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The Osmanya alphabet
Osmanya alphabet
(Somali: Farta Cismaanya; Osmanya: 𐒋𐒘𐒈𐒑𐒛𐒒𐒕𐒀), also known as Far Soomaali ("Somali writing") and, in Arabic, as al-kitābah al-ʿuthmānīyah, is a writing script created to transcribe the Somali language. It was invented between 1920 and 1922 by Osman Yusuf Kenadid, the son of Sultan Yusuf Ali Kenadid and brother of Sultan Ali Yusuf Kenadid
Ali Yusuf Kenadid
of the Sultanate of Hobyo.

Contents

1 History 2 Description

2.1 Letters 2.2 Numbers

3 Unicode 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

History[edit]

Osman Yusuf Kenadid

While Osmanya gained reasonably wide acceptance in Somalia
Somalia
and quickly produced a considerable body of literature, it proved difficult to spread among the population mainly due to stiff competition from the long-established Arabic script
Arabic script
as well as the emerging Somali Latin alphabet developed by the Somali linguist, Shire Jama Ahmed, which was based on the Latin script. As nationalist sentiments grew and since the Somali language
Somali language
had long lost its ancient script,[1] the adoption of a universally recognized writing script for the Somali language
Somali language
became an important point of discussion. After independence, little progress was made on the issue, as opinion was divided over whether the Arabic or Latin scripts should be used instead. In October 1972, because of the Latin script's simplicity, its ability to cope with all of the sounds in the language, and the widespread existence of machines and typewriters designed for its use,[2][3] made President Mohamed Siad Barre
Mohamed Siad Barre
require it for writing Somali instead of the Arabic or Osmanya scripts.[4] Barre's administration subsequently launched a massive literacy campaign designed to ensure its sole adoption, which led to a sharp decline in use of Osmanya. Description[edit] The direction of reading and writing in Osmanya is from left to right. Letter names are based on the names of letters in Arabic, and the long vowels uu and ii are represented by the letters waaw and yaa, respectively. Letters[edit]

Osmanya Name Latin IPA Osmanya Name Latin IPA Osmanya Name Latin IPA

𐒀 alef ’ [ʔ] 𐒁 ba b [b] 𐒂 ta t [t]

𐒃 ja j [d͡ʒ] 𐒄 xa x [ħ] 𐒅 kha kh [χ]

𐒆 deel d [d] 𐒇 ra r [r] 𐒈 sa s [s]

𐒉 shiin sh [ʃ] 𐒊 dha dh [ɖ] 𐒋 cayn c [ʕ]

𐒌 ga g [g] 𐒍 fa f [f] 𐒎 qaaf q [q]

𐒏 kaaf k [k] 𐒐 laan l [l] 𐒑 miin m [m]

𐒒 nuun n [n] 𐒓 waw w, uu [w, ʉː, uː] 𐒔 ha h [h]

𐒕 ya y, ii [j, iː, ɪː] 𐒖 a a [æ, ɑ] 𐒗 e e [e, ɛ]

𐒘 i i [i, ɪ] 𐒙 o o [ɞ, ɔ] 𐒚 u u [ʉ, u]

𐒛

aa [æː, ɑː] 𐒜

ee [eː, ɛː] 𐒝

oo [ɞː, ɔː]

Numbers[edit]

Digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Osmanya 𐒠 𐒡 𐒢 𐒣 𐒤 𐒥 𐒦 𐒧 𐒨 𐒩

Unicode[edit] Main article: Osmanya ( Unicode
Unicode
block) Osmanya script was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in April, 2003 with the release of version 4.0. The Unicode
Unicode
block for Osmanya is U+10480–U+104AF:

Osmanya[1][2] Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)

  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+1048x 𐒀 𐒁 𐒂 𐒃 𐒄 𐒅 𐒆 𐒇 𐒈 𐒉 𐒊 𐒋 𐒌 𐒍 𐒎 𐒏

U+1049x 𐒐 𐒑 𐒒 𐒓 𐒔 𐒕 𐒖 𐒗 𐒘 𐒙 𐒚 𐒛 𐒜 𐒝

U+104Ax 𐒠 𐒡 𐒢 𐒣 𐒤 𐒥 𐒦 𐒧 𐒨 𐒩

Notes

1.^ As of Unicode
Unicode
version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also[edit]

Somali orthography Borama Kaddare

Notes[edit]

^ Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somalia, The writing of the Somali language, (Ministry of Information and National Guidance: 1974), p.5 ^ Andrew Simpson, Language and National Identity in Africa, (Oxford University Press: 2008), p.288 ^ Economist Intelligence Unit (Great Britain), Middle East annual review, (1975), p.229 ^ Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi, Culture and Customs of Somalia, (Greenwood Press: 2001), p.73

References[edit]

I.M. Lewis (1958) Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 21 pp 134–156.

External links[edit]

Osmanya, Borama, Wadaad's writing and the Somali language Afkeenna iyo fartiisa - a book in Osmanya Somali Native Alphabet The report of the Somali Language Committee Unicode
Unicode
assignments for Osmanya characters Osmanya Unicode
Unicode
Fonts

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Overview

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undeciphered inventors constructed

Languages by writing system / by first written accounts

Types

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Numerals

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ʾEsṭrangēlā Serṭā Maḏnḥāyā

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Northern

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Uchen Umê

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Southern

Ahom Balinese Batak Baybayin Bhattiprolu Buhid Burmese Chakma Cham Grantha Goykanadi Hanunó'o Javanese Kadamba Kannada Karen Kawi Khmer Kulitan Lanna Lao Leke Lontara Malayalam Maldivian

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Kolezhuthu Malayanma

Visayan

Others

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Beneventan Blackletter Carolingian minuscule Fraktur Gaelic Insular Kurrent Merovingian Sigla Sütterlin Tironian notes Visigothic

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Non-linear

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Ideograms/Pictograms

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large small bird-worm

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Chinese-influenced

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Cuneiform

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Other logo-syllabic

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Logo-consonantal

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Numerals

Hindu-Arabic Abjad Attic (Greek) Muisca Roman

Semi-syllabaries

Full

Celtiberian Northeastern Iberian Southeastern Iberian Khom

Redundant

Espanca Pahawh Hmong Khitan small script Southwest Paleohispanic Zhuyin fuhao

Somacheirograms

ASLwrite SignWriting si5s Stokoe Notation

Syllabaries

Afaka Bamum Bété Byblos Cherokee Cypriot Cypro-Minoan Ditema tsa Dinoko Eskayan Geba Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics Iban Japanese

Hiragana Katakana Man'yōgana Hentaigana Sogana Jindai moji

Kikakui Kpelle Linear B Linear Elamite Lisu Loma Nüshu Nwagu Aneke script Old Persian Cuneiform Vai Woleai Yi (Modern) Yugtun

v t e

Braille
Braille
 ⠃⠗⠁⠊⠇⠇⠑

Braille
Braille
cell

1829 braille International uniformity ASCII braille Unicode
Unicode
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Braille
Braille
scripts

French-ordered scripts (see for more)

Albanian Amharic Arabic Armenian Azerbaijani Belarusian Bharati

Devanagari
Devanagari
(Hindi  / Marathi  / Nepali) Bengali Punjabi Sinhalese Tamil Urdu etc.

Bulgarian Burmese Cambodian Cantonese Catalan Chinese (Mandarin, mainland) Czech Dutch Dzongkha (Bhutanese) English (Unified English) Esperanto Estonian Faroese French Georgian German Ghanaian Greek Guarani Hawaiian Hebrew Hungarian Icelandic Inuktitut (reassigned vowels) Iñupiaq IPA Irish Italian Kazakh Kyrgyz Latvian Lithuanian Maltese Mongolian Māori Navajo Nigerian Northern Sami Persian Philippine Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Samoan Scandinavian Slovak South African Spanish Tatar Taiwanese Mandarin (largely reassigned) Thai & Lao (Japanese vowels) Tibetan Turkish Ukrainian Vietnamese Welsh Yugoslav

Reordered scripts

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Braille
(obsolete)

Frequency-based scripts

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Braille
(obsolete)

Independent scripts

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Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
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Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

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Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

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Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary) SMS language

v t e

Writing systems

Overview

History of writing History of the alphabet Graphemes Scripts in Unicode

Lists

Writing systems Languages by writing system / by first written account Undeciphered writing systems Inventors of writing systems

Types

Featural Alphabets Abjads Alphasyllabaries / Abugidas Syllabaries Semi-syllabaries Ideogrammic Pictographic L

.