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Osiris
Osiris
(/oʊˈsaɪrɪs/, from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic ⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲉ)[1][2] is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead, but more appropriately as the god of transition, resurrection, and regeneration. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with two large ostrich feathers at either side, and holding a symbolic crook and flail. Osiris
Osiris
was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb, though other sources state his father is the sun-god Ra,[3] and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus
Horus
being considered his posthumously begotten son.[3] He was also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the dead.[4] As ruler of the dead, Osiris
Osiris
was also sometimes called "king of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the living ones".[5] Through syncretism with Iah, he is also the god of the Moon.[6] Osiris
Osiris
was considered the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder, and father of Horus
Horus
the Younger.[7] The first evidence of the worship of Osiris
Osiris
was found in the middle of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt, although it is likely that he was worshiped much earlier;[8] the Khenti-Amentiu
Khenti-Amentiu
epithet dates to at least the first dynasty, and was also used as a pharaonic title. Most information available on the myths of Osiris
Osiris
is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid Texts at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, later New Kingdom
New Kingdom
source documents such as the Shabaka Stone
Shabaka Stone
and the Contending of Horus
Horus
and Seth, and much later, in narrative style from the writings of Greek authors including Plutarch[9] and Diodorus Siculus.[10] Osiris
Osiris
was considered not only a merciful judge of the dead in the afterlife, but also the underworld agency that granted all life, including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile River. He was described as the "Lord of love",[11] "He Who is Permanently Benign and Youthful"[12] and the "Lord of Silence".[13] The Kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris
Osiris
in death – as Osiris rose from the dead so would they in union with him, and inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic. By the New Kingdom all people, not just pharaohs, were believed to be associated with Osiris
Osiris
at death, if they incurred the costs of the assimilation rituals.[14] Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris
Osiris
began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion and Sirius
Sirius
at the start of the new year.[12] Osiris
Osiris
was widely worshipped as Lord of the Dead until the suppression of the Egyptian religion during the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire.[15][16]

Contents

1 Etymology of the name 2 Appearance 3 Early mythology

3.1 Father of Horus 3.2 Ram god

4 Mythology 5 Osirism

5.1 Death or transition and institution as god of the afterlife 5.2 Ikhernofret Stela 5.3 Wheat and clay rituals

6 Judgement 7 Greco-Roman era

7.1 Hellenization 7.2 Destruction of cult

8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 Notes 11 External links

Etymology of the name[edit] Osiris
Osiris
is a Latin transliteration of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Ὄσιρις IPA: [ó.siː.ris], which in turn is the Greek adaptation of the original theonym in the Egyptian language. In Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
the name appears as wsjr, which some Egyptologists instead choose to transliterate ꜣsjr or jsjrj. Since hieroglyphic writing lacks vowels, Egyptologists have vocalized the name in various ways as Asar, Yasar, Aser, Asaru, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, Usir, Usire or Ausare. Several proposals have been made for the etymology and meaning of the original name; as Egyptologist Mark J. Smith notes, none are fully convincing.[17] Most take wsjr as the accepted transliteration, following Adolf Erman:

John Gwyn Griffiths
John Gwyn Griffiths
(1980), "bearing in mind Erman's emphasis on the fact that the name must begin with an [sic] w", proposes a derivation from wsr with an original meaning of "The Mighty One".[18] Moreover, one of the oldest attestations of the god Osiris
Osiris
appears in the mastaba of the deceased Netjer-wser (from nṯr-wsr "Powerful God").[citation needed] Kurt Sethe
Kurt Sethe
(1930) proposes a compound st-jrt, meaning "seat of the eye", in a hypothetical earlier form *wst-jrt; this is rejected by Griffiths on phonetic grounds.[18] David Lorton (1985) takes up this same compound but explains st-jrt as signifying "product, something made", Osiris
Osiris
representing the product of the ritual mummification process.[17] Wolfhart Westendorf
Wolfhart Westendorf
(1987) proposes an etymology from wꜣst-jrt "she who bears the eye".[19][20] Mark J. Smith (2017) makes no definitive proposals but asserts that the second element must be a form of jrj ("to do, make") (rather than jrt ("eye")).[17]

However, recently alternative transliterations have been proposed:

Yoshi Muchiki (1990) reexamines Erman's evidence that the throne hieroglyph in the word is to be read ws and finds it unconvincing, suggesting instead that the name should be read ꜣsjr on the basis of Aramaic, Phoenician, and Old South Arabian transcriptions, readings of the throne sign in other words, and comparison with ꜣst ("Isis").[21] James P. Allen (2000) reads the word as jsjrt[22] but revises the reading (2013) to jsjrj and derives it from js-jrj, meaning "engendering (male) principle".[23]

Appearance[edit]

Osiris
Osiris
with an Atef-crown made of bronze in the Naturhistorisches Museum (Vienna)

Osiris
Osiris
is represented in his most developed form of iconography wearing the Atef
Atef
crown, which is similar to the White crown
White crown
of Upper Egypt, but with the addition of two curling ostrich feathers at each side (see also Atef crown
Atef crown
(hieroglyph)). He also carries the crook and flail. The crook is thought to represent Osiris
Osiris
as a shepherd god. The symbolism of the flail is more uncertain with shepherds whip, fly-whisk, or association with the god Andjety
Andjety
of the ninth nome of Lower Egypt
Lower Egypt
proposed.[12] He was commonly depicted as a pharaoh with a complexion of either green (the color of rebirth) or black (alluding to the fertility of the Nile floodplain) in mummiform (wearing the trappings of mummification from chest downward).[24] Early mythology[edit] The Pyramid Texts
Pyramid Texts
describe early conceptions of an afterlife in terms of eternal travelling with the sun god amongst the stars. Amongst these mortuary texts, at the beginning of the 4th dynasty, is found: "An offering the king gives and Anubis". By the end of the 5th dynasty, the formula in all tombs becomes "An offering the king gives and Osiris".[25] Father of Horus[edit]

The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, wallpainting in the tomb of Horemheb
Horemheb
(KV57).

Osiris
Osiris
is the mythological father of the god Horus, whose conception is described in the Osiris myth
Osiris myth
(a central myth in ancient Egyptian belief). The myth describes Osiris
Osiris
as having been killed by his brother Set, who wanted Osiris' throne. Isis
Isis
finds the body of Osiris and hides it in the reeds where it is found and dismembered by Set. Isis
Isis
retrieves and joins the fragmented pieces of Osiris, but cannot retrieve the phallus, which was swallowed by a fish. Isis
Isis
fashions a golden phallus, and briefly brings Osiris
Osiris
back to life by use of a spell that she learned from her father. This spell gave her time to become pregnant by Osiris
Osiris
before he again dies. Isis
Isis
later gave birth to Horus. As such, since Horus
Horus
was born after Osiris' resurrection, Horus
Horus
became thought of as a representation of new beginnings and the vanquisher of the usurper Set. Ptah- Seker
Seker
(who resulted from the identification of Creator god Ptah with Seker) thus gradually became identified with Osiris, the two becoming Ptah-Seker-Osiris. As the sun was thought to spend the night in the underworld, and was subsequently "reborn" every morning, Ptah-Seker- Osiris
Osiris
was identified as both Creator god, king of the underworld, god of the afterlife, life, death, and regeneration. Ram god[edit]

Banebdjed (b3-nb-ḏd) in hieroglyphs

Osiris' soul, or rather his Ba, was occasionally worshipped in its own right, almost as if it were a distinct god, especially in the Delta city of Mendes. This aspect of Osiris
Osiris
was referred to as Banebdjedet, which is grammatically feminine (also spelt "Banebded" or "Banebdjed"), literally "the ba of the lord of the djed, which roughly means The soul of the lord of the pillar of continuity. The djed, a type of pillar, was usually understood as the backbone of Osiris, and, at the same time, as the Nile, the backbone of Egypt. The Nile supplying water, and Osiris
Osiris
(strongly connected to the vegetable regeneration) who died only to be resurrected, represented continuity and stability. As Banebdjed, Osiris
Osiris
was given epithets such as Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra, since Ra, when he had become identified with Atum, was considered Osiris' ancestor, from whom his regal authority is inherited. Ba does not mean "soul" in the western sense, and has to do with power, reputation, force of character, especially in the case of a god. Since the ba was associated with power, and also happened to be a word for ram in Egyptian, Banebdjed was depicted as a ram, or as Ram-headed. A living, sacred ram was kept at Mendes
Mendes
and worshipped as the incarnation of the god, and upon death, the rams were mummified and buried in a ram-specific necropolis. Banebdjed was consequently said to be Horus' father, as Banebdjed was an aspect of Osiris. Regarding the association of Osiris
Osiris
with the ram, the god's traditional crook and flail are the instruments of the shepherd, which has suggested to some scholars also an origin for Osiris
Osiris
in herding tribes of the upper Nile. The crook and flail were originally symbols of the minor agricultural deity Andjety, and passed to Osiris
Osiris
later. From Osiris, they eventually passed to Egyptian kings in general as symbols of divine authority. Mythology[edit]

The family of Osiris. Osiris
Osiris
on a lapis lazuli pillar in the middle, flanked by Horus
Horus
on the left and Isis
Isis
on the right (22nd dynasty, Louvre, Paris)

See also: Osiris
Osiris
myth

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The cult of Osiris
Osiris
(who was a god chiefly of regeneration and rebirth) had a particularly strong interest in the concept of immortality. Plutarch
Plutarch
recounts one version of the myth in which Set (Osiris' brother), along with the Queen of Ethiopia, conspired with 72 accomplices to plot the assassination of Osiris.[26] Set fooled Osiris into getting into a box, which Set then shut, sealed with lead, and threw into the Nile. Osiris' wife, Isis, searched for his remains until she finally found him embedded in a tamarisk tree trunk, which was holding up the roof of a palace in Byblos
Byblos
on the Phoenician coast. She managed to remove the coffin and open it, but Osiris
Osiris
was already dead. In one version of the myth, she used a spell learned from her father and brought him back to life so he could impregnate her. Afterwards he died again and she hid his body in the desert. Months later, she gave birth to Horus. While she raised Horus, Set was hunting one night and came across the body of Osiris. Enraged, he tore the body into fourteen pieces and scattered them throughout the land. Isis
Isis
gathered up all the parts of the body, except the penis (which had been eaten by a fish, the medjed) and bandaged them together for a proper burial. The gods were impressed by the devotion of Isis
Isis
and resurrected Osiris
Osiris
as the god of the underworld. Because of his death and resurrection, Osiris
Osiris
was associated with the flooding and retreating of the Nile and thus with the crops along the Nile valley. Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
gives another version of the myth in which Osiris
Osiris
was described as an ancient king who taught the Egyptians the arts of civilization, including agriculture, then travelled the world with his sister Isis, the satyrs, and the nine muses, before finally returning to Egypt. Osiris
Osiris
was then murdered by his evil brother Typhon, who was identified with Set. Typhon
Typhon
divided the body into twenty-six pieces, which he distributed amongst his fellow conspirators in order to implicate them in the murder. Isis
Isis
and Hercules (Horus) avenged the death of Osiris
Osiris
and slew Typhon. Isis
Isis
recovered all the parts of Osiris' body, except the phallus, and secretly buried them. She made replicas of them and distributed them to several locations, which then became centres of Osiris
Osiris
worship.[27][28] Osirism[edit] Osirism, also known as the mysteries of Osiris
Osiris
or Osirian mysteries, was a mystery religion which practised annual initiation rituals for the cult of Osiris.[29] these ceremonies were fertility rites which symbolised the resurrection of Osiris. E.A. Wallis Budge
E.A. Wallis Budge
stated " Osiris
Osiris
is closely connected with the germination of wheat; the grain which is put into the ground is the dead Osiris, and the grain which has germinated is the Osiris
Osiris
who has once again renewed his life."[30] Death or transition and institution as god of the afterlife[edit]

Osiris-Nepra, with wheat growing from his body. From a bas-relief at Philae.[31] The sprouting wheat implied resurrection.[32]

Ancient Egyptians believed that death was in fact transition. They believed that the ka, or life-force, left the body at the point of death and their practices of preserving the body further indicated their understanding of the continuance of life. Hence, Osiris
Osiris
is known as the God of Transition and also commonly well known as the God of Resurrection and Regeneration.

Osiris
Osiris
"The God Of The Resurrection", rising from his bier.[33]

Plutarch
Plutarch
and others have noted that the sacrifices to Osiris
Osiris
were "gloomy, solemn, and mournful..." ( Isis
Isis
and Osiris, 69) and that the great mystery festival, celebrated in two phases, began at Abydos commemorating the death of the god, on the same day that grain was planted in the ground ( Isis
Isis
and Osiris, 13). The annual festival involved the construction of " Osiris
Osiris
Beds" formed in shape of Osiris, filled with soil and sown with seed.[34] The germinating seed symbolized Osiris
Osiris
rising from the dead. An almost pristine example was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
by Howard Carter.[35] The first phase of the festival was a public drama depicting the murder and dismemberment of Osiris, the search of his body by Isis, his triumphal return as the resurrected god, and the battle in which Horus
Horus
defeated Set. This was all presented by skilled actors as a literary history and was the main method of recruiting cult membership. According to Julius Firmicus Maternus of the fourth century, this play was re-enacted each year by worshippers who "beat their breasts and gashed their shoulders.... When they pretend that the mutilated remains of the god have been found and rejoined...they turn from mourning to rejoicing." (De Errore Profanorum). The passion of Osiris
Osiris
was reflected in his name 'Wenennefer" ("the one who continues to be perfect"), which also alludes to his post mortem power.[24] Ikhernofret Stela[edit] Much of the extant information about the Passion of Osiris
Osiris
can be found on the Ikhernofret Stela
Ikhernofret Stela
at Abydos erected in the 12th Dynasty by Ikhernofret (also I-Kher-Nefert), possibly a priest of Osiris
Osiris
or other official (the titles of Ikhernofret are described in his stela from Abydos) during the reign of Senwosret III
Senwosret III
( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Sesostris, about 1875 BC). The Passion Plays were held in the last month of the inundation (the annual Nile flood), coinciding with Spring, and held at Abydos/Abedjou which was the traditional place where the body of Osiris/Wesir drifted ashore after having been drowned in the Nile.[36] The part of the myth recounting the chopping up of the body into 14 pieces by Set is not recounted in this particular stela. Although it is attested to be a part of the rituals by a version of the Papyrus Jumilhac, in which it took Isis
Isis
12 days to reassemble the pieces, coinciding with the festival of ploughing.[37] Some elements of the ceremony were held in the temple, while others involved public participation in a form of theatre. The Stela of I-Kher-Nefert recounts the programme of events of the public elements over the five days of the Festival:

The First Day, The Procession of Wepwawet: A mock battle was enacted during which the enemies of Osiris
Osiris
are defeated. A procession was led by the god Wepwawet
Wepwawet
("opener of the way"). The Second Day, The Great Procession of Osiris: The body of Osiris
Osiris
was taken from his temple to his tomb. The boat he was transported in, the "Neshmet" bark, had to be defended against his enemies. The Third Day: Osiris
Osiris
is Mourned and the Enemies of the Land are Destroyed. The Fourth Day, Night Vigil: Prayers and recitations are made and funeral rites performed. The Fifth Day, Osiris
Osiris
is Reborn: Osiris
Osiris
is reborn at dawn and crowned with the crown of Ma'at. A statue of Osiris
Osiris
is brought to the temple.[36]

Wheat and clay rituals[edit]

A rare sample of Egyptian terra cotta sculpture which may depict Isis mourning Osiris. The sculpture portrays a woman raising her right arm over her head, a typical gesture of mourning. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Contrasting with the public "theatrical" ceremonies sourced from the I-Kher-Nefert stele (from the Middle Kingdom), more esoteric ceremonies were performed inside the temples by priests witnessed only by chosen initiates. Plutarch
Plutarch
mentions that (for much later period) two days after the beginning of the festival "the priests bring forth a sacred chest containing a small golden coffer, into which they pour some potable water...and a great shout arises from the company for joy that Osiris
Osiris
is found (or resurrected). Then they knead some fertile soil with the water...and fashion therefrom a crescent-shaped figure, which they cloth and adorn, this indicating that they regard these gods as the substance of Earth and Water." ( Isis
Isis
and Osiris, 39). Yet his accounts were still obscure, for he also wrote, "I pass over the cutting of the wood" – opting not to describe it, since he considered it as a most sacred ritual (Ibid. 21). In the Osirian temple at Denderah, an inscription (translated by Budge, Chapter XV, Osiris
Osiris
and the Egyptian Resurrection) describes in detail the making of wheat paste models of each dismembered piece of Osiris
Osiris
to be sent out to the town where each piece is discovered by Isis. At the temple of Mendes, figures of Osiris
Osiris
were made from wheat and paste placed in a trough on the day of the murder, then water was added for several days, until finally the mixture was kneaded into a mold of Osiris
Osiris
and taken to the temple to be buried (the sacred grain for these cakes were grown only in the temple fields). Molds were made from the wood of a red tree in the forms of the sixteen dismembered parts of Osiris, the cakes of 'divine' bread were made from each mold, placed in a silver chest and set near the head of the god with the inward parts of Osiris
Osiris
as described in the Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
(XVII). Judgement[edit] The idea of divine justice being exercised after death for wrongdoing during life is first encountered during the Old Kingdom in a 6th dynasty tomb containing fragments of what would be described later as the Negative Confessions.[38]

Judgment scene from the Book
Book
of the Dead. In the three scenes from the Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead
(version from ~1375 BC) the dead man (Hunefer) is taken into the judgement hall by the jackal-headed Anubis. The next scene is the weighing of his heart against the feather of Ma'at, with Ammut
Ammut
waiting the result, and Thoth
Thoth
recording. Next, the triumphant Henefer, having passed the test, is presented by the falcon-headed Horus
Horus
to Osiris, seated in his shrine with Isis
Isis
and Nephthys. (British Museum)

With the rise of the cult of Osiris
Osiris
during the Middle Kingdom the "democratization of religion" offered to even his humblest followers the prospect of eternal life, with moral fitness becoming the dominant factor in determining a person's suitability. At death a person faced judgment by a tribunal of forty-two divine judges. If they led a life in conformance with the precepts of the goddess Ma'at, who represented truth and right living, the person was welcomed into the kingdom of Osiris. If found guilty, the person was thrown to a "devourer" (such as the soul-eating demon Ammit) and did not share in eternal life.[39] The person who is taken by the devourer is subject first to terrifying punishment and then annihilated. These depictions of punishment may have influenced medieval perceptions of the inferno in hell via early Christian
Christian
and Coptic texts.[40] Purification for those who are considered justified may be found in the descriptions of "Flame Island", where they experience the triumph over evil and rebirth. For the damned, complete destruction into a state of non-being awaits, but there is no suggestion of eternal torture.[41][42] Divine pardon at judgement was always a central concern for the ancient Egyptians.[43] During the reign of Seti I, Osiris
Osiris
was also invoked in royal decrees to pursue the living when wrongdoing was observed, but kept secret and not reported.[44] Greco-Roman era[edit] Hellenization[edit]

Bust of Serapis.

The early Ptolemaic kings promoted a new god, Serapis, who combined traits of Osiris
Osiris
with those of various Greek gods and was portrayed in a Hellenistic form. Serapis
Serapis
was often treated as the consort of Isis and became the patron deity of the Ptolemies' capital, Alexandria.[45] Serapis's origins are not known. Some ancient authors claim the cult of Serapis
Serapis
was established at Alexandria by Alexander the Great himself, but most who discuss the subject of Serapis's origins give a story similar to that by Plutarch. Writing about 400 years after the fact, Plutarch
Plutarch
claimed that Ptolemy I
Ptolemy I
established the cult after dreaming of a colossal statue at Sinope in Anatolia. His councillors identified as a statue of the Greek god Pluto and said that the Egyptian name for Pluto was Serapis. This name may have been a Hellenization of "Osiris-Apis".[46] Osiris-Apis was a patron deity of the Memphite Necropolis
Necropolis
and the father of the Apis bull who was worshipped there, and texts from Ptolemaic times treat "Serapis" as the Greek translation of "Osiris-Apis". But little of the early evidence for Serapis's cult comes from Memphis, and much of it comes from the Mediterranean world with no reference to an Egyptian origin for Serapis, so Mark Smith expresses doubt that Serapis
Serapis
originated as a Greek form of Osiris-Apis's name and leaves open the possibility that Serapis
Serapis
originated outside Egypt.[47] Destruction of cult[edit]

Philae
Philae
Island.

The cult of Isis
Isis
and Osiris
Osiris
continued at Philae
Philae
until at least the 450s CE, long after the imperial decrees of the late 4th century that ordered the closing of temples to "pagan" gods. Philae
Philae
was the last major ancient Egyptian temple
Egyptian temple
to be closed.[48]

In popular culture[edit]

This section should include a summary of, or be summarized in, another article. See:Summary style for information on how to incorporate it into this article's main text, or the main text of another article.

Main article: Ancient Egyptian deities
Ancient Egyptian deities
in popular culture § Osiris See also[edit]

Aaru Egyptian soul

Notes[edit]

^ "Coptic Dictionary Online". corpling.uis.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-17.  ^ Allen, James P. (2010). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139486354.  ^ a b Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 105. ISBN 0-500-05120-8.  ^ Collier, Mark; Manley, Bill (1998). How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs, British Museum Press, p. 41, ISBN 0-7141-1910-5 ^ Conceptions of God In Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, Erik Hornung (translated by John Baines), p. 233, Cornell University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-8014-1223-4 ^ Quirke, S.; Spencer, A. J. (1992). The British Museum Book
Book
of Ancient Egypt. London: The British Museum Press. ^ Kane Chronicles ^ Griffiths, John Gwyn (1980). The Origins of Osiris
Osiris
and His Cult. Brill. p. 44 ^ " Isis
Isis
and Osiris", Plutarch, translated by Frank Cole Babbitt, 1936, vol. 5 Loeb Classical Library. Penelope.uchicago.edu ^ "The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus", vol. 1, translated by G. Booth, 1814. ^ "The Gods of the Egyptians", E. A. Wallis Budge, p. 259, Dover 1969, org. pub. 1904, ISBN 0-486-22056-7 ^ a b c The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology, Edited by Donald B. Redford, pp. 302–307, Berkley, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ "The Burden of Egypt", J. A. Wilson, p. 302, University of Chicago Press, 4th imp 1963 ^ "Man, Myth and Magic", Osiris, vol. 5, pp. 2087–2088, S.G.F. Brandon, BPC Publishing, 1971. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I". Newadvent.org. 1912-07-01. Retrieved 2012-05-01.  ^ "History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian", The Suppression of Paganism
Paganism
– ch22, p. 371, John Bagnell Bury, Courier Dover Publications, 1958, ISBN 0-486-20399-9 ^ a b c Smith, Mark (2017). Following Osiris: Perspectives on the Osirian Afterlife
Afterlife
from Four Millennia. pp. 124–125.  ^ a b Griffiths, John Gwyn (1980). The Origins of Osiris
Osiris
and His Cult. pp. 124–125.  ^ (Mathieu 2010, p. 79) : Mais qui est donc Osiris ? Ou la politique sous le linceul de la religion ^ Westendorf, Wolfhart (1987). "Zur Etymologie des Namens Osiris: *wꜣs.t-jr.t "die das Auge trägt"". Form und Mass: Beiträge zur Literatur, Sprache und Kunst des alten Ägypten: Festschrift für Gerhard Fecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 6. Februar 1987 (in German): 456–461.  ^ Muchiki, Yoshi (1990). "On the transliteration of the name Osiris". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 76: 191–194.  ^ Allen, James P. (2010-04-15). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139486354.  ^ Allen, James P. (2013). "The Name of Osiris
Osiris
(and Isis)". Lingua Aegyptia. 21: 9–14.  ^ a b "How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs", Mark Collier & Bill Manley, British Museum Press, p. 42, 1998, ISBN 0-7141-1910-5 ^ "Architecture of the Afterlife: Understanding Egypt's pyramid tombs", Ann Macy Roth, Archaeology Odyssey, Spring 1998 ^ Plutarch's Moralia, On Isis
Isis
and Osiris, ch. 12. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-05-01.  ^ "Osiris", Man, Myth & Magic, S.G.F Brandon, Vol5 P2088, BPC Publishing. ^ "The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus", translated by George Booth 1814. retrieved 3 June 2007. Google Books ^ "Osirism". In Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved March 7, 2017 ^ " Osiris
Osiris
& the Egyptian resurrection", E.A. Wallis Budge, Volume 2, p 32, London, P. L. Warner; New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. (1911) ^ "Egyptian ideas of the future life.", E. A Wallis Budge, chapter 1, E. A Wallis Budge, org pub 1900 ^ "Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses", George Hart, p119, Routledge, 2005 ISBN 0-415-34495-6 ^ "Egyptian ideas of the future life.", E. A Wallis Budge, chapter 2, E. A Wallis Budge, org pub 1900 ^ Teeter, Emily (2011). Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt. Cambridge University Press. pp. 58–66 ^ " Osiris
Osiris
Bed, Burton photograph p2024, The Griffith Institute".  ^ a b "The passion plays of osiris". ancientworlds.net. Archived from the original on 2007-06-26.  ^ J. Vandier, "Le Papyrus Jumilhac", pp. 136–137, Paris, 1961 ^ "Studies in Comparative Religion", General editor, E. C Messenger, Essay by A. Mallon S. J, vol 2/5, p. 23, Catholic Truth Society, 1934 ^ Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt, Rosalie David, pp. 158–159, Penguin, 2002, ISBN 0-14-026252-0 ^ "The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology: The Oxford Guide", "Hell", pp. 161–162, Jacobus Van Dijk, Berkley Reference, 2003, ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ "The Divine Verdict", John Gwyn Griffiths, p. 233, Brill Publications, 1991, ISBN 90-04-09231-5 ^ "Letter: Hell in the ancient world. Letter by Professor J. Gwyn Griffiths". The Independent. December 31, 1993.  ^ "Egyptian Religion", Jan Assman, The Encyclopedia of Christianity, p. 77, vol2, Wm. B Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, ISBN 90-04-11695-8 ^ "The Burden of Egypt", J.A Wilson, p. 243, University of Chicago Press, 4th imp 1963; The INSCRIPTIONS OF REDESIYEH from the reign of Seti I
Seti I
include "As for anyone who shall avert the face from the command of Osiris, Osiris
Osiris
shall pursue him, Isis
Isis
shall pursue his wife, Horus
Horus
shall pursue his children, among all the princes of the necropolis, and they shall execute their judgment with him." (Breasted Ancient Egyptian Records, Vol 3, p. 86) ^ Wilkinson (2003), pp. 127–128. ^ Françoise Dunand and Christiane Zivie-Coche (2004), Gods and Men in Egypt: 3000 BCE to 395 CE, pp. 214–215 ^ Smith (2017), pp. 390–394. ^ Dijkstra, Jitse H. F. (2008). Philae
Philae
and the End of Egyptian Religion, pp. 337–348

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article Osiris.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Osiris.

Osiris—"Ancient Egypt on a Comparative Method"

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