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Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈɔskar luˈiːdʒi ˈskalfaro]; 9 September 1918 – 29 January 2012)[1] was an Italian politician and magistrate, the ninth President of the Italian Republic from 1992 to 1999, and subsequently a senator for life. Formerly a member of Christian Democracy, he belonged to the centre-left Democratic party.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Honours and awards 3 References 4 External links

Biography[edit] Scalfaro was born in Novara, Province of Novara, on 9 September 1918,[2] son of Guglielmo, Barone Scalfaro (born Naples, 21 December 1888) and wife Rosalia Ussino. He was raised in a religious atmosphere.[3] He became a member of the association Azione Cattolica ( Catholic
Catholic
Action) at the age of 12 and kept its badge on his lapel until his death.[3] Scalfaro studied law at Milan's Università Cattolica and graduated on 30 July 1941. On 21 October 1942, he entered the magistrature. In 1945, after the end of World War II, he became a public prosecuting attorney, and to date he is the last Italian attorney to have obtained a death sentence: in July of that year, along with two others, he was public prosecutor in the trial against former Novara
Novara
prefect Enrico Vezzalini and servicemen Arturo Missiato, Domenico Ricci, Salvatore Santoro, Giovanni Zeno and Raffaele Infante, accused of "collaborating with the German invaders". After a three-day-long debate, all six were condemned to death. The sentence was carried out on 23 September 1945. Later on, he obtained one more death sentence, but the accused was pardoned before the execution could take place. In 1946 he was elected to the Constituent Assembly
Constituent Assembly
and later in 1948 he became a deputy representing the district of Turin. He was re-elected ten times in a row until 1992. Within the Democrazia Cristiana
Democrazia Cristiana
party he was associated with its right wing. On 25 May 1992, he was elected as President of the Italian Republic,[4] after a two-week stalemate of unsuccessful attempts to reach agreement. The killing of anti-Mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone prompted his election. His mandate ended in May 1999, and he automatically became a lifetime member of the Senate. On 7 April 1994 Scalfaro co-officiated at the Papal Concert to Commemorate the Shoah at the Sala Nervi in Vatican City, along with Pope John Paul II, and Chief Rabbi of Rome
Rome
Elio Toaff. In recent times, Scalfaro was the chairman of the committee that advocated the abrogation, in the referendum of 25 and 26 June 2006, on the constitutional reform that had been passed in parliament the previous year by the former center-right majority. Along with all the center-left (and a few center-right personalities, too), Scalfaro considered it to be dangerous for national unity and for other reasons. The opponents of the reform won a landslide victory in the referendum. Scalfaro was the oldest surviving former Italian president and the second oldest member of the Senate, after Rita Levi-Montalcini. He consequently took the temporary presidency of the newly elected assembly which followed the 2006 general election, as Levi Montalcini refused the role because of her age. This made him one of the three politicians in Italian history to have presided over the three highest-ranked offices in the Italian Republic: President of the Republic, President of the Senate, and President of the Chamber of Deputies; the others are Sandro Pertini
Sandro Pertini
and Enrico De Nicola. A staunch Catholic, and in the past a rather conservative and anti-communist politician, Scalfaro nevertheless distrusted many members of the DC who changed support to Forza Italia, and was consistently on bad terms with Silvio Berlusconi. He openly supported the center-left coalition,[citation needed] which included Democratic Party of the Left, which won the 1996 and 2006 elections. Despite his age, he also actively campaigned, for the "No" side, in the June 2006 referendum on a constitutional reform. This reform had been proposed by Berlusconi's House of Freedom
House of Freedom
coalition during its control of the government.

Scalfaro in 2009.

During the Second World War, in 1944, Scalfaro lost his 20-year-old wife Maria Inzitari, by whom he had a daughter, Marianna. He never married again. After the 2008 parliamentary election, he was again asked to preside as pro tempore Speaker of the Senate after Rita Levi-Montalcini
Rita Levi-Montalcini
again refused the post, but this time he also declined to serve. Honours and awards[edit] As President of the Italian Republic, Scalfaro was Head of several Italian Orders from 28 May 1992 to 15 May 1999: the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic, the Military Order of Italy, the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity, the Order of Merit for Labour
Order of Merit for Labour
and the Order of Vittorio Veneto. Personally, he was awarded the Gold Medal of Merit for School, Culture and Art on 31 July 1973.[5] He also received several foreign honours:

Knight of Magistral Grace of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (1950) Bailiff Grand Cross of Honour and Devotion of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta  Denmark : Knight of the Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
(19 October 1993)  Malta : Honorary Companion of Honour with Collar of the National Order of Merit (16 November 1995 [6])  Slovakia : Grand Cross (or 1st Class) of the Order of the White Double Cross (1997)[7]  Croatia : Knight Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav ("For outstanding contribution to the promotion of friendship and development co-operation between the Republic of Croatia
Croatia
and the Italian Republic." - 17 December 1997)  Estonia : Collar of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana  Latvia : Knight of the Order of the Three Stars, First Class  Lithuania : Grand Cross of the Order of Vytautas the Great (19 May 1997)[8]  Poland : Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the White Eagle

References[edit]

^ Profile of Oscar Luigi Scalfaro ^ Page at Senate website (in Italian). ^ a b Sassoon, Donald (29 January 2012). "Oscar Luigi Scalfaro obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 December 2012.  ^ Povoledo, Elisabetta (30 January 2012). "OBITUARY; Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, 93; Led Italy
Italy
at Turbulent Time". The New York Times. p. 21.  ^ "Dettaglio decorato" (in Italian). Presidency of the Italian Republic. Retrieved 12 December 2013.  ^ Prime Minister of Malta
Malta
Website, Honorary Appointments to the National Order of Merit Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Slovak republic website, State honours Archived 13 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. : 1st Class received in 1997 (click on "Holders of the Order of the 1st Class White Double Cross" to see the holders' table) ^ Lithuanian Presidency, Lithuanian Orders searching form

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oscar Luigi Scalfaro.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
- full access article (in Italian) La biografia del presidente Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
Oscar Luigi Scalfaro
at Find a Grave

Political offices

Preceded by Riccardo Misasi Italian Minister of Public Instruction 1972–1973 Succeeded by Franco Maria Malfatti

Preceded by Virginio Rognoni Italian Minister of the Interior 1983–1987 Succeeded by Amintore Fanfani

Preceded by Leonilde Iotti President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies 1992 Succeeded by Giorgio Napolitano

Preceded by Francesco Cossiga President of the Italian Republic 1992–1999 Succeeded by Carlo Azeglio Ciampi

Oscar Luigi Scalfaro

v t e

Presidents of Italy
Italy
(List)

Enrico De Nicola Luigi Einaudi Giovanni Gronchi Antonio Segni Giuseppe Saragat Giovanni Leone Sandro Pertini Francesco Cossiga Oscar Luigi Scalfaro Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Giorgio Napolitano Sergio Mattarella

v t e

Presidents of the Italian Chamber of Deputies

Kingdom of Sardinia

Gioberti Pareto Pinelli Rattazzi Bon Compagni Cadorna Bon Compagni Rattazzi Lanza

Kingdom of Italy

Rattazzi Tecchio Cassinis Mari Lanza Brancheri Crispi Cairoli Farini Coppino Farini Coppino Branchieri Zanardelli Branchieri Villa Zanardelli Branchieri Zanardelli Chinaglia Colombo Gallo Villa Branchieri Marcora Branchieri Marcora Orlando De Nicola Rocco Casertano Giurati Ciano Grandi Orlando (de jure) Sforza (N.C.)

Italian Republic

Saragat (C.A.) Terracini (C.A.) Gronchi Leone Bucciarelli-Ducci Pertini Ingrao Iotti Scalfaro Napolitano Pivetti Violante Casini Bertinotti Fini Boldrini Fico

v t e

Andreotti I Cabinet (February 1972 – June 1972)

Caiati Gatto Sullo Gaspari Moro Rumor Gonella Taviani Pella Colombo Restivo Misasi Aggradi Natali Scalfaro Bosco Gava Valsecchi Ripamonti Cassiani Piccoli/Andreotti (interim) Donat-Cattin Scaglia

v t e

Andreotti II Cabinet (1972–73)

Taviani Caiati Sullo Bergamasco Romita Gava Medici Rumor Gonella Taviani Valsecchi Malagodi Tanassi Scalfaro Gullotti Natali Bozzi Gioia Ferri Gaspari Matteotti Lupis Ferrari Aggradi Coppo Badini Confalonieri

v t e

Craxi I Cabinet (1983–86)

Forlani Romita/Vizzini Granelli Forte/Fortuna Scotti/Zamberletti Biondi/Valerio Zanone Gaspari De Vito Mammì Andreotti Scalfaro Martinazzoli Longo/Craxi/Romita Visentini Goria Spadolini Falcucci Nicolazzi Pandolfi Signorile Gava Altissimo Degan Capria Carta Darida De Michelis Gullotti Lagorio

v t e

Craxi II Cabinet (1986–87)

Forlani Vizzini Granelli Fabbri Zamberletti Gaspari De Vito Mammì Andreotti Scalfaro Rognoni Romita Visentini Goria Spadolini Falcucci Nicolazzi Pandolfi Signorile Gava Zanone Donat-Cattin Formica Degan Darida Gullotti De Michelis Capria De Lorenzo

v t e

Fanfani VI Cabinet (1987)

Paladin Granelli De Vito Andreotti Scalfaro Rognoni Goria Gaspari Guarino Falcucci Zamberletti Pandolfi Travaglini Gava Donat-Cattin Piga Sarcinelli Degan Darida Gorrieri Gullotti Di Lazzaro Pavan

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 24715915 LCCN: n96058641 ISNI: 0000 0000 5511 3425 GND: 119487861 SUDOC: 034789022 BNF: cb125506109 (data) ICCU: ITICCUCFIV22

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