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Oslo
Oslo
(English: /ˈɒzloʊ/, OZ-loh,[9] Norwegian pronunciation: [²uʂlu] ( listen) or, rarer [²uslu] or [ˈuʂlu]) is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway
Norway
around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 and with Sweden
Sweden
from 1814 to 1905 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress
Akershus Fortress
and renamed Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. Following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 until 1925, in which year its original Norwegian name of Oslo
Oslo
was restored. Oslo
Oslo
is the economic and governmental centre of Norway. The city is also a hub of Norwegian trade, banking, industry and shipping. It is an important centre for maritime industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers and maritime insurance brokers. Oslo
Oslo
is a pilot city of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and the European Commission
European Commission
intercultural cities programme. Oslo
Oslo
is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.[10] It was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine.[11] A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo
Oslo
as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo.[12] In 2013 Oslo
Oslo
tied with the Australian city of Melbourne
Melbourne
as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
(EIU)'s Worldwide Cost of Living study.[13] As of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo
Oslo
had a population of 672 061, while the population of the city's urban area was 942,084.[4] The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million.[14] The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.[15] This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but also from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population,[16] and in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total.[17]

Contents

1 Urban region

1.1 Boroughs

2 General information

2.1 Toponymy 2.2 City seal

3 History

3.1 1000–1600 3.2 17th century 3.3 18th century 3.4 19th century 3.5 1900–present

4 Geography

4.1 Climate

5 Parks and recreation areas 6 Cityscape

6.1 Architecture

7 Politics and government

7.1 2015 elections

8 Economy 9 Environment 10 Education

10.1 Institutions of higher education

11 Culture

11.1 Food 11.2 Museums, galleries 11.3 Music and events 11.4 Performing arts 11.5 Literature 11.6 Media 11.7 Sports

12 Crime 13 Transport 14 Demographics 15 Notable residents 16 International relations

16.1 Twin towns – partner cities – and regions 16.2 Christmas trees as gifts

17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links

Urban region[edit] As of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo
Oslo
had a population of 658,390.[2] The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus
Akershus
(municipalities of Asker, Bærum, Røyken, Rælingen, Lørenskog, Nittedal, Skedsmo, Ski, Sørum, Gjerdrum, Oppegård); the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084.[18] The city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, and southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y" (on maps, satellite pictures, or from high above the city). To the north and east, wide forested hills (Marka) rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality (bykommune) of Oslo
Oslo
and county [fylke] of Oslo
Oslo
are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo
Oslo
the only city in Norway
Norway
where two administrative levels are integrated. Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 (50 sq mi) is built-up and 7 km2 (2.7 sq mi) is agricultural. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi).[citation needed] The city of Oslo
Oslo
was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). It was separated from the county of Akershus
Akershus
to become a county of its own in 1842. The rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo
Oslo
on 1 January 1948 (and simultaneously transferred from Akershus
Akershus
county to Oslo
Oslo
county). Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus
Akershus
county. Boroughs[edit] Main article: List of boroughs of Oslo As defined in January 2004 by the city council[19][note]

Boroughs Inhabitants (2015)[20] Area in km² number

Alna 48,770 13.7 12

Bjerke 30,502 7.7 9

Frogner 55,965 8.3 5

Gamle Oslo 49,854 7.5 1

Grorud 27,283 8.2 10

Grünerløkka 54,701 4.8 2

Nordre Aker 49,337 13.6 8

Nordstrand 49,428 16.9 14

Sagene 39,918 3.1 3

St. Hanshaugen 36,218 3.6 4

Stovner 31,669 8.2 11

Søndre Nordstrand 37,913 18.4 15

Ullern 32,124 9 6

Vestre Aker 47,024 16.6 7

Østensjø 49,133 12.2 13

Overall 647,676 151.8

^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. General information[edit] Toponymy[edit] For full article, see History of Oslo's name

The Royal Palace is the home of the Royal Family

The origin of the name Oslo
Oslo
has been the subject of much debate. It is certainly derived from Old Norse
Old Norse
and was—in all probability—originally the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists generally interpret the original Óslo or Áslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered equally likely.[21] Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis
Peder Claussøn Friis
first proposed this etymology, but the very name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros (cf. Nidaros).[22] The name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his [idea about] etymology for Oslo.[23] City seal[edit] Main article: Seal of Oslo Oslo
Oslo
is one of very few cities in Norway, besides Bergen
Bergen
and Tønsberg, that does not have a formal coat of arms, but which uses a city seal instead.[24] The seal of Oslo
Oslo
shows the city's patron saint, St. Hallvard, with his attributes, the millstone and arrows, with a naked woman at his feet. He is seated on a throne with lion decorations, which at the time was also commonly used by the Norwegian kings.[25] History[edit]

Oslo
Oslo
timeline (major events) See also expanded timeline

CA. 1000 AD First traces of buildings. The St. Clement's Church is built.

CA. 1050 AD Oslo
Oslo
marked as a city. Mariakirken is built.

1152/53 AD The Cathedral school
Cathedral school
is established

1299 AD Oslo
Oslo
becomes the capital of Norway

CA. 1300 Construction of Akershus Fortress
Akershus Fortress
starts.

1350 AD Around 3/4 of the population dies under the Black Death.

1352 AD St. Hallvard's Cathedral
St. Hallvard's Cathedral
and the other Sogne Churches are burned to the ground in a major fire

1624 AD Another major fire, the city is rebuilt and renamed Christiania by Christian IV.

1686 AD Fire ruins 1/4 of the city.

1697 AD Domkirken is finished and opened

1716 AD The city and the fortress conquered by Karl XII.

1813 The University is opened.

1825 The foundations of Slottet are finished.

1836 The National Gallery is finished.

1837 Christiania Theatre
Christiania Theatre
is opened. Christiania and Aker get a Mayor and kommunestyre.

1854 Oslo
Oslo
gets its first railway, which leads to Eidsvoll.

1866 Stortinget
Stortinget
is completed.

1878 City expanded. Frogner, Majorstuen, Torshov, Kampen and Vålerengen are populated and rebuilt. 113 000 citizens.

1892 The first Holmenkollbakken
Holmenkollbakken
is finished.

1894 The city gets its first electrical track.

1899 Nationaltheateret
Nationaltheateret
is finished.

1925 City renamed as Oslo.

1927 The Monolith is raised.

1928 Oslo
Oslo
first Metro line, Majorstuen-Besserud is opened.

1950 Oslo City Hall
Oslo City Hall
opened.

1963 The Munch Museum
Munch Museum
is opened.

1980 Metro line under the city, Oslo Central Station
Oslo Central Station
and Nationaltheatret Station opened.

1997 Population over 500 000.

1998 Rikshospitalet
Rikshospitalet
opened. New railway line to Gardermoen.

2000 The city celebrates thousand-years jubilee.

2008 Oslo Opera House
Oslo Opera House
is opened.

2011 Several buildings in the Regjeringskvartalet
Regjeringskvartalet
are heavily damaged during a terrorist attack, resulting in 8 deaths. 69 people are massacred on the nearby Utøya
Utøya
island.

According to the Norse sagas, Oslo
Oslo
was founded around 1049 by Harald Hardrada.[26] Recent archaeological research however has uncovered Christian burials which can be dated to prior to AD 1000, evidence of a preceding urban settlement.[citation needed] This called for the celebration of Oslo's millennium in 2000. It has been regarded as the capital city since the reign of Haakon V of Norway
Norway
(1299–1319), the first king to reside permanently in the city. He also started the construction of the Akershus Fortress
Akershus Fortress
and the Oslo
Oslo
Kongsgård. A century later, Norway
Norway
was the weaker part in a personal union with Denmark, and Oslo's role was reduced to that of provincial administrative centre, with the monarchs residing in Copenhagen. The fact that the University of Oslo
University of Oslo
was founded as late as 1811 had an adverse effect on the development of the nation.[citation needed] Oslo
Oslo
was destroyed several times by fire, and after the fourteenth calamity, in 1624, Christian IV of Denmark
Christian IV of Denmark
and Norway
Norway
ordered it rebuilt at a new site across the bay, near Akershus Castle
Akershus Castle
and given the name Christiania. Long before this, Christiania had started to establish its stature as a centre of commerce and culture in Norway. The part of the city built starting in 1624 is now often called Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal layout in regular, square blocks.[27] The last Black Death
Black Death
outbreak in Oslo
Oslo
occurred in 1654.[28] In 1814 Christiania once more became a real capital when the union with Denmark
Denmark
was dissolved. Many landmarks were built in the 19th century, including the Royal Palace (1825–1848), Storting building
Storting building
(the Parliament) (1861–1866), the University, National Theatre and the Stock Exchange. Among the world-famous artists who lived here during this period were Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
and Knut Hamsun
Knut Hamsun
(the latter was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature). In 1850, Christiania also overtook Bergen and became the most populous city in the country. In 1877 the city was renamed Kristiania. The original name of Oslo
Oslo
was restored in 1925.[29] 1000–1600[edit] Main article: Old Town, Oslo Under the reign of Olaf III of Norway, Oslo
Oslo
became a cultural centre for Eastern Norway. Hallvard Vebjørnsson
Hallvard Vebjørnsson
became the city's patron saint and is depicted on the city's seal. In 1174, Hovedøya Abbey
Hovedøya Abbey
was built. The churches and abbeys became major owners of large tracts of land, which proved important for the city's economic development, especially before the Black Death. On 25 July 1197, Sverre of Norway
Norway
and his soldiers attacked Oslo
Oslo
from Hovedøya.[30] During the Middle Ages, Oslo
Oslo
reached its heights in the reign of Haakon V of Norway. He started building Akershus Fortress
Akershus Fortress
and was also the first king to reside permanently in the city, which helped to make Oslo
Oslo
the capital of Norway. In the end of the 12th century, Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
traders from Rostock moved into the city and gained major influence in the city. The Black Death came to Norway
Norway
in 1349 and, like other cities in Europe, the city suffered greatly. The churches' earnings from their land also dropped so much that the Hanseatic traders dominated the city's foreign trade in the 15th century. 17th century[edit] Over the years, fire destroyed major parts of the city many times, as many of the city's buildings were built entirely of wood. After the last fire in 1624, which lasted for three days, Christian IV
Christian IV
of Denmark
Denmark
decided that the old city should not be rebuilt again. His men built a network of roads in Akershagen near Akershus
Akershus
Castle. He demanded that all citizens should move their shops and workplaces to the newly built city of Christiania. The transformation of the city went slowly for the first hundred years. Outside the city, near Vaterland and Grønland near Old Town, Oslo, a new, unmanaged part of the city grew up filled with citizens of low class status. 18th century[edit] In the 18th century, after the Great Northern War, the city's economy boomed with shipbuilding and trade. The strong economy transformed Christiania into a trading port. 19th century[edit] In 1814 the former provincial town of Christiania became the capital of the independent Kingdom of Norway, in a personal union with Sweden. Several state institutions were established and the city's role as a capital initiated a period of rapidly increasing population. The government of this new state needed buildings for its expanding administration and institutions. Several important buildings were erected – The Bank of Norway
Norway
(1828), the Royal Palace (1848), and the Storting
Storting
(1866).Large areas were incorporated in 1839, 1859 an 1878. The population increased from approximately 10 000 in 1814 to 230 000 in 1900. Christiania expanded its industry from 1840, most importantly around Akerselva. There was a spectacular building boom during the last decades of the 19th century, with many new apartment buildings and renewal of the city center, but the boom collapsed in 1899. 1900–present[edit] The municipality developed new areas such as Ullevål garden city (1918–1926) and Torshov
Torshov
(1917–1925). City Hall was constructed in the former slum area of Vika, from 1931–1950. The municipality of Aker was incorporated into Oslo
Oslo
in 1948, and suburbs were developed, such as Lambertseter (from 1951). Aker Brygge
Aker Brygge
was constructed on the site of the former shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted, from 1982–1998. In the 2011 Norway
Norway
terror attacks, Oslo
Oslo
was hit by a bomb blast that ripped through the Government quarter, damaging several buildings including the building that houses the Office of the Prime Minister. Eight people were killed in the bomb attack.

Map of medieval Oslo by Amund Helland

Port of Christiania c. 1800 by John William Edy

Christiania in 1814, by M. K. Tholstrup

Tallship Christiania in Oslo

The Barcode skyline in the harbour district

Railway between Christiania and Bergen, 1916.

Geography[edit] See also: Oslo
Oslo
Graben

A map of the urban areas of Oslo
Oslo
in 2005. The grey area in the middle indicates Oslo's city centre.

Oslo
Oslo
occupies an arc of land at the northernmost end of the Oslofjord. The fjord, which is nearly bisected by the Nesodden
Nesodden
peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all other directions Oslo
Oslo
is surrounded by green hills and mountains. There are 40 islands within the city limits, the largest being Malmøya
Malmøya
(0.56 km2 or 0.22 sq mi), and scores more around the Oslofjord. Oslo
Oslo
has 343 lakes, the largest being Maridalsvannet (3.91 km2 or 1.51 sq mi). This is also a main source of drinking water for large parts of Oslo. Although Eastern Norway
Norway
has a number of rivers, none of these flow into the ocean at Oslo. Instead Oslo
Oslo
has two smaller rivers: Akerselva (draining Maridalsvannet, which flows into the fjord in Bjørvika), and Alna. The waterfalls in Akerselva
Akerselva
gave power to some of the first modern industry of Norway
Norway
in the 1840s. Later in the century, the river became the symbol of the stable and consistent economic and social divide of the city into an East End and a West End; the labourers' neighbourhoods lie on both sides of the river, and the divide in reality follows Uelands street a bit further west. River Alna
Alna
flows through Groruddalen, Oslo's major suburb and industrial area. The highest point is Kirkeberget, at 629 metres (2,064 ft). Although the city's population is small compared to most European capitals, it occupies an unusually large land area, of which two-thirds are protected areas of forests, hills and lakes. Its boundaries encompass many parks and open areas, giving it an airy and green appearance.[citation needed]

Aker Brygge

Climate[edit] Oslo
Oslo
has a humid continental climate (Dfb). Because of the city's northern latitude, daylight varies greatly, from more than 18 hours in midsummer, when it never gets completely dark at night (no darker than nautical twilight), to around 6 hours in midwinter.[31] Oslo
Oslo
has fairly warm summers with two out of three days in July that have high temperatures above 20 °C and on average one out of four days reach a maximum above 25 °C.[32] The highest ever recorded at Blindern
Blindern
was 34.2 °C (94 °F) on 3 August 1982. At the "Observatory" downtown Oslo
Oslo
35 °C (95 °F) was recorded on 21 July 1901.[33] In January, three out of four days are below freezing (0 °C), on average one out of four days is colder than −10 °C.[32] The coldest temperature recorded is −29.6 °C (−21.3 °F), on 21 January 1841, while the coldest ever recorded at Blindern
Blindern
is −26 °C (−14.8 °F) in January 1941. July 1901 was the warmest month ever recorded with 24-hr monthly mean temperature at 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). The climate table below is for 1981–2010, while extremes (except average annual maximum and minimum temperatures) also includes earlier stations such as the Observatory downtown. Recent decades have seen warming, and 8 of the 12 monthly record lows are from before 1900, while the most recent is the November record low from 1965.

Climate data for Oslo
Oslo
1981–2010 (Blindern, 94 m, extremes 1841–, sunhrs 1961-90)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 12.5 (54.5) 15.0 (59) 21.5 (70.7) 25.4 (77.7) 29.9 (85.8) 33.9 (93) 35.0 (95) 34.2 (93.6) 27.3 (81.1) 21.0 (69.8) 14.4 (57.9) 12.8 (55) 35.0 (95)

Mean maximum °C (°F) 6.2 (43.2) 7.4 (45.3) 11.7 (53.1) 18.1 (64.6) 24.1 (75.4) 26.9 (80.4) 28.3 (82.9) 26.5 (79.7) 21.3 (70.3) 15.2 (59.4) 10.2 (50.4) 7.1 (44.8) 28.3 (82.9)

Average high °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 0.5 (32.9) 4.4 (39.9) 10.1 (50.2) 16.5 (61.7) 20.0 (68) 22.3 (72.1) 20.9 (69.6) 15.7 (60.3) 9.4 (48.9) 3.9 (39) 0.0 (32) 10.28 (50.49)

Daily mean °C (°F) −2.9 (26.8) −2.4 (27.7) 1.0 (33.8) 5.9 (42.6) 11.6 (52.9) 15.3 (59.5) 17.7 (63.9) 16.6 (61.9) 11.9 (53.4) 6.6 (43.9) 1.6 (34.9) −2.3 (27.9) 6.72 (44.1)

Average low °C (°F) −5.3 (22.5) −5.3 (22.5) −2.4 (27.7) 1.7 (35.1) 6.7 (44.1) 10.6 (51.1) 13.0 (55.4) 12.2 (54) 8.0 (46.4) 3.8 (38.8) −0.6 (30.9) −4.7 (23.5) 3.14 (37.67)

Mean minimum °C (°F) −14.9 (5.2) −13.2 (8.2) −10.3 (13.5) −3.8 (25.2) 1.2 (34.2) 5.8 (42.4) 9.7 (49.5) 6.8 (44.2) 1.9 (35.4) −2.9 (26.8) −7.4 (18.7) −13.8 (7.2) −14.9 (5.2)

Record low °C (°F) −29.6 (−21.3) −25.2 (−13.4) −21.3 (−6.3) −16.1 (3) −4.4 (24.1) 0.8 (33.4) 3.7 (38.7) 2.3 (36.1) −3.7 (25.3) −11.2 (11.8) −16.0 (3.2) −23.7 (−10.7) −29.6 (−21.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.9 (2.161) 41.0 (1.614) 50.4 (1.984) 46.9 (1.846) 54.1 (2.13) 70.5 (2.776) 84.7 (3.335) 97.8 (3.85) 80.6 (3.173) 90.4 (3.559) 79.1 (3.114) 52.4 (2.063) 802.8 (31.605)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 10 7 9 8 8 10 11 11 9 11 11 9 114

Mean monthly sunshine hours 40 76 126 178 220 250 246 216 144 86 51 35 1,668

Percent possible sunshine 19.2 29.6 34.7 40.9 41.5 44.4 44.0 44.5 37.2 27.1 22.4 18.9 33.7

Source #1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute eklima.met.no

Source #2: Meteo-climat 1981–2010 <http://meteo-climat />

Climate data for Gardermoen
Gardermoen
airport 1961–1990, extremes 1954–1998 (202 m)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 10.8 (51.4) 12.4 (54.3) 16.4 (61.5) 24.3 (75.7) 27.0 (80.6) 32.3 (90.1) 31.5 (88.7) 32.6 (90.7) 25.7 (78.3) 20.3 (68.5) 13.6 (56.5) 11.6 (52.9) 32.6 (90.7)

Average high °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −2.8 (27) 2.4 (36.3) 7.8 (46) 15.1 (59.2) 19.8 (67.6) 20.7 (69.3) 19.4 (66.9) 14.3 (57.7) 8.3 (46.9) 1.6 (34.9) −2.4 (27.7) 8.36 (47.04)

Average low °C (°F) −10.7 (12.7) −10.9 (12.4) −6.5 (20.3) −1.6 (29.1) 3.9 (39) 8.6 (47.5) 10.0 (50) 8.9 (48) 5.3 (41.5) 1.6 (34.9) −4.4 (24.1) −9.2 (15.4) −0.42 (31.24)

Record low °C (°F) −31.3 (−24.3) −35.5 (−31.9) −27.2 (−17) −14.8 (5.4) −6.0 (21.2) −2.5 (27.5) 1.9 (35.4) −1.2 (29.8) −6.0 (21.2) −16.1 (3) −23.6 (−10.5) −28.2 (−18.8) −35.5 (−31.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 59 (2.32) 49 (1.93) 53 (2.09) 48 (1.89) 61 (2.4) 73 (2.87) 79 (3.11) 90 (3.54) 96 (3.78) 100 (3.94) 89 (3.5) 65 (2.56) 862 (33.93)

Average precipitation days 10.6 8.0 8.6 7.6 8.8 10.2 11.1 11.1 10.9 11.3 11.6 10.0 119.8

Source: met Norway
Norway
eklima

Parks and recreation areas[edit] Main article: Parks and open spaces in Oslo

Frogner
Frogner
Park

Oslo
Oslo
has a large number of parks and green areas within the city core, as well as outside it.

Frogner
Frogner
Park is a large park located a few minutes walk away from the city centre. This is the biggest and best-known park in Norway, with a large collection of sculptures by Gustav Vigeland Bygdøy
Bygdøy
is a large green area, commonly called the Museum Peninsula of Oslo. The area is surrounded by the sea and is one of the most expensive districts in Norway.[citation needed] Ekebergparken Sculpture Park
Ekebergparken Sculpture Park
is a sculpture park and a national heritage park with a panoramic view of the city at Ekeberg
Ekeberg
in the southeast of the city. St. Hanshaugen
St. Hanshaugen
Park is an old public park on a high hill in central Oslo. 'St. Hanshaugen' is also the name of the surrounding neighborhood as well as the larger administrative district (borough) that includes major parts of central Oslo.[34] Tøyen Park stretches out behind the Munch Museum, and is a vast, grassy expanse. In the north, there is a viewing point known as Ola Narr. The Tøyen area also includes the Botanical Garden and Museum belonging to the University of Oslo.[35]

Oslo
Oslo
(with neighbouring Sandvika-Asker) is built in a horseshoe shape on the shores of the Oslofjord
Oslofjord
and limited in most directions by hills and forests. As a result, any point within the city is relatively close to the forest. There are two major forests bordering the city: Østmarka
Østmarka
(literally "Eastern Forest", on the eastern perimeter of the city), and the very large Nordmarka
Nordmarka
(literally "Northern Forest", stretching from the northern perimeter of the city deep into the hinterland). The municipality operates eight public swimming pools.[36] Tøyenbadet is the largest indoor swimming facility in Oslo
Oslo
and one of the few pools in Norway
Norway
offering a 50-metre main pool. The outdoor pool Frognerbadet
Frognerbadet
also has the 50-metre range. Cityscape[edit]

Holmenkollen
Holmenkollen
ski jump

Bryggetorget

Oslo's cityscape is being redeveloped as a modern city with various access-points, an extensive metro-system with a new financial district and a cultural city. In 2008, an exhibition was held in London presenting the award-winning Oslo
Oslo
Opera House, the urban regeneration scheme of Oslo's seafront, Munch/Stenersen and the new Deichman Library. Most of the buildings in the city and in neighbouring communities are low in height with only the Plaza, Postgirobygget and the highrises at Bjørvika
Bjørvika
considerably taller.[37] Architecture[edit] See also: Architecture of Norway

Fjordbyen
Fjordbyen
is a large construction project in the seaside of central Oslo, stretching from Bygdøy
Bygdøy
in the west to Ormøya
Ormøya
in the east. Some areas include: Bjørvika, Aker brygge, Tjuvholmen, the cental station area

Oslo's architecture is very diverse. The architect Carl Frederik Stanley (1769–1805), who was educated in Copenhagen, spent some years in Norway
Norway
around the turn of the 19th century. He did minor works for wealthy patrons in and around Oslo, but his major achievement was the renovation of the Oslo
Oslo
Katedralskole, completed in 1800.[citation needed] He added a classical portico to the front of an older structure, and a semicircular auditorium that was sequestered by Parliament in 1814 as a temporary place to assemble, now preserved at Norsk Folkemuseum
Norsk Folkemuseum
as a national monument. When Christiania was made capital of Norway
Norway
in 1814, there were practically no buildings suitable for the many new government institutions. An ambitious building program was initiated, but realised very slowly because of economic constraints. The first major undertaking was the Royal Palace, designed by Hans Linstow
Hans Linstow
and built between 1824 and 1848. Linstow also planned Karl Johans gate, the avenue connecting the Palace and the city, with a monumental square halfway to be surrounded by buildings for University, the Parliament (Storting) and other institutions. Only the university buildings were realised according to this plan. Christian Heinrich Grosch, one of the first architects educated completely within Norway, designed the original building for the Oslo Stock Exchange
Oslo Stock Exchange
(1826–1828), the local branch of the Bank of Norway
Norway
(1828), Christiania Theatre (1836–1837), and the first campus for the University of Oslo (1841–1856). For the university buildings, he sought the assistance of the renowned German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism. In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken, the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in 1858. A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style (better known in the US and Britain as Modernist), the first being Skansen
Skansen
restaurant (1925–1927) by Lars Backer, demolished in 1970. Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in 1929. Kunstnernes Hus
Kunstnernes Hus
art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas
Herman Munthe-Kaas
(1930) still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the 1920s. The redevelopment of Oslo Airport (by the Aviaplan consortium) at Gardermoen, which opened in 1998, was Norway's largest construction project to date.

Oslo
Oslo
Harbour

Oslo
Oslo
Central Station

Oslo
Oslo
Opera House

Akershus
Akershus
fortress

A typical city block of Oslo

Jernbanetorget

Aker brygge

Art gallery of Astrup Fearnley Museum

Highly populated urban area of Bjerke

The skyline of Oslo

Politics and government[edit] Main article: Politics and government of Oslo

Oslo
Oslo
city council 2015–2019

Labour Party 20 (+0)

Conservative Party 19 0(−3)

Green Party 05 (+4)

Liberal Party 04 (−1)

Progress Party 04 (+0)

Socialist Left Party 03 (−1)

Red Party 03 (+1)

Christian Democratic Party 01 0(+0)

Total 59[38]

Oslo
Oslo
is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament, the Storting. Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo
Oslo
is represented in the Storting
Storting
by nineteen members of parliament. The Labour Party and the Conservative Party have six each, the Progress Party and the Liberals have two each ; the Socialist Left Party, the Christian Democrats and the Green Party have one each [needs update] The combined municipality and county of Oslo
Oslo
has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. The largest parties in the City Council after the 2015-elections are the Labour Party and the Conservatives, with 20 and 19 representatives respectively. 2015 elections[edit]

Parliament of Norway

Oslo
Oslo
City Hall

The Mayor of Oslo
Mayor of Oslo
is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting
Storting
at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo
Mayor of Oslo
is Marianne Borgen. Since the local elections of 2015, the city government has been a coalition of the Labour Party, the Green Party and the Socialist Left. Based mostly on support from the Red Party, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council. The Governing Mayor of Oslo
Governing Mayor of Oslo
is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level. The current governing mayor is Raymond Johansen.[38][39] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Greater Oslo

Office buildings and apartments in Bjørvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo
Oslo
known as The Barcode Project.

Oslo
Oslo
has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future 2012.[11] It was ranked 2nd in the category of business friendliness, behind Amsterdam. Oslo
Oslo
is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 1980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector. Some of which are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers.[40] Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik
Høvik
outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register.[41] The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo
Oslo
annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers. The gross domestic product of Oslo
Oslo
totalled NOK268.047 billion ( billion) in 2003, which amounted to 17% of the national GDP.[42] This compares with NOK165.915 billion ( billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss
Moss
and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%.[43] Oslo
Oslo
is one of the most expensive cities in the world.[44] As of 2006[update], it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting[45] and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit.[44] The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. In the 2015 update[46] of the EIU’s Worldwide Cost of Living survey, Oslo
Oslo
now ranks as the third most expensive city in the world.[47] Although Oslo
Oslo
does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city. Oslo
Oslo
hosts 2654 of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo
Oslo
is in fifth position. A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo. According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006,[48] Oslo
Oslo
and London
London
were the world's most expensive cities. Environment[edit] Oslo
Oslo
is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and you can access rentable city bikes all over the city centre. In 2003, Oslo
Oslo
received The European Sustainable City Award and in 2007 Reader's Digest ranked Oslo
Oslo
as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities.[49][50] Education[edit]

The faculty of Law, University of Oslo.

Norwegian School of Management
Management
(BI) main building.

University of Oslo
University of Oslo
Library

Institutions of higher education[edit]

University of Oslo
University of Oslo
(Universitetet i Oslo
Oslo
(UiO))—undergraduate, graduate and PhD programs in most fields. Oslo
Oslo
and Akershus
Akershus
University College of Applied Sciences (Høgskolen i Oslo
Oslo
og Akershus
Akershus
(HiOA)), former Oslo University
Oslo University
College. Focuses on 3–4-year professional degree programs. BI Norwegian Business School
BI Norwegian Business School
(Handelshøyskolen BI)—primarily economics and business administration. Norwegian School of Information Technology (Norges Informasjonsteknologiske Høyskole (NITH)) Oslo School of Architecture and Design
Oslo School of Architecture and Design
(Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo
Oslo
(AHO)) Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (Norges idrettshøgskole (NIH))—offers opportunities to study at the Bachelor, Masters and Doctoral level[51] Norwegian Academy of Music
Norwegian Academy of Music
(Norges musikkhøgskole) MF Norwegian School of Theology
MF Norwegian School of Theology
(Det teologiske Menighetsfakultet – MF) Oslo National Academy of the Arts
Oslo National Academy of the Arts
(Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo
Oslo
– KHIO)[52] Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
(Norges miljø- og biovitenskapelige universitet – NMBU) located in Ås, right outside of Oslo[53] Norwegian Army Academy (Krigsskolen) The Norwegian Defence University College (Forsvarets høgskole) The Norwegian Police University College (Politihøgskolen – PHS) Norwegian School of Veterinary Science
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science
(Norges Veterinærhøgskole)[54] Oslo
Oslo
Academy of Fine Arts (Statens kunstakademi)[55] Oslo
Oslo
School of Management
Management
(Markedshøyskolen – MH) located at the Campus Kristiania education center.

The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway
Norway
live in the Oslo
Oslo
region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education. In 2008, the total workforce in the greater Oslo
Oslo
region (5 counties) numbered 1,020,000 people. The greater Oslo
Oslo
region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73,000 students. The University of Oslo
University of Oslo
is the largest institution for higher education in Norway
Norway
with 27,400 students and 7,028 employees in total.[56] Culture[edit] Oslo
Oslo
has a large and varied number of cultural attractions, which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch
and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists. Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun
Knut Hamsun
and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo. Bygdøy, outside the city centre is the centre for history and the Norwegian Vikings' history. The area contains a large number of parks and seasites and many museums. Examples are the Fram Museum, Vikingskiphuset and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Oslo
Oslo
hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum."[57] Oslo
Oslo
is also known for giving out the Nobel Peace Prize every year. Food[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2017)

Grønland, the central areas around Youngstorget and Torggata, Karl Johans gate (the main parade street), Aker Brygge
Aker Brygge
and Tjuvholmen, Sørenga, and the boroughs of Frogner, Majorstuen, St. Hanshaugen/ Bislett
Bislett
and Grünerløkka
Grünerløkka
has a high concentration of cafes and restaurants. There are several food markets, the largest being Mathallen Food Hall at Vulkan with more than 30 vendors including specialty shops, cafés and eateries.[58] As of march 2018 Oslo
Oslo
has six restaurants mentioned in the Michelin Guide. Maaemo
Maaemo
is the only restaurant in Norwegian history with three stars. Statholdergaarden, Kontrast and Galt each have one star. Only two restaurants in Oslo
Oslo
has a BIB gourmand mention: Restaurant Eik and Smalhans.[citation needed] Museums, galleries[edit]

Munch Museum

Oslo
Oslo
houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains The Scream
The Scream
and other works by Edvard Munch, who donated all his work to the city after his death.[59] The city council is currently planning a new Munch Museum
Munch Museum
which is most likely to be built in Bjørvika, in the southeast of the city.[60] The museum will be named Munch/Stenersen.[60] 50 different museums are located around the city.[61] Folkemuseet is located on the Bygdøy
Bygdøy
peninsula and is dedicated to Folk art, Folk Dress, Sami culture and the viking culture. The outdoor museum contains 155 authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church.[62] The Vigeland Museum
Vigeland Museum
located in the large Frogner
Frogner
Park, is free to access and contains over 212 sculptures by Gustav Vigeland
Gustav Vigeland
including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life.[63] Another popular sculpture is Sinnataggen, a baby boy stamping his foot in fury. This statue is very well known as an icon in the city.[64] There is also a newer landscaped sculpture park, Ekebergparken Sculpture Park, with works by Norwegian and international artists such as Salvador Dalí.[65]

Historic buildings at Norsk Folkemuseum

The Viking
Viking
Ship Museum features three Viking
Viking
ships found at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune and several other unique items from the Viking age.[66] The Oslo City Museum
Oslo City Museum
holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo
Oslo
and the history of the city.[67] The Kon-Tiki Museum
Kon-Tiki Museum
houses Thor Heyerdahl's Kontiki and Ra2.[68] The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art.[69] The Museum shows permanent exhibitions of works from its own collections but also temporary exhibitions that incorporate work loaned from elsewhere.[69] The National Museums exhibition avenues are the National Gallery, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the National Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of Architecture.[69] A new National Museum in Oslo
Oslo
will open in 2020 located at Vestbanen behind the Nobel Peace Center.[70] The Nobel Peace Center
Nobel Peace Center
is an independent organisation opened on 11 June 2005 by the King Harald V
King Harald V
as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country.[71] The building houses a permanent exhibition, expanding every year when a new Nobel Peace Prize winner is announced, containing information of every winner in history. The building is mainly used as a communication centre.[71] Music and events[edit]

Nobel Peace Center

A large number of festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo
Oslo
Jazz festival, a six-day jazz festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years.[72] Oslo's biggest rock festival is Øyafestivalen or simply "Øya". It draws about 60,000 people to the Medieval Park east in Oslo
Oslo
and lasts for four days.[73] The Oslo
Oslo
International Church Music
Church Music
Festival[74] has been held annually since 2000. The Oslo
Oslo
World Music
World Music
Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music
Chamber Music
Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo
Oslo
to perform at this festival. The Norwegian Wood Rock Festival is held every year in June in Oslo. The Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
Ceremony is headed by the Institute; the award ceremony is held annually in The City Hall on 10 December.[75] Even though Sami land is far away from the capital, the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History marks the Sami National Day with a series of activities and entertainment. The World Cup Biathlon
Biathlon
in Holmenkollen
Holmenkollen
is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines.[76] Other examples of annual events in Oslo
Oslo
are Desucon, a convention focusing on Japanese culture[77] and Færderseilasen, the world's largest overnight regatta with more than 1100 boats taking part every year.[78] Rikard Nordraak, composer of the Norwegian national anthem, was born in Oslo
Oslo
in 1842. Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo
Oslo
Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hall
Oslo Concert Hall
since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic
Oslo Philharmonic
can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musicians Society) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen
Johan Svendsen
in 1879.[79] Oslo
Oslo
has hosted the Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
twice, in 1996 and 2010. Performing arts[edit]

The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway[80]

Oslo
Oslo
houses over 20 theatres, such as the Norwegian Theatre and the National Theatre located at Karl Johan Street. The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway
Norway
and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget.[80] The names of Ludvig Holberg, Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
are engraved on the façade of the building over the main entrance. This theatre represents the actors and play-writers of the country but the songwriters, singers and dancers are represented in the form of a newly opened Oslo
Oslo
Opera House, situated in Bjørvika. The Opera was opened in 2008 and is a national landmark, designed by the Norwegian architectural firm, Snøhetta. There are two houses, together containing over 2000 seats. The building cost 500 million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House
Opera House
in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building. The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages.[81] Literature[edit] Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo
Oslo
for some period in their life. For instance, Nobel Prize-winning author Sigrid Undset grew up in Oslo, and described her life there in the autobiographical novel Elleve år (1934; translated as The longest years; New York 1971). The playwright Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
is probably the most famous Norwegian author. Ibsen wrote plays such as Hedda Gabler, Peer Gynt, A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea. The Ibsen Quotes project completed in 2008 is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets.[82] In recent years, novelists like Lars Saabye Christensen, Tove Nilsen, Jo Nesbø
Jo Nesbø
and Roy Jacobsen
Roy Jacobsen
have described the city and its people in their novels. Early 20th-century literature from Oslo
Oslo
include poets Rudolf Nilsen and André Bjerke. Media[edit] The newspapers Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Verdens Gang, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen
Nationen
and Klassekampen
Klassekampen
are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst
Marienlyst
in Oslo, near Majorstuen, and NRK also has regional services via both radio and television. TVNorge
TVNorge
(TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV 2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. The two dominant companies are Aller Media
Aller Media
and Hjemmet Mortensen AB. Sports[edit]

Bislett
Bislett
Stadium during a friendly between Lyn Oslo and Liverpool F.C.

Oslo
Oslo
is home to the Holmenkollen
Holmenkollen
National Arena and Holmenkollbakken, the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing
Nordic skiing
venues. It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen
Holmenkollen
Ski Festival. Oslo hosted the Biathlon
Biathlon
World Championships in 1986, 1990, 2000, 2002 and 2016. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
have been hosted in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011, as well as the 1952 Winter Olympics. Oslo
Oslo
is the home of several football clubs in the Norwegian league system. Vålerenga, Lyn and Skeid
Skeid
have won both the league and the cup, while Mercantile and Frigg have won the cup. Ullevål Stadion
Ullevål Stadion
is the home arena for the Norwegian national football team and the Football Cup Final. The stadium has previously hosted the finals of the UEFA Women's Championship
UEFA Women's Championship
in 1987 and 1997, and the 2002 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship.[83] Røa IL
Røa IL
is Oslo's only team in the women's league, Toppserien. Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway
Norway
Cup is held on Ekebergsletta
Ekebergsletta
and other places in the city. Due to the cold climate and proximity to major forests bordering the city, skiing is a popular recreational activity in Oslo. The Tryvann Ski Resort is the most used ski resort in Norway.[84] The most successful ice hockey team in Norway, Vålerenga Ishockey, is based in Oslo. Manglerud Star
Manglerud Star
is another Oslo-team who play in the top league. Bislett
Bislett
Stadium is the city's main track and field venue, and hosts the annual Bislett
Bislett
Games, part of IAAF Diamond League. Bjerke
Bjerke
Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country. Oslo Spektrum
Oslo Spektrum
is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Nordstrand HE and Oppsal IF plays in the women's GRUNDIGligaen in handball, while Bækkelaget HE plays in the men's league. Jordal Amfi, the home of the ice hockey team Vålerenga Ishockey, and the national team. The 1999 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey were held in Oslo, as have three Bandy World Championships, in 1961, 1977 and 1985. The UCI Road World Championships in bicycle road racing were hosted 1993. Oslo
Oslo
was bidding to host the 2022 Winter Olympics, but later withdrew on 2 October 2014. Crime[edit]

Norway
Norway
Supreme Court

Oslo Police District
Oslo Police District
is Norway's largest police district with over 2,300 employees. Over 1,700 of those are police officers, nearly 140 police lawyers and 500 civilian employees. Oslo Police District
Oslo Police District
has five police stations located around the city at Grønland, Sentrum, Stovner, Majorstuen
Majorstuen
and Manglerud. The National Criminal Investigation Service is located in Oslo, which is a Norwegian special police division under the NMJP. PST is also located in the Oslo
Oslo
District. PST is a security agency which was established in 1936 and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway.

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Oslo
Oslo
police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. Statistics have shown that crime in Oslo
Oslo
is on the rise,[when?] and some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo
Oslo
than in New York City
New York City
per capita.[85][86] According to the Oslo
Oslo
Police, they receive more than 15,000 reports of petty thefts annually. Fewer than one in a hundred cases get solved.[87] On 22 July 2011, Oslo
Oslo
was the site of one of two terrorist attacks: the bombing of Oslo
Oslo
government offices.[88] Transport[edit]

Airports around Oslo Airport IATA/ICAO Passengers (2013)

Gardermoen OSL/ENGM 22,956,540

Torp TRF/ENTO 1,856,897

Rygge (closed 2016) RYG/ENRY 1,849,294

Oslo
Oslo
Central Station

Oslo
Oslo
has Norway's most extensive public transport system, managed by Ruter.[89] This includes the six-line Oslo
Oslo
Metro,[90] the world's most extensive metro per resident, the six-line Oslo
Oslo
Tramway[91] and the eight-line Oslo
Oslo
Commuter Rail.[92] The tramway operates within the areas close to the city centre, while the metro, which runs underground through the city centre, operates to suburbs further away; this includes two lines that operate to Bærum, and the Ring Line which loops to areas north of the centre.[93] Oslo
Oslo
is also covered by a bus network consisting of 32 city lines, as well as regional buses to the neighboring county of Akershus.[94] Oslo Central Station
Oslo Central Station
acts as the central hub,[95] and offers rail services to most major cities in southern Norway
Norway
as well as Stockholm and Gothenburg
Gothenburg
in Sweden.[96] The Airport Express Train operates along the high-speed Gardermoen
Gardermoen
Line. The Drammen
Drammen
Line runs under the city centre in the Oslo
Oslo
Tunnel.[97] Some of the city islands and the neighbouring municipality of Nesodden
Nesodden
are connected by ferry.[98] Daily cruiseferry services operate to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Frederikshavn
Frederikshavn
in Denmark, and to Kiel
Kiel
in Germany.[99] Many of the motorways pass through the downtown and other parts of the city in tunnels. The construction of the roads is partially supported through a toll ring. The major motorways through Oslo
Oslo
are European Route E6 and E18. There are three beltways, the innermost which are streets and the outermost, Ring 3 which is an expressway. The main airport serving the city is Gardermoen
Gardermoen
Airport, located in Ullensaker, 47 kilometres (29 mi) from the city centre of Oslo.[100] It acts as the main international gateway to Norway,[101] and is the sixth-largest domestic airport in Europe.[102] Gardermoen is a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle
Norwegian Air Shuttle
and Widerøe. Oslo
Oslo
is also served by a secondary airport, which serve some low-cost carriers, such as Ryanair: Torp Airport, 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the city.[103]

Airport Express Train; a High-speed rail
High-speed rail
connecting the city with its main airport, Oslo- Gardermoen
Gardermoen
Airport

Metro train leaving. Nationaltheatret Station

Postgirobygget at Oslo
Oslo
central station

A rental bicycle station in the city center

"Akrobaten" (The Acrobat) Bridge over Oslo
Oslo
Central Station

Buses at Jernbanetorget

Demographics[edit] See also: East End and West End of Oslo

Population of Oslo
Oslo
from 1801–2006, with yearly data from 1950–2006.

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1500 2,500 —    

1801 8,931 +257.2%

1855 31,715 +255.1%

1890 151,239 +376.9%

1951 434,365 +187.2%

1961 475,663 +9.5%

Year Pop. ±%

1971 481,548 +1.2%

1981 452,023 −6.1%

1991 461,644 +2.1%

2001 508,726 +10.2%

2011 599,230 +17.8%

2017 672,061 +12.2%

Source: Statistics Norway.[18][104]

Number of minorities (1st and 2nd gen.) in Oslo
Oslo
by country of origin in 2017[105]

Nationality Population (2017)

 Pakistan 23,010

 Poland 16,624

 Somalia 15,137

 Sweden 13,018

 Iraq 8,215

 Sri Lanka 7,064

 Morocco 6,830

 Iran 6,306

 Turkey 6,298

 Vietnam 6,276

 Philippines 6,164

 India 5,671

 Afghanistan 3,852

 Germany 3,813

 Russia 3,802

 Denmark 3,787

 Bosnia-Herzegovina 3,436

 Ethiopia 3,346

 Eritrea 3,277

 UK 3,059

 Lithuania 3,057

 China 2,988

 Romania 2,941

 Kosovo 2,876

 France 2,315

The population of Oslo
Oslo
was by 2010 increasing at a record rate of nearly 2% annually (17% over the last 15 years), making it the fastest-growing Scandinavian capital.[106] In 2015, according to Statistics Norway
Norway
annual report, there were 647,676 permanent residents in the Oslo
Oslo
municipality, of which 628,719 resided in the city proper. There were also 942,084 in the city's urban area[3][18] and an estimated 1.71 million in the Greater Oslo
Oslo
Region, within 100 km (62 mi) of the city centre.[14] According to the most recent census 432,000 Oslo
Oslo
residents (70.4% of the population) were ethnically Norwegian, an increase of 6% since 2002 (409,000).[107] Oslo
Oslo
has the largest population of immigrants and Norwegians
Norwegians
born to immigrant parents in Norway, both in relative and absolute figures. Of Oslo's 624,000 inhabitants, 189,400 were immigrants or born to immigrant parents, representing 30.4 percent of the capital's population. All suburbs in Oslo
Oslo
were above the national average of 14.1 percent. The suburbs with the highest proportions of people of immigrant origin were Søndre Nordstrand, Stovner
Stovner
og Alna, where they formed around 50 percent of the population.[108] Pakistanis make up the single largest ethnic minority, followed by Swedes, Somalis, and Poles. Other large immigrant groups are people from Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Turkey, Morocco, Iraq
Iraq
and Iran.[109][110][111][112] In 2013, 40% of Oslo's primary school pupils were registered as having a first language other than the Norwegian or Sami.[113] The western part of the city is predominantly ethnic Norwegian, with several schools having less than 5% pupils with an immigrant background.[citation needed] The eastern part of Oslo
Oslo
is more mixed, with some schools up to 97% immigrant share.[114] Schools are also increasingly divided by ethnicity, with white flight being present in some of the northeastern suburbs of the city.[115][116] In the borough Groruddalen in 2008 for instance, the ethnic Norwegian population decreased by 1,500, while the immigrant population increased by 1,600.[117]

Religion in Oslo
Oslo
(2016)[118][119]

religion

percent

Church of Norway

51.6%

Other christian denominations

8.8%

Islam

9.1%

Buddhism

0.6%

Other religions

0.9%

Life stance communities

2.8%

Unaffiliated

26.2%

Oslo
Oslo
has numerous religious communities. In 2016, 51.6% of the population were members of the Church of Norway, lower than the national average of 71.5%.[120] Other Christian denominations make up 8.8% of the population. Islam
Islam
is followed by 9.1% and Buddhism
Buddhism
by 0.6% of the population. Other religions form 0.9% of the population. Life stance communities, mainly the Norwegian Humanist Association, are represented by 2.8% of the population. 26.2% of the Oslo
Oslo
population are unaffiliated with any religion or life stance community.[118][119] Notable residents[edit] Main category: People from Oslo

Morten Harket
Morten Harket
(b. 1959), singer, songwriter and leader of a-ha; Knight of S.Olav order. Sigrid Undset
Sigrid Undset
(1882–1949), writer, awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1928 Jens Stoltenberg
Jens Stoltenberg
(b. 1959), former Prime Minister of Norway, Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Fabian Stang
Fabian Stang
(b. 1955), lawyer, mayor of Oslo
Oslo
2007–2015 Kjetil André Aamodt
Kjetil André Aamodt
(b. 1971), alpine skier Vilhelm Bjerknes
Vilhelm Bjerknes
(1862–1951), meteorologist Espen Bredesen
Espen Bredesen
(b. 1968), ski jumper, Olympic champion Gro Harlem Brundtland
Gro Harlem Brundtland
(b. 1939), former Prime Minister and Director-General of WHO 1998–2003 Lars Saabye Christensen
Lars Saabye Christensen
(b. 1953), author Sandra Drouker
Sandra Drouker
(1875–1944), pianist and pedagogue Thorbjørn Egner
Thorbjørn Egner
(1912–1990), playwright, songwriter and illustrator John Fredriksen
John Fredriksen
(b. 1944), shipping magnate Ragnar Frisch
Ragnar Frisch
(1895–1973), economist, Nobel Prize laureate (1969) Johan Galtung
Johan Galtung
(b. 1930), sociologist, founder of peace and conflict studies Torleif S. Knaphus
Torleif S. Knaphus
(1881–1965), monument sculptor in America Christian Krohg
Christian Krohg
(1852–1925), painter Hans Gude[121] (1825–1903), landscape painter Tine Thing Helseth
Tine Thing Helseth
(b. 1987), trumpeter Sonja Henie
Sonja Henie
(1912–1969), Norwegian figure skater and actress Eva Joly
Eva Joly
(b. 1943), magistrate Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen
(1828–1906), playwright, theatre director and poet Erling Kagge (b. 1963), polar explorer Espen Knutsen (b. 1972), former professional ice hockey player Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch
(1863–1944), painter Fridtjof Nansen
Fridtjof Nansen
(1861–1930), polar explorer, scientist, diplomat, Nobel laureate Jo Nesbø
Jo Nesbø
(b. 1960), author and musician Lars Onsager
Lars Onsager
(1903–1976), physical chemist, Nobel Prize laureate Børge Ousland (b. 1962), polar explorer, writer Grete Waitz
Grete Waitz
(1953–2011), marathon runner Knut Johannesen
Knut Johannesen
(b. 1933), speed skater Paul Waaktaar-Savoy
Paul Waaktaar-Savoy
(b. 1961), guitarist, songwriter of A-ha
A-ha
and Savoy; Knight of S.Olav order Magne Furuholmen
Magne Furuholmen
(b. 1962), keyboardist, songwriter of A-ha
A-ha
and Apparatjik; Knight of S.Olav order Trygve Lie
Trygve Lie
(1896–1968), first Secretary-General of the United Nations

Nico & Vinz (2009–present), singers Mats Zuccarello
Mats Zuccarello
(b. 1987), professional ice hockey player Joshua King (b. 1992), professional football player

International relations[edit]

Oslo
Oslo
is a pilot city of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and the European Commission's Intercultural cities programme, along with a number of other European cities.[122][123]

Twin towns – partner cities – and regions[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Norway Oslo
Oslo
has cooperation agreements with the following cities/regions:[124]

Gothenburg, Sweden Mbombela, South Africa Saint Petersburg, Russia Schleswig-Holstein, Germany

Shanghai, China Vilnius, Lithuania Warsaw, Poland

Oslo
Oslo
was formerly twinned with Madison, Wisconsin, Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and Vilnius, but has since abolished the concept of twin cities. Christmas trees as gifts[edit] Oslo
Oslo
has a tradition of sending a Christmas tree
Christmas tree
every year to the cities of Washington, D.C.; New York; London; Edinburgh; Rotterdam; Antwerp
Antwerp
and Reykjavík.[125] Since 1947, Oslo
Oslo
has sent a 65-to-80-foot-high (20-to-24-metre), 50 to 100-year-old spruce, as an expression of gratitude toward Britain for its support of Norway during World War II.[126][127] See also[edit]

Norway
Norway
portal

Oslo
Oslo
Accords Timeline of transport in Oslo

References[edit]

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^ As of 1 January 2017. Includes immigrants and children of two immigrants. Does not include children of one immigrant, or grandchildren, great grandchildren etc. of immigrants. No statistic exists which accounts for ethnicity or race. The share of the population which was not counted as immigrant or as children of two immigrants was 67.2%.

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Oslo External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Oslo.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oslo.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Christiania.

Look up oslo in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

City of Oslo: Official website (in Norwegian) City of Oslo: Official website (in English) Official Travel and Visitors Guide to Oslo Oslo
Oslo
travel guide from Wikivoyage  "Christiania". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

Links to related articles

v t e

Subdivisions, counties, traditional districts, and municipalities of Norway

Agder

Aust-Agder

Nedenes

Arendal Birkenes Froland Gjerstad Grimstad Lillesand Risør Tvedestrand Vegårshei Åmli

Otrudal/ Råbyggelaget

Bygland Evje og Hornnes Iveland

Setesdal

Bykle Valle

Vest-Agder

Lister

Audnedal Farsund Flekkefjord Kvinesdal Lyngdal Åseral

Mandal

Hægebostad Kristiansand Lindesnes Mandal Marnardal Sirdal Songdalen Søgne Vennesla

Eastern Norway

Akershus

Follo

Enebakk Frogn Nesodden Oppegård Ski Vestby Ås

Romerike (Nedre, Øvre)

Aurskog-Høland Eidsvoll Fet Gjerdrum Hurdal Lørenskog Nannestad Nes Nittedal Rælingen Skedsmo Sørum Ullensaker

Others

Asker Bærum Oslo

Buskerud

Hallingdal

Flå Nes Gol Hol Hemsedal Ål

Numedal

Flesberg Nore og Uvdal Rollag

Ringerike

Hole Krødsherad Modum Ringerike Sigdal

Vestfold

Drammen Eiker
Eiker
(Nedre, Øvre) Kongsberg Lier

Vingulmark

Hurum Røyken

Hedmark

Glåmdal

Eidskog Kongsvinger Odal, Norway
Norway
(Nord, Sør)

Hedmarken

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Solør

Grue Våler Åsnes

Østerdalen

Alvdal Elverum Engerdal Folldal Os Rendalen Stor-Elvdal Tolga, Norway Trysil Åmot

Oppland

Gudbrandsdalen

Dovre Fron (Nord, Sør) Gausdal Lesja Lillehammer Lom Ringebu Sel Skjåk Vågå Øyer

Hadeland

Gran Lunner Jevnaker

Land

Nordre Søndre

Toten

Østre Vestre

Valdres

Aurdal
Aurdal
(Nord, Sør) Etnedal Slidre
Slidre
(Vestre, Øystre) Vang

Telemark

Aust- Telemark

Bø Hjartdal Nome Notodden Sauherad Tinn

Vest- Telemark

Fyresdal Kviteseid Nissedal Seljord Tokke Vinje

Grenland

Bamble Drangedal Kragerø Porsgrunn Siljan Skien

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Færder Holmestrand Horten Larvik Re Sande Sandefjord Svelvik Tønsberg

Østfold

Aremark Askim Eidsberg Fredrikstad Halden Hobøl Hvaler Marker Moss Rakkestad Rygge Rømskog Råde Sarpsborg Skiptvet Spydeberg Trøgstad Våler

Northern Norway

Finnmark

Aust-Finnmark

Bearalváhki Báhcavuotna Gáŋgaviika Davvesiidda Unjárga Mátta-Várjjat Deatnu Čáhcesuolu Várggát

Vest-Finnmark

Ákŋoluokta Áltá Davvinjárga Fálesnuorri Guovdageaidnu Hámmárfeasta Kárášjohka Láhppi Muosát Porsáŋgu

Nordland

Helgeland

Alstahaug Bindal Brønnøy Dønna Grane Hattfjelldal Hemnes Herøy Leirfjord Lurøy Nesna Rana Rødøy Sømna Træna Vefsn Vega Vevelstad

Lofoten

Flakstad Moskenes Røst Vestvågøy Værøy Vågan

Ofoten

Ballangen Evenes Lødingen Narvik Tjeldsund Tysfjord

Salten

Beiarn Bodø Fauske Gildeskål Hamarøy Meløy Saltdal Steigen Sørfold

Vesterålen

Andøy Bø Hadsel Sortland Øksnes

Troms

Midt-Troms

Bardu Berg Dyrøy Lenvik Målselv Sørreisa Torsken Tranøy

Nord-Troms

Balsfjord Karlsøy Kåfjord Kvænangen Lyngen Nordreisa Skjervøy Storfjord Tromsø

Sør-Troms

Gratangen Harstad Ibestad Kvæfjord Lavangen Salangen Skånland

Central Norway

Trøndelag

Fosen

Bjugn Frøya Hitra Indre Fosen Osen Roan Åfjord Ørland

Innherred

Inderøy Levanger Snåsa Steinkjer Verdal Verran

Namdalen

Flatanger Fosnes Grong Høylandet Leka Lierne Namdalseid Namsos Namsskogan Nærøy Overhalla Røyrvik Vikna

Stjørdalen

Frosta Meråker Stjørdal

Gauldalen

Holtålen Melhus Midtre Gauldal Røros

Orkdalen

Agdenes Hemne Meldal Oppdal Orkdal Rennebu Snillfjord

Stjørdalen

Klæbu Malvik Selbu Skaun Trondheim Tydal

Western Norway

Hordaland

Hardanger

Eidfjord Granvin Jondal Kvam Odda Ullensvang Ulvik

Midt- Hordland

Askøy Austevoll Bergen Fjell Fusa Os, Hordaland Samnanger Sund Øygarden

Nord- Hordland

Austrheim Fedje Lindås Masfjorden Meland Modalen Osterøy Radøy Vaksdal

Sunn- Hordland

Bømlo Etne Fitjar Kvinnherad Stord Sveio Tysnes

Voss

Voss

Møre og Romsdal

Nordmøre

Aure Averøy Eide Gjemnes Halsa Kristiansund Rindal Smøla Sunndal Surnadal Tingvoll

Romsdal

Aukra Fræna Midsund Molde Nesset Rauma Sandøy Vestnes

Sunnmøre

Giske Haram, Norway Hareid Herøy Norddal Sande Skodje Stordal Stranda Sula Sykkylven Ulstein Vanylven Volda Ålesund Ørskog Ørsta

Rogaland

Dalane

Bjerkreim Eigersund Lund Sokndal

Haugaland

Bokn Haugesund Karmøy Tysvær Utsira Vindafjord

Jæren

Gjesdal Hå Klepp Randaberg Sandnes Sola Stavanger Time

Ryfylke

Finnøy Forsand Hjelmeland Kvitsøy Rennesøy Sauda Strand Suldal

Sogn
Sogn
og Fjordane

Nordfjord

Bremanger Eid Gloppen Hornindal Selje Stryn Vågsøy

Sunnfjord

Askvoll Fjaler Flora Førde Gaular Jølster Naustdal

Sogn

Aurland Balestrand Gulen Høyanger Hyllestad Leikanger Luster Lærdal Sogndal Solund Vik Årdal

italics denote a historical area; see Historical maps of Norway

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Boroughs of Oslo

Alna Bjerke Frogner Gamle Oslo Grorud Grünerløkka (Marka) Nordstrand Nordre Aker Østensjø Sagene (Sentrum) Søndre Nordstrand St. Hanshaugen Stovner Ullern Vestre Aker

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Most populous urban areas of Norway

As of 1 January 2014, according to Statistics Norway
Norway
[1]

1. Oslo 942,084

2. Bergen 251,281

3. Stavanger/Sandnes 207,439

4. Trondheim 172,226

5. Drammen 112,123

6. Fredrikstad/Sarpsborg 107,920

7. Porsgrunn/Skien 91,349

8. Kristiansand 59,681

9. Tønsberg 50,372

10. Ålesund 50,345

11. Moss 45,017

12. Sandefjord 42,345

13. Arendal 42,145

14. Haugesund 40,631

15. Bodø 39,384

16. Tromsø 33,319

17. Hamar 26,232

18. Halden 24,707

19. Larvik 23,579

20. Askøy 21,911

21. Kongsberg 20,670

22. Harstad 20,533

23. Molde 20,327

24. Horten 20,036

25. Gjøvik 19,604

26. Lillehammer 19,586

27. Mo i Rana 18,592

28. Kristiansund 18,300

29. Korsvik 16,385

30. Tromsdalen 16,271

31. Jessheim 15,966

32. Hønefoss 15,154

33. Ski 14,446

34. Alta 14,430

35. Elverum 14,326

36. Narvik 14,202

37. Askim 13,822

38. Leirvik 13,717

39. Drøbak 13,445

40. Nesoddtangen 12,428

41. Osøyro 12,296

42. Vennesla 12,242

43. Steinkjer 12,224

44. Grimstad 12,172

45. Arna 11,960

46. Kongsvinger 11,938

47. Råholt 11,828

48. Stjørdalshalsen 11,453

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Most populous metropolitan areas in Norway

As of 2013, according to Statistics Norway
Norway
[2]

1. Oslo 1,502,604

2. Bergen 407,935

3. Stavanger 319,822

4. Trondheim 267,132

5. Kristiansand 155,648

6. Drammen 151,769

7. Fredrikstad 138,682

8. Haugesund 128,797

9. Tønsberg 120,747

10. Sandvika 118,115

11. Skien 112,082

12. Sandefjord 90,532

13. Ålesund 82,165

14. Tromsø 73,631

15. Sandnes 71,462

16. Moss 56,210

17. Sarpsborg 54,049

18. Bodø 52,768

19. Arendal 43,755

20. Larvik 42,637

21. Porsgrunn 35,504

22. Hamar 30,921

23. Halden 30,116

24. Gjøvik 29,618

25. Ski 29,482

26. Askøy 27,273

27. Lillehammer 27,044

28. Horten 26,701

29. Kongsberg 26,296

30. Molde 26,027

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Counties of Norway

Akershus Aust-Agder Buskerud Finnmark Hedmark Hordaland Møre og Romsdal Nordland Oppland

Oslo Østfold Rogaland Sogn
Sogn
og Fjordane Telemark Troms Trøndelag Vest-Agder Vestfold

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50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries

 Denmark  Finland  Iceland  Norway  Sweden

1. Stockholm 1,372,565

2. Copenhagen 1,263,698

3. Helsinki 1,214,210

4. Oslo 958,378

5. Gothenburg 549,839

6. Tampere 325,025

7. Malmö 280,415

8. Aarhus 261,570

9. Turku 260,367

10. Bergen 250,420

11. Stavanger 210,874

12. Reykjavík 209,510

13. Oulu 193,817

14. Trondheim 175,068

15. Odense 173,814

16. Uppsala 140,454

17. Aalborg 132,578

18. Jyväskylä 120,306

19. Lahti 117,424

20. Drammen 113,534

21. Västerås 110,877

22. Fredrikstad-Sarpsborg 108,636

23. Örebro 107,038

24. Linköping 104,232

25. Helsingborg 97,122

26. Porsgrunn-Skien 91,737

27. Jönköping 89,396

28. Norrköping 87,247

29. Kuopio 86,034

30. Pori 84,509

31. Lund 82,800

32. Umeå 79,594

33. Esbjerg 72,060

34. Gävle 71,033

35. Vaasa 66,911

36. Borås 66,273

37. Joensuu 65,686

38. Eskilstuna 64,679

39. Södertälje 64,619

40. Karlstad 61,685

41. Randers 61,664

42. Täby 61,272

43. Växjö 60,887

44. Kristiansand 60,583

45. Kolding 58,757

46. Halmstad 58,577

47. Horsens 56,536

48. Lappeenranta 55,429

49. Vejle 53,975

50. Kotka 52,600

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Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

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Countries

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Television and concerts

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Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
host cities

1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 168817305 LCCN: n79018884 GND: 40439

.