers), and with some 400,000 non-Muslims fleeing territory still under Ottoman rule. Justin McCarthy estimates that during the period 1821 to 1922 several million Muslims died in the Balkans, with the expulsion of a similar number.
Sultan Abdul Hamid II going to the Friday Prayer (Friday Procession) *
Opening ceremony of the First Ottoman Parliament at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1876. The First Constitutional Era lasted for only two years until 1878. The Ottoman Constitution and Parliament were restored 30 years later with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908. *
Turkish troops storming Fort Shefketil during the Crimean War of 1853–1856 *
Belgrade , c. 1865. In 1867, Britain and France forced the Ottoman military to retreat from northern Serbia , securing its _de facto_ independence (formalized after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and the Congress of Berlin in 1878.)
DEFEAT AND DISSOLUTION (1908–1922)
Main articles: Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and History of the Ottoman Empire during World War I Declaration of the Young Turk Revolution by the leaders of the Ottoman millets in 1908 Mehmed V proclaimed Sultan of the Ottoman Empire after the Young Turk Revolution
The defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era , a moment of hope and promise established with the Young Turk Revolution . It restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and brought in multi-party politics with a two-stage electoral system (electoral law ) under the Ottoman parliament . The constitution offered hope by freeing the empire’s citizens to modernize the state’s institutions, rejuvenate its strength, and enable it to hold its own against outside powers. Its guarantee of liberties promised to dissolve inter-communal tensions and transform the empire into a more harmonious place. Instead, this period became the story of the twilight struggle of the Empire. Young Turks movement members once underground (named committee, group, etc.) established (declared) their parties. Among them “Committee of Union and Progress ,” and “ Freedom and Accord Party ” were major parties. On the other end of the spectrum were ethnic parties which included Poale Zion , Al-Fatat , and Armenian national movement organized under Armenian Revolutionary Federation . Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. The last of Ottoman censuses was performed with the 1914 census . Ottoman military reforms resulted with the Ottoman Modern Army which engaged with Italo-Turkish War (1911) that ended in the loss of the North African territories and the Dodecanese, Balkan Wars (1912–1913) that ended in the loss of almost all of the Empire's European territories, and continuous unrest (Counter coup followed by restoration and Saviors followed by Raid on Porte ) in the Empire up to World War I . Mehmed VI , the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, leaving the country after the abolition of the Ottoman sultanate , 17 November 1922
The history of the Ottoman Empire during World War I began with the Ottoman surprise attack on the Russian Black Sea coast on 29 October 1914. Following the attack, Russia and its allies, France and Britain, declared war on the Ottomans. There were several important Ottoman victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut . The Armenian Genocide was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of its Armenian subjects. The number of killed is an estimated 1.5 million.
In 1915 the Ottoman government started the extermination of its ethnic Armenian population, resulting in the death of approximately 1.5 million Armenians in the Armenian Genocide . The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert . Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and systematic massacre. Large-scale massacres were also committed against the Empire's Greek and Assyrian minorities as part of the same campaign of ethnic cleansing.
The Arab Revolt which began in 1916 turned the tide against the Ottomans on the Middle Eastern front, where they initially seemed to have the upper hand during the first two years of the war. The Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October 1918, and set the partition of the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres . This treaty, as designed in the conference of London , allowed the Sultan to retain his position and title. The occupation of Constantinople and İzmir led to the establishment of a Turkish national movement , which won the Turkish War of Independence (1919–22) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (later given the surname "Atatürk"). The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI (reigned 1918–22), left the country on 17 November 1922. The caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924.
HISTORICAL DEBATE ON THE ORIGINS AND NATURE OF THE OTTOMAN STATE
Main article: Gaza Thesis
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Several historians such as British historian Edward Gibbon and the Greek historian Dimitri Kitzikis have argued that after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman state took over the machinery of the Roman state, and that in essence the Ottoman Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire under a thin Turkish Islamic guise. Kitzikis called the Ottoman state "a Greek-Turkish condominium". The American historian Speros Vryonis wrote that the Ottoman state was centered on "a Byzantine-Balkan base with a veneer of the Turkish language and the Islamic religion". Other historians have followed the lead of the Austrian historian Paul Wittek who emphasized the Islamic character of the Ottoman state, seeing the Ottoman state as a "Jihad state" dedicated to expanding the world of Islam. Another group of historians led by the Turkish historian M. Fuat Koprulu championed the "_gazi _ thesis" that saw the Ottoman state as a continuation of the way of life of the nomadic Turkic tribes who had come from East Asia to Anatolia via Central Asia and the Middle East on a much larger scale, and argued that the most important cultural influences on the Ottoman state came from Persia. More recently, the American historian Heath Lowry called the Ottoman state a "predatory confederacy" led in equal parts by Turks and Greeks converted to Islam.
The British historian Norman Stone suggested many continuities between the Eastern Roman and Ottoman empires such as the _zeugarion_ tax of Byzantium becoming the Ottoman _Resm-i çift_ tax, the _pronoia _ land-holding system that linked the amount of land one owned with one's ability to raise cavalry becoming the Ottoman _timar _ system, and the Ottoman measurement for land the _donum_ was the same as the Byzantine _stremma_. Stone also pointed out that despite the fact that Sunni Islam was the state religion, the Eastern Orthodox Church was supported and controlled by the Ottoman state, and in return to accepting that control became the largest land-holder in the Ottoman Empire. Despite the similarities, Stone argued that a crucial difference was that the land grants under the _timar_ system were not hereditary at first. Even after land grants under the _timar_ system became inheritable, land ownings in the Ottoman Empire remained highly insecure, and the sultan could and did revoke land grants whenever he wished. Stone argued this insecurity in land tenure strongly discouraged _Timariots _ from seeking long-term development of their land, and instead led the _timariots_ to adopt a strategy of short term exploitation, which ultimately had deleterious effects on the Ottoman economy.
Before the reforms of the 19th and 20th centuries, the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire was a system that had two main dimensions, which were the military administration and the civil administration. The Sultan was the highest position in the system. The civil system was based on local administrative units based on the region's characteristics. The Ottomans practiced a system in which the state (as in the Byzantine Empire) had control over the clergy. Certain pre-Islamic Turkish traditions that had survived the adoption of administrative and legal practices from Islamic Iran remained important in Ottoman administrative circles. According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders within the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty.
The Ottoman Empire or, as a dynastic institution, the House of Osman was unprecedented and unequaled in the Islamic world for its size and duration. In Europe, only the House of Habsburg had a similarly unbroken line of sovereigns (kings/emperors) from the same family who ruled for so long, and during the same period, between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. The Ottoman dynasty was Turkish in origin. On eleven occasions, the sultan was deposed (replaced by another sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, who were either the former sultan's brother, son or nephew) because he was perceived by his enemies as a threat to the state. There were only two attempts in Ottoman history to unseat the ruling Ottoman dynasty, both failures, which suggests a political system that for an extended period was able to manage its revolutions without unnecessary instability. As such, the last Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI (r. 1918–1922) was a direct patrilineal (male-line) descendant of the first Ottoman sultan Osman I (d. 1323/4), which was unparallelled in both Europe (e.g. the male line of the House of Habsburg became extinct in 1740) and in the Islamic world. The primary purpose of the Imperial Harem was to ensure the birth of male heirs to the Ottoman throne and secure the continuation of the direct patrilineal (male-line) descendance of the Ottoman sultans. _ Bâb-ı Âlî_, the Sublime Porte
The highest position in Islam, _caliphate _, was claimed by the sultans starting since Murad I , which was established as Ottoman Caliphate . The Ottoman sultan, _pâdişâh _ or "lord of kings", served as the Empire's sole regent and was considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control. The Imperial Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. It was ruled by the Valide Sultan . On occasion, the Valide Sultan would become involved in state politics. For a time, the women of the Harem effectively controlled the state in what was termed the " Sultanate of Women ". New sultans were always chosen from the sons of the previous sultan. The strong educational system of the palace school was geared towards eliminating the unfit potential heirs, and establishing support among the ruling elite for a successor. The palace schools, which would also educate the future administrators of the state, were not a single track. First, the Madrasa (Ottoman Turkish : _Medrese_) was designated for the Muslims, and educated scholars and state officials according to Islamic tradition. The financial burden of the Medrese was supported by vakifs, allowing children of poor families to move to higher social levels and income. The second track was a free boarding school for the Christians, the _ Enderûn _, which recruited 3,000 students annually from Christian boys between eight and twenty years old from one in forty families among the communities settled in Rumelia or the Balkans, a process known as Devshirme (_Devşirme_).
Though the sultan was the supreme monarch, the sultan's political and executive authority was delegated. The politics of the state had a number of advisors and ministers gathered around a council known as Divan . The Divan, in the years when the Ottoman state was still a _Beylik _, was composed of the elders of the tribe. Its composition was later modified to include military officers and local elites (such as religious and political advisors). Later still, beginning in 1320, a Grand Vizier was appointed to assume certain of the sultan's responsibilities. The Grand Vizier had considerable independence from the sultan with almost unlimited powers of appointment, dismissal and supervision. Beginning with the late 16th century, sultans withdrew from politics and the Grand Vizier became the _de facto_ head of state. Yusuf Ziya Pasha , Ottoman ambassador to the United States , in Washington , 1913.
Throughout Ottoman history, there were many instances in which local governors acted independently, and even in opposition to the ruler. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the Ottoman state became a constitutional monarchy. The sultan no longer had executive powers. A parliament was formed, with representatives chosen from the provinces. The representatives formed the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire .
This eclectic administration was apparent even in the diplomatic correspondence of the Empire, which was initially undertaken in the Greek language to the west.
The Tughra were calligraphic monograms, or signatures, of the Ottoman Sultans, of which there were 35. Carved on the Sultan's seal, they bore the names of the Sultan and his father. The statement and prayer, "ever victorious," was also present in most. The earliest belonged to Orhan Gazi . The ornately stylized _Tughra_ spawned a branch of Ottoman-Turkish calligraphy .
Main article: Ottoman law
The Ottoman legal system accepted the religious law over its subjects. At the same time the _Qanun _ (or _Kanun_), a secular legal system, co-existed with religious law or Sharia . The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence . Legal administration in the Ottoman Empire was part of a larger scheme of balancing central and local authority. Ottoman power revolved crucially around the administration of the rights to land, which gave a space for the local authority to develop the needs of the local millet . The jurisdictional complexity of the Ottoman Empire was aimed to permit the integration of culturally and religiously different groups. The Ottoman system had three court systems: one for Muslims, one for non-Muslims, involving appointed Jews and Christians ruling over their respective religious communities, and the "trade court". The entire system was regulated from above by means of the administrative _Qanun_, i.e. laws, a system based upon the Turkic _ Yassa _ and _Töre _, which were developed in the pre-Islamic era. An Ottoman trial, 1877.
These court categories were not, however, wholly exclusive: for instance, the Islamic courts—which were the Empire's primary courts—could also be used to settle a trade conflict or disputes between litigants of differing religions, and Jews and Christians often went to them to obtain a more forceful ruling on an issue. The Ottoman state tended not to interfere with non-Muslim religious law systems, despite legally having a voice to do so through local governors. The Islamic _Sharia_ law system had been developed from a combination of the Qur\'an ; the Hadīth , or words of the prophet Muhammad ; _ijmā\' _, or consensus of the members of the Muslim community ; qiyas , a system of analogical reasoning from earlier precedents; and local customs. Both systems were taught at the Empire's law schools, which were in Istanbul and Bursa . An unhappy wife complains to the Qadi about her husband's impotence, Ottoman miniature .
The Ottoman Islamic legal system was set up differently from traditional European courts. Presiding over Islamic courts would be a _Qadi_, or judge. Since the closing of the _ijtihad _, or _Gate of Interpretation, Qadis_ throughout the Ottoman Empire focused less on legal precedent, and more with local customs and traditions in the areas that they administered. However, the Ottoman court system lacked an appellate structure, leading to jurisdictional case strategies where plaintiffs could take their disputes from one court system to another until they achieved a ruling that was in their favor.
In the late 19th century, the Ottoman legal system saw substantial reform. This process of legal modernization began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839. These reforms included the "fair and public trial of all accused regardless of religion," the creation of a system of "separate competences, religious and civil," and the validation of testimony on non-Muslims. Specific land codes (1858), civil codes (1869–1876), and a code of civil procedure also were enacted.
These reforms were based heavily on French models, as indicated by the adoption of a three-tiered court system. Referred to as Nizamiye , this system was extended to the local magistrate level with the final promulgation of the Mecelle , a civil code that regulated marriage, divorce, alimony, will, and other matters of personal status. In an attempt to clarify the division of judicial competences, an administrative council laid down that religious matters were to be handled by religious courts, and statute matters were to be handled by the Nizamiye courts.
Main article: Military of the Ottoman Empire _ Ottoman sipahis in battle, holding the crescent banner (by Józef Brandt ) Ottoman officers in Istanbul, 1897. Selim III watching the parade of his new army, the Nizam-ı Cedid _ (New Order) troops, in 1793. Ottoman pilots in early 1912 Ahmet Ali Celikten is amongst the first black military pilots in history, clearly showing military diversification in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Imperial Army in 1900.
The first military unit of the Ottoman State was an army that was organized by Osman I from the tribesmen inhabiting the hills of western Anatolia in the late 13th century. The military system became an intricate organization with the advance of the Empire. The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. The main corps of the Ottoman Army included Janissary , Sipahi , Akıncı and Mehterân . The Ottoman army was once among the most advanced fighting forces in the world, being one of the first to use muskets and cannons. The Ottoman Turks began using _falconets _, which were short but wide cannons, during the Siege of Constantinople . The Ottoman cavalry depended on high speed and mobility rather than heavy armour, using bows and short swords on fast Turkoman and Arabian horses (progenitors of the Thoroughbred racing horse), and often applied tactics similar to those of the Mongol Empire , such as pretending to retreat while surrounding the enemy forces inside a crescent-shaped formation and then making the real attack. The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740–1768.
The modernization of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century started with the military. In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II abolished the Janissary corps and established the modern Ottoman army. He named them as the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order). The Ottoman army was also the first institution to hire foreign experts and send its officers for training in western European countries. Consequently, the Young Turks movement began when these relatively young and newly trained men returned with their education.
The Ottoman Navy vastly contributed to the expansion of the Empire's territories on the European continent. It initiated the conquest of North Africa, with the addition of Algeria and Egypt to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Starting with the loss of Greece in 1821 and Algeria in 1830, Ottoman naval power and control over the Empire's distant overseas territories began to decline. Sultan Abdülaziz (reigned 1861–1876) attempted to reestablish a strong Ottoman navy, building the largest fleet after those of Britain and France. The shipyard at Barrow, England, built its first submarine in 1886 for the Ottoman Empire. A German postcard depicting the Ottoman Navy at the Golden Horn in the early stages of World War I . At top left is a portrait of Sultan Mehmed V .
However, the collapsing Ottoman economy could not sustain the fleet's strength for too long. Sultan Abdülhamid II distrusted the admirals who sided with the reformist Midhat Pasha , and claimed that the large and expensive fleet was of no use against the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War . He locked most of the fleet inside the Golden Horn , where the ships decayed for the next 30 years. Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress sought to develop a strong Ottoman naval force. The _ Ottoman Navy Foundation_ was established in 1910 to buy new ships through public donations.
The establishment of Ottoman military aviation dates back to between June 1909 and July 1911. The Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and planes, and with the founding of the Aviation School (_Tayyare Mektebi_) in Yeşilköy on 3 July 1912, the Empire began to tutor its own flight officers. The founding of the Aviation School quickened advancement in the military aviation program, increased the number of enlisted persons within it, and gave the new pilots an active role in the Ottoman Army and Navy . In May 1913 the world's first specialized Reconnaissance Training Program was started by the Aviation School and the first separate reconnaissance division was established. In June 1914 a new military academy, the Naval Aviation School (_Bahriye Tayyare Mektebi_) was founded. With the outbreak of World War I, the modernization process stopped abruptly. The Ottoman aviation squadrons fought on many fronts during World War I, from Galicia in the west to the Caucasus in the east and Yemen in the south.
Main article: Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire Eyalets in 1795
The Ottoman Empire was first subdivided into provinces, in the sense of fixed territorial units with governors appointed by the sultan, in the late 14th century.
The Vilayets were introduced with the promulgation of the "Vilayet Law" (Turkish : _Teskil-i Vilayet Nizamnamesi_) in 1864, as part of the Tanzimat reforms. Unlike the previous eyalet system, the 1864 law established a hierarchy of administrative units: the vilayet, liva /sanjak , kaza and village council , to which the 1871 Vilayet Law added the nabiye .
Main article: Economic history of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman government deliberately pursued a policy for the development of Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul, successive Ottoman capitals, into major commercial and industrial centres, considering that merchants and artisans were indispensable in creating a new metropolis. To this end, Mehmed and his successor Bayezid, also encouraged and welcomed migration of the Jews from different parts of Europe, who were settled in Istanbul and other port cities like Salonica. In many places in Europe, Jews were suffering persecution at the hands of their Christian counterparts, such as in Spain after the conclusion of Reconquista. The tolerance displayed by the Turks was welcomed by the immigrants. A European bronze medal from the period of Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror , 1481.
The Ottoman economic mind was closely related to the basic concepts of state and society in the Middle East in which the ultimate goal of a state was consolidation and extension of the ruler's power, and the way to reach it was to get rich resources of revenues by making the productive classes prosperous. The ultimate aim was to increase the state revenues without damaging the prosperity of subjects to prevent the emergence of social disorder and to keep the traditional organization of the society intact. The Ottoman economy greatly expanded during the Early Modern Period , with particularly high growth rates during first half of the eighteenth century. The empire's annual income quadrupled between 1523 and 1748, adjusted for inflation.
The organization of the treasury and chancery were developed under the Ottoman Empire more than any other Islamic government and, until the 17th century, they were the leading organization among all their contemporaries. This organization developed a scribal bureaucracy (known as "men of the pen") as a distinct group, partly highly trained ulama , which developed into a professional body. The effectiveness of this professional financial body stands behind the success of many great Ottoman statesmen. The Ottoman Bank was founded in 1856 in Istanbul ; in August 1896, the bank was captured by members of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation .
Modern Ottoman studies indicate that the change in relations between the Ottoman Turks and central Europe was caused by the opening of the new sea routes. It is possible to see the decline in the significance of the land routes to the East as Western Europe opened the ocean routes that bypassed the Middle East and Mediterranean as parallel to the decline of the Ottoman Empire itself. The Anglo-Ottoman Treaty , also known as the Treaty of Balta Liman that opened the Ottoman markets directly to English and French competitors, would be seen as one of the staging posts along this development.
By developing commercial centres and routes, encouraging people to extend the area of cultivated land in the country and international trade through its dominions, the state performed basic economic functions in the Empire. But in all this the financial and political interests of the state were dominant. Within the social and political system they were living in, Ottoman administrators could not have seen the desirability of the dynamics and principles of the capitalist and mercantile economies developing in Western Europe.
Main article: Demographics of the Ottoman Empire
A population estimate for the empire of 11,692,480 for the 1520–1535 period was obtained by counting the households in Ottoman tithe registers, and multiplying this number by 5. For unclear reasons, the population in the 18th century was lower than that in the 16th century. An estimate of 7,230,660 for the first census held in 1831 is considered a serious undercount, as this census was meant only to register possible conscripts. Smyrna under Ottoman rule in 1900
Censuses of Ottoman territories only began in the early 19th century. Figures from 1831 onwards are available as official census results, but the censuses did not cover the whole population. For example, the 1831 census only counted men and did not cover the whole empire. For earlier periods estimates of size and distribution of the population are based on observed demographic patterns.
However, it began to rise to reach 25–32 million by 1800, with around 10 million in the European provinces (primarily the Balkans ), 11 million in the Asiatic provinces and around 3 million in the African provinces. Population densities were higher in the European provinces, double those in Anatolia, which in turn were triple the population densities of Iraq and Syria and five times the population density of Arabia. View of Galata ( Karaköy ) and the Galata Bridge on the Golden Horn , c. 1880–1893.
Towards the end of the empire's existence life expectancy was 49 years, compared to the mid-twenties in Serbia at the beginning of the 19th century. Epidemic diseases and famine caused major disruption and demographic changes. In 1785 around one sixth of the Egyptian population died from plague and Aleppo saw its population reduced by twenty percent in the 18th century. Six famines hit Egypt alone between 1687 and 1731 and the last famine to hit Anatolia was four decades later.
The rise of port cities saw the clustering of populations caused by the development of steamships and railroads. Urbanization increased from 1700 to 1922, with towns and cities growing. Improvements in health and sanitation made them more attractive to live and work in. Port cities like Salonica, in Greece, saw its population rise from 55,000 in 1800 to 160,000 in 1912 and İzmir which had a population of 150,000 in 1800 grew to 300,000 by 1914. Some regions conversely had population falls – Belgrade saw its population drop from 25,000 to 8,000 mainly due to political strife.
Economic and political migrations made an impact across the empire. For example, the Russian and Austria- Habsburg annexation of the Crimean and Balkan regions respectively saw large influxes of Muslim refugees – 200,000 Crimean Tartars fleeing to Dobruja. Between 1783 and 1913, approximately 5–7 million refugees flooded into the Ottoman Empire, at least 3.8 million of whom were from Russia. Some migrations left indelible marks such as political tension between parts of the empire (e.g. Turkey and Bulgaria) whereas centrifugal effects were noticed in other territories, simpler demographics emerging from diverse populations. Economies were also impacted with the loss of artisans, merchants, manufacturers and agriculturists. Since the 19th century, a large proportion of Muslim peoples from the Balkans emigrated to present-day Turkey. These people are called _ Muhacir _. By the time the Ottoman Empire came to an end in 1922, half of the urban population of Turkey was descended from Muslim refugees from Russia.
Ottoman Turkish was the official language of the Empire. It was an Oghuz Turkic language highly influenced by Persian and Arabic . The Ottomans had several influential languages: Turkish, spoken by the majority of the people in Anatolia and by the majority of Muslims of the Balkans except in Albania and Bosnia ; Persian, only spoken by the educated; Arabic, spoken mainly in Arabia , North Africa, Iraq , Kuwait , the Levant and parts of the Horn of Africa ; and Somali throughout the Horn of Africa . In the last two centuries, usage of these became limited, though, and specific: Persian served mainly as a literary language for the educated, while Arabic was used for religious rites.
Turkish , in its Ottoman variation, was a language of military and administration since the nascent days of the Ottomans. The Ottoman constitution of 1876 did officially cement the official imperial status of Turkish.
Because of a low literacy rate among the public (about 2–3% until the early 19th century and just about 15% at the end of 19th century), ordinary people had to hire scribes as "special request-writers" (_arzuhâlci_s) to be able to communicate with the government. The ethnic groups continued to speak within their families and neighborhoods (mahalles ) with their own languages (e.g., Jews, Greeks, Armenians, etc.). In villages where two or more populations lived together, the inhabitants would often speak each other's language. In cosmopolitan cities, people often spoke their family languages; many of those who were not ethnic Turks spoke Turkish as a second language.
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In the Ottoman imperial system, even though there existed an hegemonic power of Muslim control over the non-Muslim populations, non-Muslim communities had been granted state recognition and protection in the Islamic tradition. The officially accepted state Dīn _(Madh\'hab )_ of the Ottomans was Sunni _( Hanafi jurisprudence )._
Until the second half of the 15th century the empire had a Christian majority, under the rule of a Muslim minority. In the late 19th century, the non-Muslim population of the empire began to fall considerably, not only due to secession, but also because of migratory movements. The proportion of Muslims amounted to 60% in the 1820s, gradually increasing to 69% in the 1870s and then to 76% in the 1890s. By 1914, only 19.1% of the empire's population was non-Muslim, mostly made up of Jews and Christian Greeks, Assyrians, and Armenians.
Main articles: Islam in the Ottoman Empire , Ottoman Caliphate , and Ottoman persecution of Alevis Calligraphic writing on a fritware tile, depicting the names of God , Muhammad and the first caliphs , c. 1727.
Turkic peoples practiced a variety of shamanism before adopting Islam. Abbasid influence in Central Asia was ensured through a process that was greatly facilitated by the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana . Many of the various Turkic tribes—including the Oghuz Turks , who were the ancestors of both the Seljuks and the Ottomans—gradually converted to Islam, and brought the religion with them to Anatolia beginning in the 11th century.
Muslim sects regarded as heretical, such as the Druze , Ismailis , Alevis , and Alawites , ranked below Jews and Christians. In 1514, Sultan Selim I ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Alevis (_ Qizilbash _), whom he considered a fifth column for the rival Safavid empire. Selim was also responsible for an unprecedented and rapid expansion of the Ottoman Empire into the Middle East, especially through his conquest of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt . With these conquests, Selim further solidified the Ottoman claim for being an Islamic caliphate , although Ottoman sultans had been claiming the title of caliph since the 14th century starting with Murad I (reigned 1362 to 1389). The caliphate would remain held by Ottoman sultans for the rest of the office's duration, which ended with its abolition on 3 March 1924 by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the exile of the last caliph, Abdülmecid II , to France.
Christianity And Judaism
In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the Muslim _dhimmi _ system, Christians were guaranteed limited freedoms (such as the right to worship). They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride on horseback, their houses could not overlook those of Muslims, in addition to various other legal limitations. Many Christians and Jews voluntarily converted to secure full status in the society. Most, however, continued to practice their old religions without restriction.
Under the millet system, non-Muslim people were considered subjects of the Empire, but were not subject to the Muslim faith or Muslim law. The Orthodox millet, for instance, was still officially legally subject to Justinian\'s Code , which had been in effect in the Byzantine Empire for 900 years. Also, as the largest group of non-Muslim subjects (or _zimmi _) of the Islamic Ottoman state, the Orthodox millet was granted a number of special privileges in the fields of politics and commerce, and had to pay higher taxes than Muslim subjects.
Similar millets were established for the Ottoman Jewish community, who were under the authority of the _Haham Başı _ or Ottoman Chief rabbi ; the Armenian Orthodox community, who were under the authority of a head bishop; and a number of other religious communities as well. The millet system has been called an example of pre-modern religious pluralism .
The Ottomans absorbed some of the traditions, art and institutions of cultures in the regions they conquered, and added new dimensions to them. Numerous traditions and cultural traits of previous empires (in fields such as architecture, cuisine, music, leisure and government) were adopted by the Ottoman Turks, who elaborated them into new forms, resulting in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity. Despite newer added amalgamations, the Ottoman dynasty, like their predecessors in the Sultanate of Rum and the Seljuk Empire , were thoroughly Persianised in their culture, language, habits and customs, and therefore the empire has been described as a Persianate empire. Intercultural marriages also played a part in creating the characteristic Ottoman elite culture. When compared to the Turkish folk culture, the influence of these new cultures in creating the culture of the Ottoman elite was clear.
Slavery was a part of Ottoman society, with most slaves employed as domestic servants. Agricultural slavery, such as that which was widespread in the Americas, was relatively rare. Unlike systems of chattel slavery , slaves under Islamic law were not regarded as movable property, but maintained basic, though limited, rights. This gave them a degree of protection against abuse. Female slaves were still sold in the Empire as late as 1908. During the 19th century the Empire came under pressure from Western European countries to outlaw the practice. Policies developed by various Sultans throughout the 19th century attempted to curtail the slave trade but, since slavery did have centuries of religious backing and sanction, they never directly abolished the institution outright.
Plague remained a major scourge in Ottoman society until the second quarter of the 19th century. "Between 1701 and 1750, 37 larger and smaller plague epidemics were recorded in Istanbul, and 31 between 1751 and 1801."
Main article: Ottoman literature
The two primary streams of Ottoman written literature are poetry and prose . Poetry was by far the dominant stream. Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not contain any examples of fiction: there were no counterparts to, for instance, the European romance , short story, or novel. Analogue genres did exist, though, in both Turkish folk literature and in Divan poetry .
Ottoman Divan poetry was a highly ritualized and symbolic art form. From the Persian poetry that largely inspired it, it inherited a wealth of symbols whose meanings and interrelationships—both of similitude (مراعات نظير mura'ât-i nazîr / تناسب tenâsüb) and opposition (تضاد tezâd) were more or less prescribed. Divan poetry was composed through the constant juxtaposition of many such images within a strict metrical framework, thus allowing numerous potential meanings to emerge. The vast majority of Divan poetry was lyric in nature: either gazels (which make up the greatest part of the repertoire of the tradition), or kasîdes. There were, however, other common genres, most particularly the mesnevî, a kind of verse romance and thus a variety of narrative poetry ; the two most notable examples of this form are the Leyli and Majnun of Fuzûlî and the Hüsn ü Aşk of Şeyh Gâlib . Ahmet Nedîm Efendi , one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets
Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not develop to the extent that contemporary Divan poetry did. A large part of the reason for this was that much prose was expected to adhere to the rules of sec (سجع, also transliterated as seci), or rhymed prose , a type of writing descended from the Arabic saj\' and which prescribed that between each adjective and noun in a string of words, such as a sentence, there must be a rhyme . Nevertheless, there was a tradition of prose in the literature of the time, though exclusively non-fictional in nature. One apparent exception was Muhayyelât ("Fancies") by Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi , a collection of stories of the fantastic written in 1796, though not published until 1867. The first novel published in the Ottoman Empire was by an Armenian named Vartan Pasha . Published in 1851, the novel was entitled The Story of Akabi (Turkish: Akabi Hikyayesi) and was written in Turkish but with Armenian script.
Due to historically close ties with France, French literature came to constitute the major Western influence on Ottoman literature throughout the latter half of the 19th century. As a result, many of the same movements prevalent in France during this period also had their Ottoman equivalents: in the developing Ottoman prose tradition, for instance, the influence of Romanticism can be seen during the Tanzimat period, and that of the Realist and Naturalist movements in subsequent periods; in the poetic tradition, on the other hand, it was the influence of the Symbolist and Parnassian movements that became paramount.
Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several different genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Namık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh ("Awakening"), while the journalist İbrahim Şinasi is noted for writing, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" ("The Poet's Marriage"). An earlier play, a farce entitled "Vakâyi'-i 'Acibe ve Havâdis-i Garibe-yi Kefşger Ahmed" ("The Strange Events and Bizarre Occurrences of the Cobbler Ahmed"), dates from the beginning of the 19th century, but there remains some doubt about its authenticity. In a similar vein, the novelist Ahmed Midhat Efendi wrote important novels in each of the major movements: Romanticism (Hasan Mellâh yâhud Sırr İçinde Esrâr, 1873; "Hasan the Sailor, or The Mystery Within the Mystery"), Realism (Henüz On Yedi Yaşında, 1881; "Just Seventeen Years Old"), and Naturalism (Müşâhedât, 1891; "Observations"). This diversity was, in part, due to the Tanzimat writers' wish to disseminate as much of the new literature as possible, in the hopes that it would contribute to a revitalization of Ottoman social structures .
Ottoman architecture was influenced by Persian , Byzantine Greek and Islamic architectures. During the Rise period the early or first Ottoman architecture period, Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. The growth period of the Empire become the classical period of architecture, when Ottoman art was at its most confident. During the years of the Stagnation period , Ottoman architecture moved away from this style, however. Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge , completed in 1577 by Mimar Sinan , the greatest architect of the classical period of Ottoman architecture
During the Tulip Era , it was under the influence of the highly ornamented styles of Western Europe; Baroque , Rococo , Empire and other styles intermingled. Concepts of Ottoman architecture concentrate mainly on the mosque . The mosque was integral to society, city planning and communal life. Besides the mosque, it is also possible to find good examples of Ottoman architecture in soup kitchens , theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths and tombs.
Examples of Ottoman architecture of the classical period, besides Istanbul and Edirne , can also be seen in Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia, Algiers, the Balkans and Romania, where mosques, bridges, fountains and schools were built. The art of Ottoman decoration developed with a multitude of influences due to the wide ethnic range of the Ottoman Empire. The greatest of the court artists enriched the Ottoman Empire with many pluralistic artistic influences, such as mixing traditional Byzantine art with elements of Chinese art .
Ottoman miniature painters
The tradition of Ottoman miniatures , painted to illustrate manuscripts or used in dedicated albums, was heavily influenced by the Persian art form, though it also included elements of the Byzantine tradition of illumination and painting. A Greek academy of painters, the _Nakkashane-i-Rum_, was established in the Topkapi Palace in the 15th century, while early in the following century a similar Persian academy, the _Nakkashane-i-Irani_, was added.
Ottoman illumination covers non-figurative painted or drawn decorative art in books or on sheets in _muraqqa _ or albums, as opposed to the figurative images of the Ottoman miniature . It was a part of the Ottoman Book Arts together with the Ottoman miniature (_taswir_), calligraphy (_hat_), Islamic calligraphy , bookbinding (_cilt_) and paper marbling (_ebru_). In the Ottoman Empire, illuminated and illustrated manuscripts were commissioned by the Sultan or the administrators of the court. In Topkapi Palace, these manuscripts were created by the artists working in _Nakkashane_, the atelier of the miniature and illumination artists. Both religious and non-religious books could be illuminated. Also sheets for albums _levha_ consisted of illuminated calligraphy (_hat_) of _tughra _, religious texts, verses from poems or proverbs, and purely decorative drawings.
The art of carpet weaving was particularly significant in the Ottoman Empire, carpets having an immense importance both as decorative furnishings, rich in religious and other symbolism, and as a practical consideration, as it was customary to remove one's shoes in living quarters. The weaving of such carpets originated in the nomadic cultures of central Asia (carpets being an easily transportable form of furnishing), and was eventually spread to the settled societies of Anatolia. Turks used carpets, rugs and kilims not just on the floors of a room, but also as a hanging on walls and doorways, where they provided additional insulation. They were also commonly donated to mosques , which often amassed large collections of them.
MUSIC AND PERFORMING ARTS
_ Sultan Abdülaziz was also a music composer Miniature from "Surname-i Vehbi "_ showing the Mehteran , the music band of the Janissaries . The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman classical music was an important part of the education of the Ottoman elite. A number of the Ottoman sultans were accomplished musicians and composers themselves, such as Selim III , whose compositions are often still performed today. Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music , Armenian music , Arabic music , and Persian music . Compositionally, it is organised around rhythmic units called usul , which are somewhat similar to meter in Western music, and melodic units called makam , which bear some resemblance to Western musical modes .
The instruments used are a mixture of Anatolian and Central Asian instruments (the saz , the bağlama , the kemence ), other Middle Eastern instruments (the ud , the tanbur , the kanun , the ney ), and—later in the tradition—Western instruments (the violin and the piano). Because of a geographic and cultural divide between the capital and other areas, two broadly distinct styles of music arose in the Ottoman Empire: Ottoman classical music, and folk music. In the provinces, several different kinds of folk music were created. The most dominant regions with their distinguished musical styles are: Balkan-Thracian Türküs, North-Eastern (Laz ) Türküs, Aegean Türküs, Central Anatolian Türküs, Eastern Anatolian Türküs, and Caucasian Türküs. Some of the distinctive styles were: Janissary Music , Roma music , Belly dance , Turkish folk music .
The traditional shadow play called Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire and featured characters representing all of the major ethnic and social groups in that culture. It was performed by a single puppet master, who voiced all of the characters, and accompanied by tambourine (_def_). Its origins are obscure, deriving perhaps from an older Egyptian tradition, or possibly from an Asian source.
Main article: Ottoman cuisine Enjoying coffee at the harem Turkish women baking bread, 1790
Ottoman cuisine refers to the cuisine of the capital, Istanbul , and the regional capital cities, where the melting pot of cultures created a common cuisine that most of the population regardless of ethnicity shared. This diverse cuisine was honed in the Imperial Palace's kitchens by chefs brought from certain parts of the Empire to create and experiment with different ingredients. The creations of the Ottoman Palace's kitchens filtered to the population, for instance through Ramadan events, and through the cooking at the Yalıs of the Pashas , and from there on spread to the rest of the population.
Much of the cuisine of former Ottoman territories today is descended from a shared Ottoman cuisine, especially Turkish , and including Greek , Balkan , Armenian , and Middle Eastern cuisines. Many common dishes in the region, descendants of the once-common Ottoman cuisine, include yogurt , döner kebab /gyro /shawarma , cacık /tzatziki, ayran , pita bread, feta cheese, baklava , lahmacun , moussaka , yuvarlak , köfte /keftés/kofta, börek /boureki, rakı /rakia /tsipouro /tsikoudia , meze , dolma , sarma , rice pilaf , Turkish coffee , sujuk , kashk , keşkek , manti , lavash , kanafeh , and more.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Over the course of Ottoman history, the Ottomans managed to build a large collection of libraries complete with translations of books from other cultures, as well as original manuscripts. A great part of this desire for local and foreign manuscripts arose in the 15th Century. Sultan Mehmet II ordered Georgios Amiroutzes , a Greek scholar from Trabzon , to translate and make available to Ottoman educational institutions the geography book of Ptolemy . Another example is Ali Qushji -an astronomer , mathematician and physicist originally from Samarkand - who became a professor in two madrasas, and influenced Ottoman circles as a result of his writings and the activities of his students, even though he only spent two or three years before his death in Istanbul. Istanbul observatory of Taqi ad-Din in 1577
Taqi al-Din built the Istanbul observatory of Taqi al-Din in 1577, where he carried out observations until 1580. He calculated the eccentricity of the Sun's orbit and the annual motion of the apogee . However, the observatory's primary purpose was almost certainly astrological rather than astronomical, leading to its destruction in 1580 due to the rise of a clerical faction which opposed its use for that purpose.
In 1660 the Ottoman scholar Ibrahim Efendi al-Zigetvari Tezkireci translated Noël Duret 's French astronomical work (written in 1637) into Arabic.
Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was the author of the first surgical atlas and the last major medical encyclopedia from the Islamic world . Though his work was largely based on Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi 's _ Al-Tasrif _, Sabuncuoğlu introduced many innovations of his own. Female surgeons were also illustrated for the first time.
An example of a watch which measured time in minutes was created by an Ottoman watchmaker, Meshur Sheyh Dede , in 1702.
In the 19th century, Ishak Efendi is credited with introducing the then current Western scientific ideas and developments to the Ottoman and wider Muslim world, as well as the invention of a suitable Turkish and Arabic scientific terminology, through his translations of Western works.
Ottoman wrestlers in the gardens of Topkapı Palace , in the 19th century.
The main sports Ottomans were engaged in were Turkish wrestling , hunting , Turkish archery , horseback riding , equestrian javelin throw , arm wrestling , and swimming . European model sports clubs were formed with the spreading popularity of football matches in 19th century Constantinople . The leading clubs, according to timeline, were Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club (1903), Galatasaray Sports Club (1905), Fenerbahçe Sports Club (1907), MKE Ankaragücü (formerly Turan Sanatkaragücü) (1910) in Istanbul . Football clubs were formed in other provinces too, such as Karşıyaka Sports Club (1912), Altay Sports Club (1914) and Turkish Fatherland Football Club (later Ülküspor ) (1914) of İzmir .
* 16 Great Turkic Empires * Bibliography of the Ottoman Empire * Gaza Thesis * Gunpowder Empires * Historiography of the fall of the Ottoman Empire * History of the Turks * Index of Ottoman Empire-related articles * List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire * List of Ottoman Grand Viziers * List of Ottoman conquests, sieges and landings * List of Turkic dynasties and countries * Outline of the Ottoman Empire * Ottoman Decline Thesis * Ottoman dynasty * Ottoman Caliphate * Ottoman Tunisia * Superpowers of the past
* ^ The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922 and the Republic of Turkey was established on 29 October 1923. For further information, see Defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire . * ^ In Ottoman Turkish the city was known with various names, among which were _ Kostantiniyye _ (قسطنطينيه) (replacing the suffix _-polis_ with the Arabic nisba ), _ Dersaadet _ (در سعادت) and _Istanbul_ (استانبول). Names other than Istanbul gradually became obsolete in Turkish, and after Turkey's transition to Latin script in 1928, the city's Turkish name attained international usage. * ^ Mehmed VI , the last Sultan, was expelled from Constantinople on 17 November 1922. * ^ The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) afforded a small existence to the Ottoman Empire. On 1 November 1922, the Grand National Assembly (GNAT) abolished the sultanate and declared that all the deeds of the Ottoman regime in Istanbul were null and void as of 16 March 1920, the date of the occupation of Constantinople under the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres. The international recognition of the GNAT and the Government of Ankara was achieved through the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July 1923. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey promulgated the Republic on 29 October 1923, which ended the Ottoman Empire in history. * ^ The empire also temporarily gained authority over distant overseas lands through declarations of allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph , such as the declaration by the Sultan of Aceh in 1565, or through temporary acquisitions of islands such as Lanzarote in the Atlantic Ocean in 1585, Turkish Navy Official Website: "Atlantik\'te Türk Denizciliği" * ^ A lock-hold on trade between western Europe and Asia is often cited as a primary motivation for Isabella I of Castile to fund Christopher Columbus 's westward journey to find a sailing route to Asia and, more generally, for European seafaring nations to explore alternative trade routes (e.g. K. D. Madan, _Life and travels of Vasco Da Gama_ (1998), 9; I. Stavans, _Imagining Columbus: the literary voyage_ (2001), 5; W.B. Wheeler and S. Becker, _Discovering the American Past. A Look at the Evidence: to 1877_ (2006), 105). This traditional viewpoint has been attacked as unfounded in an influential article by A.H. Lybyer ("The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade", _English Historical Review_, 120 (1915), 577–588), who sees the rise of Ottoman power and the beginnings of Portuguese and Spanish explorations as unrelated events. His view has not been universally accepted (cf. K.M. Setton, _The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Vol. 2: The Fifteenth Century (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 127)_ (1978), 335).
* ^ Stanford Shaw, _ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey_ (Cambridge: University Press, 1976), vol. 1 p. 13 * ^ _A_ _B_ "In 1363 the Ottoman capital moved from Bursa to Edirne, although Bursa retained its spiritual and economic importance." _Ottoman Capital Bursa_. Official website of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey. Retrieved 26 June 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Lambton, Ann ; Lewis, Bernard (1995). _The Cambridge History of Islam: The Indian sub-continent, South-East Asia, Africa and the Muslim west_. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-521-22310-2 . * ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". _Journal of world-systems research_. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X . Retrieved 12 September 2016. * ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". _International Studies Quarterly _. 41 (3): 498. doi :10.1111/0020-8833.00053 . Retrieved 12 September 2016. * ^ Dündar, Orhan; Dündar, Erhan, 1.Dünya Savaşı, Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1999, ISBN 975-11-1643-0 * ^ Erickson, Edward J. (2003). _Defeat in Detail: The Ottoman Army in the Balkans, 1912–1913_. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-275-97888-4 . * ^ Hamish Scott (2015). _The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350–1750: Volume II_. p. 612. "The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" * ^ Raphaela Lewis (1988). _Everyday Life in Ottoman Turkey_. Dorset Press. ISBN 978-0-88029-175-0 . * ^ Godfrey Goodwin (1977). _Ottoman Turkey_. Scorpion Publications. * ^ Finkel, Caroline. _Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923_. Basic Books. pp. 2, 7. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7 . * ^ Quataert, Donald (2005). _The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922_ (2 ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-521-83910-5 . * ^ "Ottoman Empire". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. 6 May 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Hathaway, Jane (2008). _The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule, 1516–1800_. Pearson Education Ltd. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-582-41899-8 . historians of the Ottoman Empire have rejected the narrative of decline in favor of one of crisis and adaptation
* Tezcan, Baki (2010). _The Second Ottoman Empire: Political and Social Transformation in the Early Modern Period_. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-107-41144-9 . Ottomanist historians have produced several works in the last decades, revising the traditional understanding of this period from various angles, some of which were not even considered as topics of historical inquiry in the mid-twentieth century. Thanks to these works, the conventional narrative of Ottoman history – that in the late sixteenth century the Ottoman Empire entered a prolonged period of decline marked by steadily increasing military decay and institutional corruption – has been discarded. * Woodhead, Christine (2011). "Introduction". In Christine Woodhead. _The Ottoman World_. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-415-44492-7 . Ottomanist historians have largely jettisoned the notion of a post-1600 ‘decline’
* ^ Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Introduction". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters. _Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire_. p. xxxii.
* Faroqhi, Suraiya (1994). "Crisis and Change, 1590–1699". In İnalcık, Halil; Donald Quataert. _An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914_. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 553. ISBN 0-521-57456-0 . In the past fifty years, scholars have frequently tended to view this decreasing participation of the sultan in political life as evidence for “Ottoman decadence,” which supposedly began at some time during the second half of the sixteenth century. But recently, more note has been taken of the fact that the Ottoman Empire was still a formidable military and political power throughout the seventeenth century, and that noticeable though limited economic recovery followed the crisis of the years around 1600; after the crisis of the 1683–99 war, there followed a longer and more decisive economic upswing. Major evidence of decline was not visible before the second half of the eighteenth century.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Aksan, Virginia (2007). _Ottoman Wars, 1700–1860: An Empire Besieged_. Pearson Education Ltd. pp. 130–5. ISBN 978-0-582-30807-7 . * ^ Quataert, Donald (1994). "The Age of Reforms, 1812–1914". In İnalcık, Halil; Donald Quataert. _An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914_. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 762. ISBN 0-521-57456-0 . * ^ Findley, Carter Vaughn (2010). _Turkey, Islam, Nationalism and Modernity: A History, 1789–2007_. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 200. ISBN 978-0-300-15260-9 .
* ^ • Quataert, Donald (2005). _The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922_. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 186. • Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction". _Journal of Genocide Research_. 10 (1): 7–14. doi :10.1080/14623520801950820 . * ^ Howard, Douglas A. (2016). _A History of the Ottoman Empire_. Cambridge University Press. p. 318. * ^ "Ottoman banknote with Arabic script". Retrieved 26 August 2010.
* Ágoston, Gábor (2009). "Introduction". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters. _Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire_. p. xxvi. The empire’s elites considered themselves Ottoman and used the word Turk as a disparaging term for the uneducated Anatolian subject peasant population. * Imber, Colin (2009). _The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power_ (2 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 3. By the seventeenth century, literate circles in Istanbul would not call themselves Turks, and often, in phrases such as 'senseless Turks', used the word as a term of abuse.
* ^ Kafadar, Cemal (2007). "A Rome of One's Own: Cultural Geography and Identity in the Lands of Rum". _Muqarnas_. 24: 11. * ^ Soucek, Svat (2015). _Ottoman Maritime Wars, 1416–1700_. Istanbul: The Isis Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-975-428-554-3 . The scholarly community specializing in Ottoman studies has of late virtually banned the use of "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" from acceptable vocabulary, declaring "Ottoman" and its expanded use mandatory and permitting its "Turkish" rival only in linguistic and philological contexts. * ^ Kermeli, Eugenia (2009). "Osman I". In Ágoston, Gábor; Bruce Masters. _Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire_. p. 444.
* ^ Lowry, Heath (2003). _The Nature of the Early Ottoman State_. SUNY Press. p. 59.
* Kafadar, Cemal (1995). _Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State_. p. 127.
* ^ Finkel, Caroline (2005). _Osman\'s Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire_. Basic Books. pp. 5, 10. ISBN 978-0-465-00850-6 .
* Lindner, Rudi Paul (2009). "Anatolia, 1300–1451". In Kate Fleet. _The Cambridge History of Turkey_. 1, Byzantium to Turkey, 1071–1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 104.
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Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Williams, Bryan Glynn (2000). "Hijra and forced migration from nineteenth-century Russia to the Ottoman Empire". _Cahiers du Monde russe_. 41 (1): 79–108. doi :10.4000/monderusse.39 . * ^ Memoirs of Miliutin, "the plan of action decided upon for 1860 was to cleanse the mountain zone of its indigenous population", per Richmond, W. The Northwest Caucasus: Past, Present, and Future. Routledge. 2008. * ^ Richmond, Walter (29 July 2008). _The Northwest Caucasus: Past, Present, Future_. Taylor & Francis US. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-415-77615-8 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. the plan of action decided upon for 1860 was to cleanse the mountain zone of its indigenous population * ^ Amjad M. Jaimoukha (2001). _The Circassians: A Handbook_. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-23994-7 . Retrieved 4 May 2013. * ^ Charlotte Mathilde Louise Hille (2010). _State building and conflict resolution in the Caucasus_. BRILL. p. 50. ISBN 978-90-04-17901-1 . 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ISBN 978-0-19-822101-2 . * ^ Akmeșe, Handan Nezir _The Birth of Modern Turkey The Ottoman Military and the March to World I_, London: I.B Tauris page 24 * ^ Akçam, Taner (2006). _A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility_. New York: Metropolitan Books. p. 42. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7 . * ^ Kemal H Karpat (2004). _Studies on Turkish politics and society: selected articles and essays_. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-13322-8 . Retrieved 24 May 2013. * ^ "Greek and Turkish refugees and deportees 1912–1924" (PDF). NL: Universiteit Leiden : 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2007. * ^ Justin McCarthy (1995). _Death and exile: the ethnic cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922_. Darwin Press. ISBN 978-0-87850-094-9 . Retrieved 1 May 2013. * ^ Carmichael, Cathie (12 November 2012). _Ethnic Cleansing in the Balkans: Nationalism and the Destruction of Tradition_. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-134-47953-5 . Retrieved 1 May 2013. During the period from 1821 to 1922 alone, Justin McCarthy estimates that the ethnic cleansing of Ottoman Muslims led to the death of several million individuals and the expulsion of a similar number. * ^ Buturovic, Amila (1 May 2010). _Islam in the Balkans: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide_. Oxford University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-19-980381-1 . Retrieved 1 May 2013. * ^ Reynolds 2011 , p. 1 * ^ (Erickson 2013 , p. 32) * ^ Peter Balakian (13 October 2009). _The Burning Tigris_. HarperCollins. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-06-186017-1 . Retrieved 8 June 2013. * ^ Kieser, Hans-Lukas; Schaller, Dominik J. (2002), _Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah_ (in German), Chronos, p. 114, ISBN 3-0340-0561-X * ^ Walker, Christopher J. (1980), _Armenia: The Survival of A Nation_, London: Croom Helm, pp. 200–3 * ^ Bryce, Viscount James ; Toynbee, Arnold (2000), Sarafian, Ara, ed., _The Treatment of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915–1916: Documents Presented to Viscount Grey of Falloden_ (uncensored ed.), Princeton, NJ : Gomidas Institute , pp. 635–49, ISBN 0-9535191-5-5 * ^ Schaller, Dominik J; Zimmerer, Jürgen (2008). "Late Ottoman genocides: the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and Young Turkish population and extermination policies – introduction" (PDF). _Journal of Genocide Research_. 10 (1): 7–14. doi :10.1080/14623520801950820 . The genocidal quality of the murderous campaigns against Greeks and Assyrians is obvious * ^ Hakan Ozoglu (24 June 2011). _From Caliphate to Secular State: Power Struggle in the Early Turkish Republic_. ABC-CLIO. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-313-37957-4 . Retrieved 8 June 2013. * ^ Stone, Norman " Turkey in the Russian Mirror" pages 86–100 from _Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy_ edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, 2004 pages 92–93 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Stone, Norman " Turkey in the Russian Mirror" pages 86–100 from _Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy_ edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, 2004 page 93 * ^ Stone, Norman " Turkey in the Russian Mirror" pages 86–100 from _Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy_ edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, Weidenfeld Hamit Palabiyik (2008). _Turkish Public Administration: From Tradition to the Modern Age_. USAK Books. p. 77. ISBN 978-605-4030-01-9 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Black, Antony (2001). _The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present_. Psychology Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-415-93243-1 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Lewis, Bernard (1963). _ Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire_. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8061-1060-8 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ "The Ottoman Palace School Enderun and the Man with Multiple Talents, Matrakçı Nasuh". _Journal of the Korea Society of Mathematical Education, Series D_. Research in Mathematical Education. 14 (1): 19–31. March 2010. * ^ Karpat, Kemal H. (1973). _Social Change and Politics in Turkey: A Structural-Historical Analysis_. BRILL. p. 204. ISBN 978-90-04-03817-2 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Black, Antony (2001). _The History of Islamic Political Thought: From the Prophet to the Present_. Psychology Press. p. 197. ISBN 978-0-415-93243-1 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Naim Kapucu; Hamit Palabiyik (2008). _Turkish Public Administration: From Tradition to the Modern Age_. USAK Books. p. 78. ISBN 978-605-4030-01-9 . Retrieved 12 February 2013. * ^ "Balancing Sharia: The Ottoman Kanun". BBC. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Benton, Lauren (3 December 2001). _Law and Colonial Cultures: Legal Regimes in World History, 1400–1900_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-521-00926-3 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Selçuk Akşin Somel. "Review of "Ottoman Nizamiye Courts. Law and Modernity"" (PDF). Sabancı Üniversitesi. p. 2. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Epstein, Lee; O'Connor, Karen; Grub, Diana. "Middle East" (PDF). _Legal Traditions and Systems: an International Handbook_. Greenwood Press. pp. 223–224. * ^ Milner, Mordaunt (1990). _The Godolphin Arabian: The Story of the Matchem Line_. Robert Hale Limited. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-0-85131-476-1 . * ^ Wall, John F. _Famous Running Horses: Their Forebears and Descendants_. p. 8. ISBN 978-1-163-19167-5 .
* ^ Murphey, Rhoads (1999). _Ottoman Warfare, 1500–1700_. UCL Press. p. 10.
* Ágoston, Gábor (2005). _Guns for the Sultan: Military Power and the Weapons Industry in the Ottoman Empire_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 200–2.
* ^ "Petition created for submarine name". Ellesmere Port Standard. Archived from the original on 23 April 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ "Story of Turkish Aviation". Turkey in the First World War. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2011. * ^ "Founding". Turkish Air Force. Retrieved 6 November 2011. * ^ Imber, Colin (2002). "The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power" (PDF). pp. 177–200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 July 2014. * ^ Raymond Detrez; Barbara Segaert (1 January 2008). _ Europe and the historical legacies in the Balkans_. Peter Lang. p. 167. ISBN 978-90-5201-374-9 . Retrieved 1 June 2013. * ^ Naim Kapucu; Hamit Palabiyik (2008). _Turkish Public Administration: From Tradition to the Modern Age_. USAK Books. p. 164. ISBN 978-605-4030-01-9 . Retrieved 1 June 2013. * ^ Maḥmūd Yazbak (1998). _Haifa in the Late Ottoman Period 1864–1914: A Muslim Town in Transition_. BRILL. p. 28. ISBN 978-90-04-11051-9 . Retrieved 1 June 2013. * ^ Mundy, Martha; Smith, Richard Saumarez (15 March 2007). _Governing Property, Making the Modern State: Law, Administration and Production in Ottoman Syria_. I.B.Tauris. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-84511-291-2 . Retrieved 1 June 2013. * ^ İnalcık, Halil (1970). "The Ottoman Economic Mind and Aspects of the Ottoman Economy". In Cook, M. A. _Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East: from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day_. Oxford University Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-19-713561-7 . * ^ İnalcık, Halil (1970). "The Ottoman Economic Mind and Aspects of the Ottoman Economy". In Cook, M. A. _Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East: from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day_. Oxford University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-19-713561-7 . * ^ Darling, Linda (1996). _Revenue-Raising and Legitimacy: Tax Collection and Finance Administration in the Ottoman Empire, 1560–1660_. E.J. Brill. pp. 238–9. ISBN 90-04-10289-2 . * ^ İnalcık, Halil; Quataert, Donald (1971). _An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914_. p. 120. * ^ Donald Quataert, _The Ottoman Empire 1700–1922" (2005) p 24_ * ^ İnalcık, Halil (1970). "The Ottoman Economic Mind and Aspects of the Ottoman Economy". In Cook, M. A. _Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East: from the Rise of Islam to the Present Day_. Oxford University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0-19-713561-7 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kabadayı, M. Erdem (28 October 2011). "Inventory for the Ottoman Empire / Turkish Republic" (PDF). Istanbul Bilgi University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2011. * ^ Leila Erder and Suraiya Faroqhi (October 1979). "Population Rise and Fall in Anatolia 1550–1620". _Middle Eastern Studies_. 15 (3): 322–345. doi :10.1080/00263207908700415 . * ^ Shaw, S. J. (1978). _The Ottoman Census System and Population, 1831–1914_. _International Journal of Middle East Studies_. Cambridge University Press. p. 325. The Ottomans developed an efficient system for counting the empire's population in 1826, a quarter of a century after such methods were introduced in Britain, France and America. * ^ Quataert 2000 , pp. 110–111. * ^ Quataert 2000 , p. 112. * ^ Quataert 2000 , p. 113. * ^ _A_ _B_ Quataert 2000 , p. 114. * ^ Pamuk, S (August 1991). "The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy: The Nineteenth Century". _International Journal of Middle East Studies_. Cambridge University Press. 23 (3). * ^ Quataert 2000 , p. 115. * ^ Quataert 2000 , p. 116. * ^ McCarthy, Justin (1995). _Death and exile: the ethnic cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922_. Darwin Press. p. . ISBN 978-0-87850-094-9 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Bertold Spuler (2003). _Persian Historiography And Geography_. Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd. p. 69. ISBN 978-9971-77-488-2 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ "The Ottoman Constitution, promulgated the 7th Zilbridge, 1293 (11/23 December, 1876)". _The American Journal of International Law_. 2 (4): 376. 1908. JSTOR 2212668 . * ^ Kemal H. Karpat (2002). _Studies on Ottoman Social and Political History: Selected Articles and Essays_. BRILL. p. 266. ISBN 978-90-04-12101-0 . Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Içduygu, Ahmet; Toktas, Şule; Ali Soner, B. (1 February 2008). "The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey". _Ethnic and Racial Studies_. 31 (2): 358–389. doi :10.1080/01419870701491937 . * ^ Gunduz, Sinasi Change And Essence: Dialectical Relations Between Change And Continuity in the Turkish Inrtellectual Traditions Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change. Series IIA, Islam, V. 18, p.104-105 * ^ "Tile". Victoria & Albert Museum. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ "Why there is more to Syria conflict than sectarianism". BBC News. Retrieved 5 June 2013. * ^ Akçam, Taner (2006). _A shameful act: the Armenian genocide and the question of Turkish responsibility_. New York: Metropolitan Books. p. 24. ISBN 0-8050-7932-7 . * ^ "Ottoman Empire". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ Krummerich, Sean (1998–99). "The Divinely-Protected, Well-Flourishing Domain: The Establishment of the Ottoman System in the Balkan Peninsula". _The Student Historical Journal_. Loyola University New Orleans. 30. Archived from the original on 10 June 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ "Turkish Toleration". The American Forum for Global Education. Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Sachedina, Abdulaziz Abdulhussein (2001). _The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism_. Oxford University Press . pp. 96–97. ISBN 0-19-513991-7 . The millet system in the Muslim world provided the pre-modern paradigm of a religiously pluralistic society by granting each religious community an official status and a substantial measure of self-government. * ^ Özgündenli, O. "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries". _Encyclopaedia Iranica_ (online ed.). Archived from the original on 22 January 2012. * ^ "Persian in service of the state: the role of Persophone historical writing in the development of an Ottoman imperial aesthetic", _Studies on Persianate Societies_, 2, 2004, pp. 145–63 * ^ "Historiography. xi. Persian Historiography in the Ottoman Empire". _ Encyclopaedia Iranica _. 12, fasc. 4. 2004. pp. 403–11. * ^ Walter, F. "The Departure of Turkey from the 'Persianate' Musical Sphere". _Music of the Ottoman court_. * ^ Halil Inalcik. "Servile Labor in the Ottoman Empire". Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 11 September 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ Fodor, Pál (2007). "Introduction". In Dávid, Géza; Pál Fodor. _Ransom Slavery along the Ottoman Borders_. Leiden: Brill. pp. XII–XVII. ISBN 978-90-04-15704-0 . * ^ "Islam and slavery: Sexual slavery". BBC. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya (1998). "Migration into Eighteenth-century \'Greater Istanbul\' as Reflected in the Kadi Registers of Eyüp". _Turcica_. Louvain: Éditions Klincksieck: 165. doi :10.2143/TURC.30.0.2004296 . * ^ Murat Belge (2005). _Osmanlı'da kurumlar ve kültür_. İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. p. 389. ISBN 978-975-8998-03-6 . * ^ Mignon, Laurent (2005). _Neither Shiraz nor Paris : papers on modern Turkish literature_. Istanbul: ISIS. p. 20. ISBN 9754283036 . Those words could have been readily adopted by Hovsep Vartanyan (1813– 1879), the author, who preferred to remain anonymous, of The Story of Akabi (Akabi Hikyayesi), the first novel in Turkish, published with Armenian characters in the same year as Hisarian 's novel. * ^ Masters, Bruce; Ágoston, Gábor (2009). _Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire_. New York, NY: Facts On File. p. 440. ISBN 1438110251 . Written in Turkish using the Armenian alphabet, the Akabi History (1851) by Vartan Pasha is considered by some to be the first Ottoman novel. * ^ Pultar, Gönül (2013). _Imagined identities : identity formation in the age of globalism_ (First ed.). : Syracuse University Press. p. 329. ISBN 0815633424 . In fact, one of the first Turkish works of fiction in Western-type novel form, Akabi Hikayesi (Akabi's Story), was written in Turkish by Vartan Pasha (born Osep/Hovsep Vartanian/Vartanyan, 1813– 1879) and published in Armenian characters in 1851. * ^ Gürçaglar, Şehnaz; Paker, Saliha; Milton, John (2015). _Tradition, Tension and Translation in Turkey_. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 5. ISBN 90-272-6847-9 . It is interesting that the first Ottoman novel in Turkish, Akabi Hikayesi (1851, Akabi's Story), was written and published in Armenian letters (for Armenian communities who read in Turkish) by Hovsep Vartanyan (1813–1879), known as Vartan Paşa, a leading Ottoman man of letters and journalist. * ^ Moran, Berna. _Türk Romanına Eleştirel Bir Bakış Vol. 1_. p. 19. ISBN 975-470-054-0 . * ^ Eli Shah. "The Ottoman Artistic Legacy". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010. * ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya (2005). _Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire_ (New ed.). London: I.B. Tauris. p. 152. ISBN 1-85043-760-2 . * ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya (2005). _Subjects of the Sultan: culture and daily life in the Ottoman Empire_ (New ed.). London: I.B. Tauris. p. 153. ISBN 1-85043-760-2 . * ^ "Karagöz and Hacivat, a Turkish shadow play". All About Turkey. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2012. * ^ Emin Şenyer. "Karagoz, Traditional Turkish Shadow Theatre". Karagoz.net. Retrieved 11 February 2013. * ^ Bert Fragner, "From the Caucasus to the Roof of the World: a culinary adventure", in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, _A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East_, London, Prague and New York, p. 52 * ^ Ragep, F. J. (2005). " Ali Qushji and Regiomontanus: eccentric transformations and Copernican Revolutions". _Journal for the History of Astronomy_. Science History Publications Ltd. 36 (125): 359–371. Bibcode :2005JHA....36..359R. * ^ Sevim Tekeli (1997). "Taqi al-Din". _Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology and medicine in non-western cultures_. _Encyclopaedia of the History of Science_. Kluwer. Bibcode :2008ehst.book.....S. ISBN 0-7923-4066-3 . * ^ El-Rouayheb, Khaled (2015). _Islamic Intellectual History in the Seventeenth Century: Scholarly Currents in the Ottoman Empire and the Maghreb_. Cambridge University Press. pp. 18–9. ISBN 978-1-107-04296-4 . * ^ Ben-Zaken, Avner (2004). "The Heavens of the Sky and the Heavens of the Heart: the Ottoman Cultural Context for the Introduction of Post-Copernican Astronomy". _The British Journal for the History of Science_. Cambridge University Press . 37: 1–28. doi :10.1017/S0007087403005302 . * ^ Bademci, G. (2006). "First illustrations of female Neurosurgeons in the fifteenth century by Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu". _Neurocirugía_. 17 (2): 162–5. doi :10.4321/S1130-14732006000200012 . * ^ Horton, Paul (July–August 1977). "Topkapi\'s Turkish Timepieces". _ Saudi Aramco World _: 10–13. Retrieved 12 July 2008.
Main article: Bibliography of the Ottoman Empire
* _The Cambridge History of Turkey_
* Volume 1: Kate Fleet ed., "Byzantium to Turkey 1071–1453." Cambridge University Press, 2009. * Volume 2: Suraiya N. Faroqhi and Kate Fleet eds., "The Ottoman Empire as a World Power, 1453–1603." Cambridge University Press, 2012. * Volume 3: Suraiya N. Faroqhi ed., "The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603–1839." Cambridge University Pres, 2006. * Volume 4: Reşat Kasaba ed., " Turkey in the Modern World." Cambridge University Press, 2008.
* Finkel, Caroline (2005). _Osman's Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923_. Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02396-7 . * Hathaway, Jane (2008). _The Arab Lands under Ottoman Rule, 1516–1800_. Pearson Education Ltd. ISBN 978-0-582-41899-8 . * Howard, Douglas A. (2017). _A History of the Ottoman Empire_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-72730-3 . * Imber, Colin (2009). _The Ottoman Empire, 1300–1650: The Structure of Power_ (2 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-57451-9 . * İnalcık, Halil; Donald Quataert, eds. (1994). _An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-57456-0 . Two volumes. * McCarthy, Justin. _The Ottoman Turks: An Introductory History to 1923._ 1997 Questia.com, online edition. * Miller, William _The Ottoman Empire, 1801-1913_ (1913) online * Quataert, Donald. _The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922._ 2005. ISBN 0-521-54782-2 .
* Kafadar, Cemal (1995). _Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State_. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20600-7 . * Lindner, Rudi P. (1983). _Nomads and Ottomans in Medieval Anatolia_. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-933070-12-8 .
* Lowry, Heath (2003). _The Nature of the Early Ottoman State_. Albany: SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-5636-6 .
* Ágoston, Gábor (2014). "Firearms and Military Adaptation: The Ottomans and the European Military Revolution, 1450–1800". _Journal of World History_. 25: 85–124. * Aksan, Virginia (2007). _Ottoman Wars, 1700–1860: An Empire Besieged_. Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 978-0-582-30807-7 . * Rhoads, Murphey (1999). _Ottoman Warfare, 1500–1700_. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 1-85728-389-9 . * Soucek, Svat (2015). _Ottoman Maritime Wars, 1416–1700_. Istanbul: The Isis Press. ISBN 978-975-428-554-3 .
* Baram, Uzi and Lynda Carroll, editors. _A Historical Archaeology of the Ottoman Empire: Breaking New Ground_ (Plenum/Kluwer Academic Press, 2000) * Barkey, Karen. _ Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective._ (2008) 357pp Amazon.com, excerpt and text search * Davison, Roderic H. _Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856–1876_ (New York: Gordian Press, 1973) * Deringil, Selim. _The well-protected domains: ideology and the legitimation of power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1909_ (London: IB Tauris, 1998) * Findley, Carter V. _Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789–1922_ (Princeton University Press, 1980) * Faroqhi, Suraiya . _The Ottoman Empire: A Short History_ (2009) 196pp * McMeekin, Sean. _The Berlin- Baghdad Express: The Ottoman Empire and Germany's Bid for World Power_ (2010) * Nicolle, David. _Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300–1774_ (Osprey Publishing, 1983) * Palmer, Alan. _The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire_. (New York: Barnes and Noble, 1992) 306 p., maps. ISBN 0-87131-754-0 * Pamuk, Sevket. _A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire_ (1999). pp. 276 * Somel, Selcuk Aksin. _Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire_ (2003). pp. 399 * Stone, Norman " Turkey in the Russian Mirror" pages 86–100 from _Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy_ edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, Weidenfeld Erickson, Edward (2009). _A Military History of the Ottomans: From Osman to Atatürk_. ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0 .
* Hartmann, Daniel Andreas. "Neo-Ottomanism: The Emergence and Utility of a New Narrative on Politics, Religion, Society, and History in Turkey" (PhD Dissertation, Central European University, 2013) online. * Lieven, Dominic. _Empire: The Russian empire and its rivals_ (Yale UP, 2002), comparisons with Russian, British, Philliou, Christine M. "The Ottoman Empire and the Imperial Turn," _Comparative Studies in Society & History_ (2012) 54#4 pp 721–745. Comparing the Ottomans to other empires opens new insights about the dynamics of imperial rule, periodization, and political transformation * Olson, Robert, "Ottoman Empire" in Kelly Boyd, ed (1999). _Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing vol 2_. Taylor & Francis. pp. 892–6. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * Quataert, Donald. "Ottoman History Writing and Changing Attitudes towards the Notion of 'Decline.'" _History Compass_ 1 (2003): 1–9.
_ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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