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Oswiu, also known as Oswy
Oswy
or Oswig (Old English: Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia
King of Bernicia
from 642 until his death. One of the sons of Æthelfrith
Æthelfrith
of Bernicia, he became king following the death of his brother Oswald in 642. Unlike Oswald, Oswiu
Oswiu
struggled to exert authority over Deira, the other constituent kingdom of medieval Northumbria, for much of his reign. Oswiu
Oswiu
and his brothers were raised in exile in the Scottish kingdom of Dál Riata
Dál Riata
after their father's death at the hands of Edwin of Deira, only returning after Edwin's death in 633. Oswiu
Oswiu
rose to the kingship when his brother Oswald was killed in battle against Penda
Penda
of Mercia. The early part of his reign was defined by struggles to assert control over Deira
Deira
and his contentious relationship with Penda, his overlord.[1] In 655, Oswiu's forces killed Penda
Penda
in a decisive victory at the Battle of the Winwæd, establishing Oswiu
Oswiu
as one of the most powerful rulers in Britain. He secured control of Deira, with his son Alhfrith serving as a sub-king,[2] and for three years, Oswiu's power extended over Mercia, earning him recognition as bretwalda over much of Great Britain.[3] Oswiu
Oswiu
was a devoted Christian, promoting the faith among his subjects and establishing a number of monasteries, including Gilling Abbey and Whitby Abbey.[4] He was raised in the Celtic Christian
Celtic Christian
tradition of much of the Irish world, rather than the Roman tradition practiced by the southern Anglo-Saxon kingdoms as well as some members of the Deiran nobility, including Oswiu's queen Eanflæd. In 664, Oswiu presided over the Synod of Whitby, where clerics debated over the two traditions, and helped resolve tension between the parties by decreeing that Northumbria
Northumbria
would follow the Roman style.[5] Oswiu
Oswiu
died in 670 and was succeeded by his son, Ecgfrith.[6]

Contents

1 Background and early life 2 Eanflæd and Oswine 3 Penda 4 Overlord of Britain 5 Ecclesiastical politics 6 Eahlfrith and the Synod of Whitby 7 Ecgfrith 8 Death 9 Family 10 Holy relics 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Background and early life[edit]

Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the early 7th century

Oswiu
Oswiu
was born circa 612, as he was 58 at his death in 670, according to Bede. He was the third child of Æthelfrith, then King of Bernicia; his siblings included older brothers Eanfrith and Oswald and sister Æbbe.[7][8] Oswiu's mother was likely Æthelfrith's only recorded wife, Acha, a princess of Deira's royal line who is known to have been Oswald's mother.[9] Regardless, his heritage did nothing to endear him to the Deiran nobility; while they accepted Oswald as king apparently on account of his mother, they resisted Oswiu
Oswiu
throughout his reign.[10] At the time of Oswiu's birth, Æthelfrith
Æthelfrith
was at the height of his power. In 604 he had taken control of Deira, evidently by conquest; he killed the previous king (apparently Æthelric), married Acha, a member of the kingly line, and exiled Acha's brother Edwin. His authority ran from the lands of the Picts
Picts
and the Dál Riata
Dál Riata
in modern Scotland
Scotland
to Wales
Wales
and the Midlands in the south.[11] Æthelfrith's power rested on his military success, and this success came to an end in 616, when the exiled Edwin of Deira, with the support of King Rædwald, defeated and killed him in battle by the River Idle.[12] On Æthelfrith's death, his sons and their supporters fled Northumbria, finding sanctuary among the Gaels
Gaels
and Picts
Picts
of northern Britain and Ireland. Here they would remain until Edwin's death at the Battle of Hatfield Chase
Battle of Hatfield Chase
in 633.[13][14] In exile, the sons of Æthelfrith
Æthelfrith
were converted to Christianity, or raised as Christians.[13] In Oswiu's case, he became an exile at the age of four, and cannot have returned to Northumbria
Northumbria
until aged twenty-one, spending childhood and adolescence in a Gaelic milieu. Bede
Bede
writes that Oswiu
Oswiu
was fluent in the Old Irish language and Irish in his faith.[15] As well as learning the Scottish language and being thoroughly Christianised, Oswiu
Oswiu
may have fought for his Gaelic hosts, perhaps receiving his arms—a significant event—from a King of Dál Riata, such as Eochaid Buide, son of that Áedán mac Gabráin
Áedán mac Gabráin
whom his father had defeated at the Battle of Degsastan.[16] The Irish annals name one Oisiric mac Albruit, rigdomna Saxan—ætheling Osric—among the dead, alongside Connad Cerr, King of Dál Riata, and others of the Cenél nGabráin, at the Battle of Fid Eóin.[17] Whether Oswiu's marriage with the Uí Néill princess Fín of the Cenél nEógain, and the birth of Aldfrith, should be placed in the context of his exile, or took place at a later date is uncertain.[18] Equally uncertain is the date of Oswiu's return to Northumbria. He may have returned with Eanfrith on Edwin's death in 633, as Bede
Bede
appears to write.[13] Eanfrith apostatised and was killed by Cadwallon, who was defeated and killed in turn by another brother, Oswald, who became king of Bernicia
Bernicia
and probably succeeded to his father's old dominance of northern and central Britain.[19] Eanflæd and Oswine[edit] Oswald died in battle against Penda of Mercia
Penda of Mercia
at the Battle of Maserfield, dated by Bede
Bede
to 5 August 642.[20] Oswald's son Œthelwald may have been his preferred successor, but Œthelwald cannot have been an adult in 642. So, the kingship came to Oswiu. Unlike Eanfrith and Osric, Oswiu
Oswiu
held to the Christian faith in spite of his brother's defeat by the pagan Penda. This may have been due to his more thoroughly Christian upbringing, but the influence of Bishop Aidan of Lindisfarne, by then a major figure in Bernicia, could also have been significant.[21] Bede
Bede
summarises Oswiu's reign in this way:

Oswald being translated to the heavenly kingdom, his brother Oswy, a young man of about thirty years of age, succeeded him on the throne of his earthly kingdom, and held it twenty-eight years with much trouble, being harassed by the pagan king, Penda, and by the pagan nation of the Mercians, that had slain his brother, as also by his son Alfred [i.e. Ealhfrith], and by his cousin-german Ethelwald [i.e. Œthelwald of Deira], the son of his brother who reigned before him.[22]

Oswiu's first recorded action as king of Bernicia
Bernicia
was to strengthen his position, and perhaps his claims to Deira, by marrying Edwin's daughter Eanflæd, then in exile in the Kingdom of Kent.[23] This marriage took place between 642 and 644.[24] Oswiu
Oswiu
is known to have been married three times. Eanflæd, his Queen, bore him two sons and two daughters. The sons were Ecgfrith (644x645–685) and Ælfwine (c. 660–679), the daughters Osthryth (died 697) and Ælfflæd (c. 654–714). The Irish princess Fín was the mother of Aldfrith
Aldfrith
(died 705). Finally, the British princess Rieinmellt, of Rheged, is named as a wife of Oswiu
Oswiu
in the Historia Brittonum.[25] It is thought that Eahlfrith was her son,[26] and Eahlflæd may have been her daughter.[27] The first half of Oswiu's reign was spent in the shadow of Penda, who dominated much of Britain from 642 until 655, seemingly making and breaking kings as it suited him.[28] The future kingdom of Northumbria was still composed of two distinct kingdoms in Oswiu's lifetime. The northerly kingdom of Bernicia, which extended from the River Tees
River Tees
to the Firth of Forth, was ruled by Oswiu. The kingdom of Deira, lying between the North York Moors
North York Moors
and the Humber, was ruled by a series of Oswiu's kinsmen, initially as a separate kingdom, later as a form of appanage for Oswiu's sons.[29] For the first decade of Oswiu's reign, Deira
Deira
was ruled by an independent king, Oswine, son of the apostate Osric, who belonged to the rival Deiran royal family.[30] Oswine and Oswiu
Oswiu
came into conflict circa 651, Bede
Bede
blames Oswiu
Oswiu
for the troubles and writes:

For when they had raised armies against one another, Oswin perceived that he could not maintain a war against one who had more auxiliaries than himself, and he thought it better at that time to lay aside all thoughts of engaging, and to preserve himself for better times. He therefore dismissed the army which he had assembled, and ordered all his men to return to their own homes, from the place that is called Wilfaresdun, that is, Wilfar's Hill, which is almost ten miles distant from the village called Cataract [i.e. Catterick], towards the north-west. He himself, with only one trusty soldier, whose name was Tonhere, withdrew and lay concealed in the house of Earl [comes] Hunwald, whom he imagined to be his most assured friend. But, alas! it was otherwise; for the earl betrayed him, and Oswy, in a detestable manner, by the hands of his commander [praefectus], Ethilwin, slew him...[22]

In order to expiate the killing of Oswine, who was later reckoned a saint, Oswiu
Oswiu
established Gilling Abbey at Gilling, where prayers were said for Oswine and for Oswiu.[22] Oswine was followed as king of the Deirans by Oswald's son Œthelwald. Penda[edit] Oswiu's relations with Penda
Penda
were not entirely peaceful between 642 and 655. Bede
Bede
appears to place a major assault on Bernicia
Bernicia
by Penda, which reached the gates of Bamburgh, at some time before 651 and the death of Bishop Aidan of Lindisfarne.[31] An entry in the Irish annals recording "[t]he battle of Oswy
Oswy
against Penda" circa 650 may refer to this campaign.[32] D.P. Kirby suggests that the killing of Oswine may have led to an improvement in relations between Penda
Penda
and Oswiu
Oswiu
in the early 650s. Oswiu's son Ealhfrith married Penda's daughter Cyneburh, while his daughter Ealhflæd married Penda's son Peada. Peada
Peada
was baptised at Ad Murum—in the region of Hadrian's Wall—by Aidan's successor Finan. Peada
Peada
and Ealhflæd took a missionary group, including Cedd
Cedd
and Diuma, to establish a church in their lands.[33] In 655 Bede
Bede
reports that Penda
Penda
invaded Bernicia
Bernicia
at the head of a large army. Bede
Bede
states that Oswiu
Oswiu
offered "an incalculable quantity of regalia and presents as the price of peace", but that Penda
Penda
refused. Oswiu
Oswiu
vowed to give his daughter Ælfflæd to the church, and to found a dozen monasteries if he was granted the victory, and assisted by Ealhfrith he engaged Penda
Penda
with a small army in the Battle of the Winwæd, which took place in the region of Loidis, which is to say Leeds. He was successful, and Penda
Penda
was killed, along with many of his allies, including King Æthelhere of the East Angles. Œthelwald had assisted Penda, but stood aside from the fighting.[34] The Historia Brittonum gives a somewhat different account. Here, Oswiu's offer of treasure is accepted, and is associated with the siege of a place named Iudeu. It is assumed that Ecgfrith was given over as a hostage, into the keeping of Penda's queen Cynewise, at this time.[35] The Historia suggests that many of Penda's allies were British kings, and notes that Cadafael ap Cynfeddw
Cadafael ap Cynfeddw
joined Œthelwald in avoiding the battle, so gaining the epithet Cadomedd (the Battle-Shirker). The decisive battle is located at "Gaius's field".[36] Overlord of Britain[edit] The surprising defeat of the hitherto dominant Penda, and the death of the East Anglian king Æthelhere left Oswiu
Oswiu
as the dominant figure in Britain. Œthelwald's ambivalent stance during the campaign which led to the Winwæd appears to have led to his removal as he disappears from the record at this time. Oswiu
Oswiu
installed his adult son Eahlfrith as king of Deirans in Œthelwald's place. Penda's son Peada
Peada
was installed as king of southern Mercia, while Oswiu
Oswiu
took the north of the kingdom. Other subject rulers seem to have been established elsewhere in Mercia. Further south, Æthelhere's brother Æthelwold may have been established with Oswiu's assistance, as well as that of his kinsman by marriage King Eorcenberht of Kent. Cenwalh of Wessex, who had been driven out of his lands by Penda
Penda
for putting aside his marriage to Penda's sister, may also have returned to power in this period, again with Oswiu's assistance. King Sigeberht the Good
Sigeberht the Good
of the East Saxons was Oswiu's ally.[37] Oswiu's nephew, Eanfrith's son Talorcan, may have also been established as a leading king among the Picts
Picts
at this time.[38] Oswiu's total domination lasted only a short time, around three years. The proximate cause was the death of Peada, supposedly poisoned by his wife, Oswiu's daughter Eahlflæd.[39] This probably occurred at Easter 656, and Oswiu
Oswiu
proceeded to install governors or subject kings in Mercia. Probably in late 659, but perhaps in 657, a revolt led by three Mercian noblemen—Immin, Eata, and Eadberht—installed Penda's son Wulfhere as ruler of the Mercians and drove out Oswiu's supporters.[40] Oswiu
Oswiu
remained a force to be reckoned with, and political settlement rather than open warfare appears to have resolved the crisis. Oswiu's kinsman Trumhere was named to be Wulfhere's bishop.[41] While Wulfhere extended Mercian influence and authority in southern Britain, he apparently continued to recognise Oswiu's primacy.[42] Welsh sources suggest that Oswiu
Oswiu
campaigned in Wales
Wales
in the late 650s, imposing tribute on the Welsh kings who had previously been Penda's allies such as Cadafael, the battle-dodging King of Gwynedd.[43] Elsewhere in the south, Oswiu's ally Sigeberht of the East Saxons was murdered and replaced by his brother Swithhelm, who remained a Christian, but distanced himself from Oswiu
Oswiu
and the Irish-Northumbrian church. Switthelm was probably subject to the East Angles.[44] Ecclesiastical politics[edit]

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Eahlfrith and the Synod of Whitby[edit] Main article: Synod of Whitby In 664 at the synod of Whitby,[45] Oswiu
Oswiu
accepted the usages of the Roman Church, which led to the departure of Bishop Colman of Lindisfarne. The reasons of the gathering, and its significance, have been closely studied, and the simplistic explanations offered by Bede, and by Eddius, the biographer of Wilfrid, are no longer accepted[according to whom?]. Bede
Bede
writes that the dispute was brought to a head by Oswiu's son Eahlfrith, who had adopted Roman usages at the urging of Wilfrid.[46] Eahlfrith had been brought up with Irish-Northumbrian usages, and his rejection of these, along with the expulsion of the future saints Cuthbert of Lindisfarne
Cuthbert of Lindisfarne
and Eata of Hexham
Eata of Hexham
from Ripon, is considered to have had a strong political component.[47] Equally, 665 would be a year when, as Bede
Bede
writes, "that Easter
Easter
was kept twice in one year, so that when the King had ended Lent
Lent
and was keeping Easter, the Queen and her attendants were still fasting and keeping Palm Sunday".[46] Ecgfrith[edit] In 660 Oswiu
Oswiu
married his son Ecgfrith to Æthelthryth, daughter of the former East Anglian king Anna. Death[edit] Even in his final years, Oswiu
Oswiu
remained a major figure in Britain. The newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury, Theodore of Tarsus, came north to meet him in 669. Bede
Bede
writes that Oswiu
Oswiu
had intended to undertake a pilgrimage to Rome
Rome
in the company of Bishop Wilfrid. However, he fell ill and died, aged fifty eight, on 15 February 670.[8] His elder son by Queen Eanflæd, Ecgfrith, succeeded him as King of Bernicia, while their younger son, Ælfwine, succeeded Ecgfrith as King of Deira. He was buried at Whitby Abbey, alongside Edwin of Deira. His widow and their daughter Ælflæd were later Abbess of Whitby and were also buried there.[34] Alcuin, writing about a century after Oswiu's death, describes him as "very just, with equitable laws, unconquered in battle but trustworthy in peace, generous in gifts to the wretched, pious, equitable to all".[48] Family[edit]

Alhfrith Ecgfrith Ælfwine Osthryth Ælfflæd Aldfrith Ealhflæd

Holy relics[edit] Oswy
Oswy
was a collector of Holy Relics, for example Pope Vitalian
Pope Vitalian
sent filings from Saint Peter's chains to Oswy
Oswy
in the seventh century.[49] See also[edit]

Kings of Mercia family tree

Notes[edit]

^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, pp. 78–79, 105. ^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, p. 79. ^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, pp. 82, 105. ^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, pp. 48, 80. ^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, pp. 79, 82. ^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms p. 82. ^ Fryde et al., Handbook of British Chronology, p. 5. ^ a b Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book IV, Chapter 5. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 6, states that Oswald was Acha's son; Kirby, p. 89, and Stancliffe & Cambridge, p. 13, figure 1, consider it probable that Oswiu
Oswiu
was also her son. ^ Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, p. 78, 79. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book I, Chapter 34 & Book II, Chapter 3. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book II, Chapter 12. ^ a b c Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 1. ^ Æthelfrith's sons were not the first Anglian exiles to seek refuge in the kingdoms of the north. Hering, son of King Hussa of Bernicia, is said by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
to have fought with Áedán mac Gabráin, King of Dál Riata, against Æthelfrith, at the Battle of Degsastan; Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Ms. E, s.a. 603. The choice of a northerly exile, rather than flight to one of the southerly Anglo-Saxon kingdoms is discussed by Grimmer, §3–§6. ^ " Oswy
Oswy
thought that nothing could be better than the Irish teaching, having been instructed and baptized by the Irish, and having a complete grasp of their language"; Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 5. ^ Grimmer, §8. ^ Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 631; Grimmer, §9. ^ Grimmer, §25; Kirby, p. 143.; Williams, p. 18. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapters 1–2; Adomnán, Life of Saint Columba, Book I, Chapter 1; Stancliffe, pp. 46–61. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 9. ^ Higham, Convert Kings, pp. 220–221. ^ a b c Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 14. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 15. ^ Their son Ecgfrith was born no later than May 645. ^ Rieinmellt also appears, as Rægnmæld, in the Liber Vitae Ecclesiae Dunelmensis, among the Queens, immediately preceding Eanflæd; Grimmer §28. ^ Stancliffe & Cambridge, p. 13, figure 1. ^ Eahlflæd is said to have arranged the murder of Peada, in 657 or 658, suggesting that she was not Eanflæd's daughter; Bede, H. E., Book III, chapter 24. See also Higham, Convert Kings, pp. 252–253. ^ Cenwalh of Wessex was driven from his country when he set aside Penda's sister. Anna of East Anglia, Cenwalh's host, was also driven into exile, and later defeated and killed by Penda
Penda
at Bulcamp, near Blythburgh
Blythburgh
in 653 or 654, when he returned to East Anglia. ^ Deira
Deira
was ruled by Oswine from 642 to 651, then by Œthelwald until 655 or later, then by Eahlfrith to after 664, and finally by Ecgfrith. See Kirby, p. 226, figure 7; Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, p. 75, table 8. ^ Oswine was Oswiu's maternal second cousin; Yorke, Kings and Kingdoms, p. 76, table 9. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 16. ^ Fraser, p. 20; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 650. ^ Kirby, pp. 93–94; Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 21. ^ a b Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 24. The Winwæd is thought to be the River Went; Keynes, "Penda". ^ Kirby, pp. 90, 94–95 accepts that Iudeu, also Giudi, may have been the site of modern Stirling, and proposes that Ecgfrith became a hostage as a result of Oswiu's submission to Penda. ^ Historia Brittonum, Chapters 64–65. ^ Kirby, p. 96–97. ^ Or not, needed. ^ Higham, Convert Kings, pp. 252–253, sees Eahlfrith's hand in his sister's murder of her husband. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 24. ^ Trumhere was a relation of Queen Eanflæd and first abbot of Gilling, established to expiate the killing of Oswine of Deira; Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 24. ^ Higham, Convert Kings, pp. 245–247. Kirby notes Wulfhere's marriage to Eormenhild, daughter of the Kentish King Eorcenberht, the one ruler over whom Oswiu
Oswiu
held no sway; Kirby, p. 114. ^ Kirby, p. 96. ^ Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 22; Higham, Convert Kings, p. 249; Kirby, p. 97. ^ The dating is discussed by Kirby, p. 101, who concludes that the synod can confidently be placed in 644. ^ a b Bede, Ecclesiastical History, Book III, Chapter 25. ^ Higham, Convert Kings, pp. 250–275. For an overview of the Easter controversy, see Stevens. ^ Proposography of Anglo-Saxon England, quoting Alcuin's The Bishops, Kings and Saints of York. ^ Wall, J. Charles. (1912), Porches and Fonts. Pub. London: Wells Gardner and Darton. P. 295.

References[edit]

"The Annals of Tigernach" (in Middle Irish). CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. Retrieved 2007-04-22.  "The Annals of Ulster, volume 1". CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. Retrieved 2007-04-22.  Bede, Ecclesiastical History of the English People. Translated by Leo Sherley-Price, revised R.E. Latham, ed. D.H. Farmer. London: Penguin, 1990. ISBN 0-14-044565-X Blair, Peter Hunter, The World of Bede. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, reprinted 1990. ISBN 0-521-39138-5 Charles-Edwards, T.M., Early Christian Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-36395-0 Eddius, "Life of Wilfrid" in D.H. Farmer (ed.) & J.H. Webb (trans.), The Age of Bede. London: Penguin, 1998. ISBN 0-140-44727-X Fraser, James, The Pictish Conquest: The Battle of Dunnichen 685 & the birth of Scotland. Stroud: Tempus, 2006. ISBN 0-7524-3962-6 Grimmer, Martin (October 2006). "The Exogamous Marriages of Oswiu
Oswiu
of Northumbria". The Heroic Age, issue 9. Retrieved 2007-04-06.  Higham, N.J., The Convert Kings: Power and religious affiliation in early Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7190-4828-1 Higham, N.J., The Kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
AD 350–1100. Stroud: Sutton, 1993. ISBN 0-86299-730-5 Holdsworth, Philip, "Oswiu" in M. Lapidge, et al., (eds), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. ISBN 0-631-22492-0 Keynes, Simon, "Penda" in M. Lapidge, et al., (eds), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. ISBN 0-631-22492-0 Kirby, D.P., The Earliest English Kings. London: Unwin Hyman, 1991. ISBN 0-04-445691-3 Stenton, Sir Frank, Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3rd edition, 1971. ISBN 0-19-280139-2 Stevens, Wesley M., " Easter
Easter
Controversy" in M. Lapidge, et al., (eds), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. ISBN 0-631-22492-0 Veith, Kenneth (1997). "The Columban Church in northern Britain, 664–717: a reassessment" (pdf). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, volume 127. Retrieved 2007-04-06.  Williams, Ann, Kingship and Government in Pre-Conquest England, c. 500–1066. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1999. ISBN 0-333-56798-6 Yorke, Barbara, Kings and Kingdoms in Early Anglo-Saxon England. London: Seaby, 1990. ISBN 1-85264-027-8 Yorke, Barbara, The Conversion of Britain: Religion, Politics and Society in Britain c. 600–800. London: Longman, 2006. ISBN 0-582-77292-3 Zaluckyj, Sarah, Mercia: The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Central England. Logaston: Logaston Press, 2001. ISBN 978-1-873827-62-8. Ziegler, Michelle (Winter 2001). "Oswald and the Irish". The Heroic Age, issue 4. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ecclesiastical History of the English People

Oswiu
Oswiu
1 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Oswio". Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 365. 

v t e

Bretwaldas

Ælle of Sussex Ceawlin of Wessex Æthelberht of Kent Rædwald of East Anglia Edwin of Deira Oswald of Bernicia Oswy
Oswy
of Northumbria Wulfhere of Mercia 1 Æthelred of Mercia 1 Æthelbald of Mercia 1 Offa of Mercia 1 Cœnwulf of Mercia 1 Egbert of Wessex

1 Not listed in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, but held equivalent or greater power.

v t e

Monarchs of Northumbria

Kings of Deira
Deira
and Bernicia 604–642

Æthelfrith Eadwine Oswald

Kings of Northumbria 642–867

Oswiu Ecgfrith Ealdfrith Eadwulf I Osred I Coenred Osric Ceolwulf Eadberht Oswulf Æthelwald Moll Ealhred Æthelred I Ælfwald I Osred II Osbald Eardwulf Ælfwald II Eanred Æthelred II Redwulf Osberht Ælla

Kings of Viking Northumbria 867–954

Ecgberht Ricsige Halfdan I Guthfrith I Siefredus Cnut Æthelwold Airdeconut Eowils Halfdan II Ingwær Ragnall I Sitric I Caech Guthfrith II Olaf I Guthfrithson Sitric II Olaf II Cuaran Ragnall II Guthfrithson Eric Bloodaxe

v t e

Monarchs of Mercia

Kingdom of Mercia 527–918

Icel Cnebba Cynewald Creoda Pybba Cearl Penda Eowa Peada Oswiu of Northumbria Wulfhere Æthelred I Coenred Ceolred Ceolwald Æthelbald Beornred Offa1 Ecgfrith Coenwulf1 Cynehelm Ceolwulf I1 Beornwulf2 Ludeca Wiglaf Ecgberht of Wessex Wigmund Wigstan Ælfflæd Beorhtwulf Burgred Ceolwulf II Æthelred II3 Æthelflæd3 Ælfwynn3

Later monarchs

Æthelstan4 Eadgar4

1Also King of Kent and East Anglia 2Also King of East Anglia 3Recognising West Saxon overlordship 4King of Mercia during the temporary separation of Mercia and Wessex

v t e

Monarchs of Deira

Ælla (559–588) Æthelric (589–604) Æthelfrith
Æthelfrith
(604–616) Edwin (616–632) Osric (633–634) Oswald (634–642) Oswiu
Oswiu
(642–644) Oswine (644–651) Œthelwald (651–654) Oswiu
Oswiu
(654–670) Alchfrith (656–664 - joint king) Ælfwine (670–679)

v t e

Monarchs of Bernicia

Ida (547–559) Glappa (559–560) Adda (560–568) Æthelric (568–572) Theodric (572–579) Frithuwald (579–585) Hussa (585–593) Æthelfrith
Æthelfrith
(593–616) Edwin (616–632) Eanfrith (632–633) Oswald (634–641)

.