Osiris (/oʊˈsaɪrɪs/, from Egyptian wsjr, Coptic
ⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲉ) is an Egyptian god, identified as the god of
the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead, but more appropriately as
the god of transition, resurrection, and regeneration. He was
classically depicted as a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh's beard,
partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing a distinctive crown with
two large ostrich feathers at either side, and holding a symbolic
crook and flail.
Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the
god Geb, though other sources state his father is the sun-god Ra,
and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis,
Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. He was
also associated with the epithet Khenti-Amentiu, meaning "Foremost of
the Westerners", a reference to his kingship in the land of the
dead. As ruler of the dead,
Osiris was also sometimes called "king
of the living": ancient Egyptians considered the blessed dead "the
living ones". Through syncretism with Iah, he is also the god of
Osiris was considered the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus
the Elder, and father of
Horus the Younger. The first evidence of
the worship of
Osiris was found in the middle of the Fifth dynasty of
Egypt, although it is likely that he was worshiped much earlier;
Khenti-Amentiu epithet dates to at least the first dynasty, and
was also used as a pharaonic title. Most information available on the
Osiris is derived from allusions contained in the Pyramid
Texts at the end of the Fifth Dynasty, later
New Kingdom source
documents such as the
Shabaka Stone and the Contending of
Seth, and much later, in narrative style from the writings of Greek
authors including Plutarch and Diodorus Siculus.
Osiris was considered not only a merciful judge of the dead in the
afterlife, but also the underworld agency that granted all life,
including sprouting vegetation and the fertile flooding of the Nile
River. He was described as the "Lord of love", "He Who is
Permanently Benign and Youthful" and the "Lord of Silence".
The Kings of Egypt were associated with
Osiris in death – as Osiris
rose from the dead so would they in union with him, and inherit
eternal life through a process of imitative magic. By the New Kingdom
all people, not just pharaohs, were believed to be associated with
Osiris at death, if they incurred the costs of the assimilation
Through the hope of new life after death,
Osiris began to be
associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular
vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with
the heliacal rising of Orion and
Sirius at the start of the new
Osiris was widely worshipped as Lord of the Dead until the
suppression of the Egyptian religion during the rise of Christianity
in the Roman Empire.
1 Etymology of the name
3 Early mythology
3.1 Father of Horus
3.2 Ram god
5.1 Death or transition and institution as god of the afterlife
5.2 Ikhernofret Stela
5.3 Wheat and clay rituals
7 Greco-Roman era
7.2 Destruction of cult
8 In popular culture
9 See also
11 External links
Etymology of the name
Osiris is a Latin transliteration of the
Ancient Greek Ὄσιρις
IPA: [ó.siː.ris], which in turn is the Greek adaptation of the
original theonym in the Egyptian language. In
Egyptian hieroglyphs the
name appears as wsjr, which some Egyptologists instead choose to
transliterate ꜣsjr or jsjrj. Since hieroglyphic writing lacks
vowels, Egyptologists have vocalized the name in various ways as Asar,
Yasar, Aser, Asaru, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, Usir, Usire or Ausare.
Several proposals have been made for the etymology and meaning of the
original name; as Egyptologist Mark J. Smith notes, none are fully
convincing. Most take wsjr as the accepted transliteration,
following Adolf Erman:
John Gwyn Griffiths
John Gwyn Griffiths (1980), "bearing in mind Erman's emphasis on the
fact that the name must begin with an [sic] w", proposes a derivation
from wsr with an original meaning of "The Mighty One". Moreover,
one of the oldest attestations of the god
Osiris appears in the
mastaba of the deceased Netjer-wser (from nṯr-wsr "Powerful
Kurt Sethe (1930) proposes a compound st-jrt, meaning "seat of the
eye", in a hypothetical earlier form *wst-jrt; this is rejected by
Griffiths on phonetic grounds.
David Lorton (1985) takes up this same compound but explains st-jrt as
signifying "product, something made",
Osiris representing the product
of the ritual mummification process.
Wolfhart Westendorf (1987) proposes an etymology from wꜣst-jrt "she
who bears the eye".
Mark J. Smith (2017) makes no definitive proposals but asserts that
the second element must be a form of jrj ("to do, make") (rather than
However, recently alternative transliterations have been proposed:
Yoshi Muchiki (1990) reexamines Erman's evidence that the throne
hieroglyph in the word is to be read ws and finds it unconvincing,
suggesting instead that the name should be read ꜣsjr on the basis of
Aramaic, Phoenician, and Old South Arabian transcriptions, readings of
the throne sign in other words, and comparison with ꜣst
James P. Allen (2000) reads the word as jsjrt but revises the
reading (2013) to jsjrj and derives it from js-jrj, meaning
"engendering (male) principle".
Osiris with an Atef-crown made of bronze in the Naturhistorisches
Osiris is represented in his most developed form of iconography
Atef crown, which is similar to the
White crown of Upper
Egypt, but with the addition of two curling ostrich feathers at each
side (see also
Atef crown (hieroglyph)). He also carries the crook and
flail. The crook is thought to represent
Osiris as a shepherd god. The
symbolism of the flail is more uncertain with shepherds whip,
fly-whisk, or association with the god
Andjety of the ninth nome of
Lower Egypt proposed.
He was commonly depicted as a pharaoh with a complexion of either
green (the color of rebirth) or black (alluding to the fertility of
the Nile floodplain) in mummiform (wearing the trappings of
mummification from chest downward).
Pyramid Texts describe early conceptions of an afterlife in terms
of eternal travelling with the sun god amongst the stars. Amongst
these mortuary texts, at the beginning of the 4th dynasty, is found:
"An offering the king gives and Anubis". By the end of the 5th
dynasty, the formula in all tombs becomes "An offering the king gives
Father of Horus
The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, wallpainting in the tomb of
Osiris is the mythological father of the god Horus, whose conception
is described in the
Osiris myth (a central myth in ancient Egyptian
belief). The myth describes
Osiris as having been killed by his
brother Set, who wanted Osiris' throne.
Isis finds the body of Osiris
and hides it in the reeds where it is found and dismembered by Set.
Isis retrieves and joins the fragmented pieces of Osiris, but cannot
retrieve the phallus, which was swallowed by a fish.
Isis fashions a
golden phallus, and briefly brings
Osiris back to life by use of a
spell that she learned from her father. This spell gave her time to
become pregnant by
Osiris before he again dies.
Isis later gave birth
to Horus. As such, since
Horus was born after Osiris' resurrection,
Horus became thought of as a representation of new beginnings and the
vanquisher of the usurper Set.
Seker (who resulted from the identification of
Creator god Ptah
with Seker) thus gradually became identified with Osiris, the two
becoming Ptah-Seker-Osiris. As the sun was thought to spend the night
in the underworld, and was subsequently "reborn" every morning,
Osiris was identified as both Creator god, king of the
underworld, god of the afterlife, life, death, and regeneration.
Osiris' soul, or rather his Ba, was occasionally worshipped in its own
right, almost as if it were a distinct god, especially in the Delta
city of Mendes. This aspect of
Osiris was referred to as Banebdjedet,
which is grammatically feminine (also spelt "Banebded" or
"Banebdjed"), literally "the ba of the lord of the djed, which roughly
means The soul of the lord of the pillar of continuity. The djed, a
type of pillar, was usually understood as the backbone of Osiris, and,
at the same time, as the Nile, the backbone of Egypt.
The Nile supplying water, and
Osiris (strongly connected to the
vegetable regeneration) who died only to be resurrected, represented
continuity and stability. As Banebdjed,
Osiris was given epithets such
as Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra, since Ra, when he had
become identified with Atum, was considered Osiris' ancestor, from
whom his regal authority is inherited. Ba does not mean "soul" in the
western sense, and has to do with power, reputation, force of
character, especially in the case of a god.
Since the ba was associated with power, and also happened to be a word
for ram in Egyptian, Banebdjed was depicted as a ram, or as
Ram-headed. A living, sacred ram was kept at
Mendes and worshipped as
the incarnation of the god, and upon death, the rams were mummified
and buried in a ram-specific necropolis. Banebdjed was consequently
said to be Horus' father, as Banebdjed was an aspect of Osiris.
Regarding the association of
Osiris with the ram, the god's
traditional crook and flail are the instruments of the shepherd, which
has suggested to some scholars also an origin for
Osiris in herding
tribes of the upper Nile. The crook and flail were originally symbols
of the minor agricultural deity Andjety, and passed to
From Osiris, they eventually passed to Egyptian kings in general as
symbols of divine authority.
The family of Osiris.
Osiris on a lapis lazuli pillar in the middle,
Horus on the left and
Isis on the right (22nd dynasty,
Part of a series on
Ancient Egyptian religion
Four sons of Horus
Books of Breathing
Book of Caverns
Book of the Dead
Book of the Earth
Book of Gates
Book of the Netherworld
Kemetic Orthodoxy • Church of the Most High Goddess)
Ancient Egypt portal
The cult of
Osiris (who was a god chiefly of regeneration and rebirth)
had a particularly strong interest in the concept of immortality.
Plutarch recounts one version of the myth in which Set (Osiris'
brother), along with the Queen of Ethiopia, conspired with 72
accomplices to plot the assassination of Osiris. Set fooled Osiris
into getting into a box, which Set then shut, sealed with lead, and
threw into the Nile. Osiris' wife, Isis, searched for his remains
until she finally found him embedded in a tamarisk tree trunk, which
was holding up the roof of a palace in
Byblos on the Phoenician coast.
She managed to remove the coffin and open it, but
Osiris was already
In one version of the myth, she used a spell learned from her father
and brought him back to life so he could impregnate her. Afterwards he
died again and she hid his body in the desert. Months later, she gave
birth to Horus. While she raised Horus, Set was hunting one night and
came across the body of Osiris.
Enraged, he tore the body into fourteen pieces and scattered them
throughout the land.
Isis gathered up all the parts of the body,
except the penis (which had been eaten by a fish, the medjed) and
bandaged them together for a proper burial. The gods were impressed by
the devotion of
Isis and resurrected
Osiris as the god of the
underworld. Because of his death and resurrection,
associated with the flooding and retreating of the Nile and thus with
the crops along the Nile valley.
Diodorus Siculus gives another version of the myth in which
described as an ancient king who taught the Egyptians the arts of
civilization, including agriculture, then travelled the world with his
sister Isis, the satyrs, and the nine muses, before finally returning
Osiris was then murdered by his evil brother Typhon, who was
identified with Set.
Typhon divided the body into twenty-six pieces,
which he distributed amongst his fellow conspirators in order to
implicate them in the murder.
Isis and Hercules (Horus) avenged the
Osiris and slew Typhon.
Isis recovered all the parts of
Osiris' body, except the phallus, and secretly buried them. She made
replicas of them and distributed them to several locations, which then
became centres of
Osirism, also known as the mysteries of
Osiris or Osirian mysteries,
was a mystery religion which practised annual initiation rituals for
the cult of Osiris. these ceremonies were fertility rites which
symbolised the resurrection of Osiris.
E.A. Wallis Budge
E.A. Wallis Budge stated
Osiris is closely connected with the germination of wheat; the grain
which is put into the ground is the dead Osiris, and the grain which
has germinated is the
Osiris who has once again renewed his life."
Death or transition and institution as god of the afterlife
Osiris-Nepra, with wheat growing from his body. From a bas-relief at
Philae. The sprouting wheat implied resurrection.
Ancient Egyptians believed that death was in fact transition. They
believed that the ka, or life-force, left the body at the point of
death and their practices of preserving the body further indicated
their understanding of the continuance of life. Hence,
Osiris is known
as the God of Transition and also commonly well known as the God of
Resurrection and Regeneration.
Osiris "The God Of The Resurrection", rising from his bier.
Plutarch and others have noted that the sacrifices to
"gloomy, solemn, and mournful..." (
Isis and Osiris, 69) and that the
great mystery festival, celebrated in two phases, began at Abydos
commemorating the death of the god, on the same day that grain was
planted in the ground (
Isis and Osiris, 13). The annual festival
involved the construction of "
Osiris Beds" formed in shape of Osiris,
filled with soil and sown with seed.
The germinating seed symbolized
Osiris rising from the dead. An almost
pristine example was found in the tomb of
Tutankhamun by Howard
The first phase of the festival was a public drama depicting the
murder and dismemberment of Osiris, the search of his body by Isis,
his triumphal return as the resurrected god, and the battle in which
Horus defeated Set. This was all presented by skilled actors as a
literary history and was the main method of recruiting cult
Julius Firmicus Maternus of the fourth century, this play
was re-enacted each year by worshippers who "beat their breasts and
gashed their shoulders.... When they pretend that the mutilated
remains of the god have been found and rejoined...they turn from
mourning to rejoicing." (De Errore Profanorum).
The passion of
Osiris was reflected in his name 'Wenennefer" ("the one
who continues to be perfect"), which also alludes to his post mortem
Much of the extant information about the Passion of
Osiris can be
found on the
Ikhernofret Stela at Abydos erected in the 12th Dynasty
by Ikhernofret (also I-Kher-Nefert), possibly a priest of
other official (the titles of Ikhernofret are described in his stela
from Abydos) during the reign of
Senwosret III (
about 1875 BC). The Passion Plays were held in the last month of the
inundation (the annual Nile flood), coinciding with Spring, and held
at Abydos/Abedjou which was the traditional place where the body of
Osiris/Wesir drifted ashore after having been drowned in the Nile.
The part of the myth recounting the chopping up of the body into 14
pieces by Set is not recounted in this particular stela. Although it
is attested to be a part of the rituals by a version of the Papyrus
Jumilhac, in which it took
Isis 12 days to reassemble the pieces,
coinciding with the festival of ploughing. Some elements of the
ceremony were held in the temple, while others involved public
participation in a form of theatre. The Stela of I-Kher-Nefert
recounts the programme of events of the public elements over the five
days of the Festival:
The First Day, The Procession of Wepwawet: A mock battle was enacted
during which the enemies of
Osiris are defeated. A procession was led
by the god
Wepwawet ("opener of the way").
The Second Day, The Great Procession of Osiris: The body of
taken from his temple to his tomb. The boat he was transported in, the
"Neshmet" bark, had to be defended against his enemies.
The Third Day:
Osiris is Mourned and the Enemies of the Land are
The Fourth Day, Night Vigil: Prayers and recitations are made and
funeral rites performed.
The Fifth Day,
Osiris is Reborn:
Osiris is reborn at dawn and crowned
with the crown of Ma'at. A statue of
Osiris is brought to the
Wheat and clay rituals
A rare sample of Egyptian terra cotta sculpture which may depict Isis
mourning Osiris. The sculpture portrays a woman raising her right arm
over her head, a typical gesture of mourning. Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Contrasting with the public "theatrical" ceremonies sourced from the
I-Kher-Nefert stele (from the Middle Kingdom), more esoteric
ceremonies were performed inside the temples by priests witnessed only
by chosen initiates.
Plutarch mentions that (for much later period)
two days after the beginning of the festival "the priests bring forth
a sacred chest containing a small golden coffer, into which they pour
some potable water...and a great shout arises from the company for joy
Osiris is found (or resurrected). Then they knead some fertile
soil with the water...and fashion therefrom a crescent-shaped figure,
which they cloth and adorn, this indicating that they regard these
gods as the substance of Earth and Water." (
Isis and Osiris, 39). Yet
his accounts were still obscure, for he also wrote, "I pass over the
cutting of the wood" – opting not to describe it, since he
considered it as a most sacred ritual (Ibid. 21).
In the Osirian temple at Denderah, an inscription (translated by
Budge, Chapter XV,
Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection) describes in
detail the making of wheat paste models of each dismembered piece of
Osiris to be sent out to the town where each piece is discovered by
Isis. At the temple of Mendes, figures of
Osiris were made from wheat
and paste placed in a trough on the day of the murder, then water was
added for several days, until finally the mixture was kneaded into a
Osiris and taken to the temple to be buried (the sacred grain
for these cakes were grown only in the temple fields). Molds were made
from the wood of a red tree in the forms of the sixteen dismembered
parts of Osiris, the cakes of 'divine' bread were made from each mold,
placed in a silver chest and set near the head of the god with the
inward parts of
Osiris as described in the
Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead (XVII).
The idea of divine justice being exercised after death for wrongdoing
during life is first encountered during the Old Kingdom in a 6th
dynasty tomb containing fragments of what would be described later as
the Negative Confessions.
Judgment scene from the
Book of the Dead. In the three scenes from the
Book of the Dead
Book of the Dead (version from ~1375 BC) the dead man (Hunefer) is
taken into the judgement hall by the jackal-headed Anubis. The next
scene is the weighing of his heart against the feather of Ma'at, with
Ammut waiting the result, and
Thoth recording. Next, the triumphant
Henefer, having passed the test, is presented by the falcon-headed
Horus to Osiris, seated in his shrine with
Isis and Nephthys. (British
With the rise of the cult of
Osiris during the Middle Kingdom the
"democratization of religion" offered to even his humblest followers
the prospect of eternal life, with moral fitness becoming the dominant
factor in determining a person's suitability.
At death a person faced judgment by a tribunal of forty-two divine
judges. If they led a life in conformance with the precepts of the
goddess Ma'at, who represented truth and right living, the person was
welcomed into the kingdom of Osiris. If found guilty, the person was
thrown to a "devourer" (such as the soul-eating demon Ammit) and did
not share in eternal life.
The person who is taken by the devourer is subject first to terrifying
punishment and then annihilated. These depictions of punishment may
have influenced medieval perceptions of the inferno in hell via early
Christian and Coptic texts.
Purification for those who are considered justified may be found in
the descriptions of "Flame Island", where they experience the triumph
over evil and rebirth. For the damned, complete destruction into a
state of non-being awaits, but there is no suggestion of eternal
Divine pardon at judgement was always a central concern for the
During the reign of Seti I,
Osiris was also invoked in royal decrees
to pursue the living when wrongdoing was observed, but kept secret and
Bust of Serapis.
The early Ptolemaic kings promoted a new god, Serapis, who combined
Osiris with those of various Greek gods and was portrayed in
a Hellenistic form.
Serapis was often treated as the consort of Isis
and became the patron deity of the Ptolemies' capital, Alexandria.
Serapis's origins are not known. Some ancient authors claim the cult
Serapis was established at Alexandria by Alexander the Great
himself, but most who discuss the subject of Serapis's origins give a
story similar to that by Plutarch. Writing about 400 years after the
Plutarch claimed that
Ptolemy I established the cult after
dreaming of a colossal statue at Sinope in Anatolia. His councillors
identified as a statue of the Greek god Pluto and said that the
Egyptian name for Pluto was Serapis. This name may have been a
Hellenization of "Osiris-Apis". Osiris-Apis was a patron deity of
Necropolis and the father of the Apis bull who was
worshipped there, and texts from Ptolemaic times treat "Serapis" as
the Greek translation of "Osiris-Apis". But little of the early
evidence for Serapis's cult comes from Memphis, and much of it comes
from the Mediterranean world with no reference to an Egyptian origin
for Serapis, so Mark Smith expresses doubt that
Serapis originated as
a Greek form of Osiris-Apis's name and leaves open the possibility
Serapis originated outside Egypt.
Destruction of cult
The cult of
Osiris continued at
Philae until at least the
450s CE, long after the imperial decrees of the late 4th century that
ordered the closing of temples to "pagan" gods.
Philae was the last
Egyptian temple to be closed.
In popular culture
This section should include a summary of, or be summarized in, another
article. See:Summary style for information on how to
incorporate it into this article's main text, or the main text of
Ancient Egyptian deities
Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture
^ "Coptic Dictionary Online". corpling.uis.georgetown.edu. Retrieved
^ Allen, James P. (2010). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the
Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press.
^ a b Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of
Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 105.
^ Collier, Mark; Manley, Bill (1998). How to Read Egyptian
Hieroglyphs, British Museum Press, p. 41, ISBN 0-7141-1910-5
^ Conceptions of God In Ancient Egypt: The One and the Many, Erik
Hornung (translated by John Baines), p. 233, Cornell University Press,
1996, ISBN 0-8014-1223-4
^ Quirke, S.; Spencer, A. J. (1992). The British Museum
Ancient Egypt. London: The British Museum Press.
^ Kane Chronicles
^ Griffiths, John Gwyn (1980). The Origins of
Osiris and His Cult.
Brill. p. 44
Isis and Osiris", Plutarch, translated by Frank Cole Babbitt, 1936,
vol. 5 Loeb Classical Library. Penelope.uchicago.edu
^ "The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus", vol. 1, translated by
G. Booth, 1814.
^ "The Gods of the Egyptians", E. A. Wallis Budge, p. 259, Dover
1969, org. pub. 1904, ISBN 0-486-22056-7
^ a b c The Oxford Guide: Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology,
Edited by Donald B. Redford, pp. 302–307, Berkley, 2003,
^ "The Burden of Egypt", J. A. Wilson, p. 302, University of
Chicago Press, 4th imp 1963
^ "Man, Myth and Magic", Osiris, vol. 5, pp. 2087–2088, S.G.F.
Brandon, BPC Publishing, 1971.
^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Theodosius I". Newadvent.org. 1912-07-01.
^ "History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I.
to the Death of Justinian", The Suppression of
Paganism – ch22,
p. 371, John Bagnell Bury, Courier Dover Publications, 1958,
^ a b c Smith, Mark (2017). Following Osiris: Perspectives on the
Afterlife from Four Millennia. pp. 124–125.
^ a b Griffiths, John Gwyn (1980). The Origins of
Osiris and His Cult.
^ (Mathieu 2010, p. 79) : Mais qui est donc Osiris ? Ou
la politique sous le linceul de la religion
^ Westendorf, Wolfhart (1987). "Zur Etymologie des Namens Osiris:
*wꜣs.t-jr.t "die das Auge trägt"". Form und Mass: Beiträge zur
Literatur, Sprache und Kunst des alten Ägypten: Festschrift für
Gerhard Fecht zum 65. Geburtstag am 6. Februar 1987 (in German):
^ Muchiki, Yoshi (1990). "On the transliteration of the name Osiris".
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 76: 191–194.
^ Allen, James P. (2010-04-15). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to
the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press.
^ Allen, James P. (2013). "The Name of
Osiris (and Isis)". Lingua
Aegyptia. 21: 9–14.
^ a b "How to Read Egyptian Hieroglyphs", Mark Collier & Bill
Manley, British Museum Press, p. 42, 1998,
^ "Architecture of the Afterlife: Understanding Egypt's pyramid
tombs", Ann Macy Roth, Archaeology Odyssey, Spring 1998
^ Plutarch's Moralia, On
Isis and Osiris, ch. 12. Books.google.com.
^ "Osiris", Man, Myth & Magic, S.G.F Brandon, Vol5 P2088, BPC
^ "The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus", translated by George
Booth 1814. retrieved 3 June 2007. Google Books
^ "Osirism". In Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved March 7, 2017
Osiris & the Egyptian resurrection", E.A. Wallis Budge, Volume
2, p 32, London, P. L. Warner; New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. (1911)
^ "Egyptian ideas of the future life.", E. A Wallis Budge, chapter 1,
E. A Wallis Budge, org pub 1900
^ "Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses", George Hart,
p119, Routledge, 2005 ISBN 0-415-34495-6
^ "Egyptian ideas of the future life.", E. A Wallis Budge, chapter 2,
E. A Wallis Budge, org pub 1900
^ Teeter, Emily (2011). Religion and Ritual in Ancient Egypt.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 58–66
Osiris Bed, Burton photograph p2024, The Griffith Institute".
^ a b "The passion plays of osiris". ancientworlds.net. Archived from
the original on 2007-06-26.
^ J. Vandier, "Le Papyrus Jumilhac", pp. 136–137, Paris, 1961
^ "Studies in Comparative Religion", General editor, E. C Messenger,
Essay by A. Mallon S. J, vol 2/5, p. 23, Catholic Truth Society,
^ Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt, Rosalie David, pp. 158–159,
Penguin, 2002, ISBN 0-14-026252-0
^ "The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology: The Oxford Guide",
"Hell", pp. 161–162, Jacobus Van Dijk, Berkley Reference, 2003,
^ "The Divine Verdict", John Gwyn Griffiths, p. 233, Brill
Publications, 1991, ISBN 90-04-09231-5
^ "Letter: Hell in the ancient world. Letter by Professor J. Gwyn
Griffiths". The Independent. December 31, 1993.
^ "Egyptian Religion", Jan Assman, The Encyclopedia of Christianity,
p. 77, vol2, Wm. B Eerdmans Publishing, 1999,
^ "The Burden of Egypt", J.A Wilson, p. 243, University of
Chicago Press, 4th imp 1963; The INSCRIPTIONS OF REDESIYEH from the
Seti I include "As for anyone who shall avert the face from
the command of Osiris,
Osiris shall pursue him,
Isis shall pursue his
Horus shall pursue his children, among all the princes of the
necropolis, and they shall execute their judgment with him." (Breasted
Ancient Egyptian Records, Vol 3, p. 86)
^ Wilkinson (2003), pp. 127–128.
Françoise Dunand and Christiane Zivie-Coche (2004), Gods and Men in
Egypt: 3000 BCE to 395 CE, pp. 214–215
^ Smith (2017), pp. 390–394.
^ Dijkstra, Jitse H. F. (2008).
Philae and the End of Egyptian
Religion, pp. 337–348
Wikisource has the text of The New Student's Reference Work article
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Osiris.
Osiris—"Ancient Egypt on a Comparative Method"
Ancient Egyptian religion
Veneration of the dead
Four sons of Horus
Souls of Pe and Nekhen
Land of Manu
Book of Thoth
Crook and flail
Eye of Horus
Eye of Ra
Books of Breathing
Book of Caverns
Book of the Dead
Book of the Earth
Book of Gates
Book of the Heavenly Cow
Book of Traversing Eternity
The Contendings of
Horus and Seth
Book of the Netherworld
Great Hymn to the Aten
Litany of the Eye of Horus
Litany of Re
Temple of Set
Ancient Egypt portal