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Otorhinolaryngology
Otorhinolaryngology
/oʊtoʊˌraɪnoʊˌlærənˈɡɒlədʒi/ (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, ENT doctors, ENT surgeons, or head and neck surgeons. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, and for the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors of the head and neck.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Training 3 Sub-specialties 4 Topics

4.1 Head and neck oncology 4.2 Otology and neurotology 4.3 Rhinology 4.4 Pediatric otorhinolaryngology 4.5 Laryngology 4.6 Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Etymology[edit] The term is a combination of New Latin
New Latin
combining forms (oto- + rhino- + laryngo- + -logy) derived from four Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words: οὖς ous (gen.: ὠτός otos), "ear", ῥίς rhis, "nose", λάρυγξ larynx, "larynx" and -λογία logia, "study"[1] (cf. Greek ωτορινολαρυγγολόγος, "otorhinolaryngologist"). Training[edit] Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of six months of general surgical training and four and a half years in specialist surgery. In Canada and the United States, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school. Following residency training, some otolaryngologist-head & neck surgeons complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration. In the United States and Canada, otorhinolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.[citation needed] In the United Kingdom entrance to otorhinolaryngology higher surgical training is highly competitive and involves a rigorous national selection process.[citation needed] The training programme consists of 6 years of higher surgical training after which trainees frequently undertake fellowships in a sub-speciality prior to becoming a consultant. Sub-specialties[edit]

Head and Neck Oncologic Surgery Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery* Otology Neurotology* Rhinology and Sinus Surgery Laryngology and Voice Disorders Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology* Sleep Medicine*

Surgical oncology Facial cosmetic surgery Ear Middle and inner ear Sinusitis Voice disorders Velopalatine insufficiency Sleep disorders

Microvascular reconstruction

Maxillofacial surgery Hearing Temporal bone Allergy Phono-surgery Cleft lip and palate Sleep apnea
Sleep apnea
surgery

Endocrine surgery Traumatic reconstruction Balance Skull base surgery Anterior skull base Swallowing disorders Airway Sleep investigations

Endoscopic Surgery Craniofacial surgery

Dizziness Apnea and snoring

Vascular malformations

Cochlear implant/BAHA

Cochlear implant/BAHA

(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties) Topics[edit] Head and neck oncology[edit]

Squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell carcinoma
of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx Oral cancer Skin cancer
Skin cancer
of the head & neck Thyroid cancer Endocrine surgery of the head and neck (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy) Microvascular free flap reconstruction Skull base surgery Salivary gland cancer

Otology and neurotology[edit] Main articles: Otology and Neurotology

Dizziness

BPPV – benign paroxysmal positional vertigo Labyrinthitis/Vestibular neuronitis Ménière's disease/Endolymphatic hydrops Perilymphatic fistula Acoustic neuroma

Hearing loss Mastoiditis Otitis externa
Otitis externa
– outer ear or ear canal inflammation Otitis media
Otitis media
– middle ear inflammation Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise) Ear
Ear
surgery

Rhinology[edit] Rhinology includes nasal dysfunction and sinus diseases.

Nasal obstruction Sinusitis
Sinusitis
– acute, chronic Environmental allergies Rhinitis Pituitary tumor Empty nose syndrome Severe or recurrent epistaxis

Pediatric otorhinolaryngology[edit]

Adenoidectomy Caustic ingestion Cricotracheal resection Decannulation Laryngomalacia Laryngotracheal reconstruction Myringotomy
Myringotomy
and tubes Obstructive sleep apnea – pediatric Tonsillectomy

Laryngology[edit]

Dysphonia/hoarseness

Laryngitis Reinke's edema Vocal cord nodules and polyps

Spasmodic dysphonia Tracheostomy Cancer
Cancer
of the larynx Vocology – science and practice of voice habilitation

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery[edit] Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otorhinolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.

Rhinoplasty
Rhinoplasty
and septoplasty Facelift (rhytidectomy) Browlift Blepharoplasty Otoplasty Genioplasty Injectable cosmetic treatments Trauma to the face

Nasal bone
Nasal bone
fracture Mandible fracture Orbital fracture Frontal sinus fracture Complex lacerations and soft tissue damage

Skin cancer
Skin cancer
(e.g. Basal Cell Carcinoma)

See also[edit]

American Board of Otolaryngology American Osteopathic Board of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology Head and neck anatomy Head and neck cancer Head mirror Surgeon Audiology Oral and maxillofacial surgery Speech-language pathology

References[edit]

^ "otolaryngologist" entry in: Peter Harris, Sue Nagy, Nicholas Vardaxis, Mosby's Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & Health Professions - Australian & New Zealand Edition, Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009.

External links[edit]

Associations and Societies

http://jemds.com/latest-articles.php?at_id=5185 PAPILLARY CARCINOMA IN THYROGLOSSAL CYST American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society (The Trilogical Society) American Head and Neck Society British Association of Otorhinolaryngologists-Head and Neck Surgeons Australian Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Canadian Society of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery The Voice Foundation American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology International Federation of Oto-rhino-laryngological Societies American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy American Broncho-Esophagological Association American Laryngological Association Society for Ear, Nose
Nose
and Throat
Throat
Advances in Children European Federation of Otorhinolaryngological Societies American Rhinologic Society American Otological Society

Journals

Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Journal of Voice Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology Journal of Laryngology and Otology TWJ Foundation PAPILLARY CARCINOMA IN THYROGLOSSAL CYST: A CASE REPORT by Dr.Juveria Majeed

v t e

Cleft lip and palate

Related specialities

Advance practice nursing Audiology Dentistry Dietetics Genetics Oral and maxillofacial surgery Orthodontics Orthodontic technology Otolaryngology Pediatrics Pediatric dentistry Physician Plastic surgery Psychiatry Psychology Respiratory therapy Social Work Speech and language therapy

Related syndromes

Hearing loss
Hearing loss
with craniofacial syndromes Pierre Robin syndrome Popliteal pterygium syndrome Van der Woude syndrome

National and international Organisations

Cleft Lip and Palate Association Craniofacial Society of Great Britain and Ireland Interplast North Thames Regional Cleft Lip and Palate Service Operation Smile Shriners Hospitals for Children Smile Train Transforming Faces Worldwide Smile Angel Foundation
Smile Angel Foundation
(China)

Authority control

GND: 4023088-0 N

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