The Info List - Oscar Hammerstein II

Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II (/ˈhæmərstaɪn/; July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was an American librettist, theatrical producer, and (usually uncredited) theatre director of musicals for almost forty years. Hammerstein won eight Tony Awards and two Academy Awards for Best Original Song. Many of his songs are standard repertoire for vocalists and jazz musicians. He co-wrote 850 songs. Hammerstein was the lyricist and playwright in his partnerships; his collaborators wrote the music. Hammerstein collaborated with numerous composers, such as Jerome Kern, with whom he wrote Show Boat, Vincent Youmans, Rudolf Friml, Richard A. Whiting
Richard A. Whiting
and Sigmund Romberg; but he is best known for his collaborations with Richard Rodgers, as the duo Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
which include Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I, and The Sound of Music.


1 Early life 2 Early career 3 Rodgers and Hammerstein 4 Death 5 Personal life 6 Reputation 7 Songs 8 Awards and legacy 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein II was born in New York City, the son of Alice Hammerstein (née Nimmo) and theatrical manager William Hammerstein.[1] His grandfather was the German theatre impresario Oscar Hammerstein I. His father was from a Jewish family, and his mother was the daughter of Scottish and English parents.[2] He was raised Episcopalian.[3] Although Hammerstein's father managed the Victoria Theatre for his father and was a producer of vaudeville shows, he was opposed to his son's desire to participate in the arts.[4] Hammerstein attended Columbia University
Columbia University
(1912–1916) and studied at Columbia Law School until 1917.[5] As a student, he maintained high grades and engaged in numerous extracurricular activities. These included playing first base on the baseball team, performing in the Varsity Show
Varsity Show
and becoming an active member of Pi Lambda Phi, a mostly Jewish fraternity.[6] When he was 19, and still a student at Columbia, his father died of Bright's disease, June 10, 1914, symptoms of which doctors originally attributed to scarlet fever. On the train trip to the funeral with his brother, he read the headlines in the New York Herald: "Hammerstein's Death a Shock to the Theater Circle." The New York Times wrote, "Hammerstein, the Barnum of Vaudeville, Dead at Forty."[6] When he and his brother arrived home, they attended their father's funeral with their grandfather, and more than a thousand others, at Temple Israel in Harlem, and took part in the ceremonies held in the Jewish tradition. Two hours later, "taps was sounded over Broadway," writes biographer Hugh Fordin.[7] After his father's death, he participated in his first play with the Varsity Show, entitled On Your Way. Throughout the rest of his college career, Hammerstein wrote and performed in several Varsity Shows. Early career[edit] After quitting law school to pursue theatre, Hammerstein began his first professional collaboration, with Herbert Stothart, Otto Harbach and Frank Mandel.[8] He began as an apprentice and went on to form a 20-year collaboration with Harbach. Out of this collaboration came his first musical, Always You, for which he wrote the book and lyrics. It opened on Broadway in 1920.[9] In 1921 Hammerstein joined The Lambs club.[10] Throughout the next forty years, Hammerstein teamed with many other composers, including Jerome Kern, with whom Hammerstein enjoyed a highly successful collaboration. In 1927, Kern and Hammerstein had their biggest hit, Show Boat, which is often revived and is still considered one of the masterpieces of the American musical theatre. "Here we come to a completely new genre — the musical play as distinguished from musical comedy. Now ... the play was the thing, and everything else was subservient to that play. Now ... came complete integration of song, humor and production numbers into a single and inextricable artistic entity." Many years later, Hammerstein's wife Dorothy bristled when she heard a remark that Jerome Kern
Jerome Kern
had written "Ol' Man River." "Indeed not," she retorted. " Jerome Kern
Jerome Kern
wrote 'dum, dum, dum-dum.' My husband wrote 'Ol' Man River'."[11] Other Kern-Hammerstein musicals include Sweet Adeline, Music in the Air, Three Sisters, and Very Warm for May. Hammerstein also collaborated with Vincent Youmans (Wildflower), Rudolf Friml (Rose-Marie), and Sigmund Romberg
Sigmund Romberg
( The Desert Song
The Desert Song
and The New Moon).[12] Rodgers and Hammerstein[edit]

Hammerstein watching audition at the St. James Theatre

Hammerstein's most successful and sustained collaboration began when he teamed up with Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
to write a musical adaptation of the play Green Grow the Lilacs.[13] Rodgers' first partner, Lorenz Hart, originally planned to collaborate with Rodgers on this piece, but his alcoholism had become out of control, and he was unable to write. Hart was also not certain that the idea had much merit, and the two therefore separated. The adaptation became the first Rodgers and Hammerstein collaboration, entitled Oklahoma!, which opened on Broadway in 1943. It furthered the revolution begun by Show Boat, by thoroughly integrating all the aspects of musical theatre, with the songs and dances arising out of and further developing the plot and characters. William A. Everett and Paul R. Laird wrote that this was a "show, that, like 'Show Boat', became a milestone, so that later historians writing about important moments in twentieth-century theatre would begin to identify eras according to their relationship to 'Oklahoma.'"[14] After Oklahoma!, Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
were the most important contributors to the musical-play form – with such masterworks as Carousel, The King and I
The King and I
and South Pacific. The examples they set in creating vital plays, often rich with social thought, provided the necessary encouragement for other gifted writers to create musical plays of their own".[15] The partnership went on to produce these and other Broadway musicals such as Allegro, Me and Juliet, Pipe Dream, Flower Drum Song, and The Sound of Music, as well as the musical film State Fair (and its stage adaptation of the same name), and the television musical Cinderella, all featured in the revue A Grand Night for Singing. Hammerstein also wrote the book and lyrics for Carmen
Jones, an adaptation of Georges Bizet's opera Carmen
with an all-black cast that became a 1943 Broadway musical and a 1954 film. Death[edit]

Hammerstein with his first wife, Myra Finn, photographed aboard a ship.

Hammerstein died of stomach cancer on August 23, 1960, at his home Highland Farm in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, at 65,[16] shortly after the opening of The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
on Broadway. The final song he wrote was "Edelweiss", which was added near the end of the second act during rehearsal.[17][18] This was not an Austrian folk song, but had been written specifically for the musical.[19] After his death, The Sound of Music was made into the hit 1965 film adaptation, which won the Academy Award for Best Picture. The lights of Times Square[20] were turned off for one minute, and London's West End[21] lights were dimmed in recognition of his contribution to the musical. He was cremated, and his ashes were buried at the Ferncliff Cemetery
Ferncliff Cemetery
in Hartsdale, New York.[22] A memorial plaque was unveiled at Southwark Cathedral, England, on May 24, 1961.[23] He was survived by his second wife, Dorothy, his three children and two stepchildren. Personal life[edit] Hammerstein married his second wife, the Australian-born Dorothy (Blanchard) Jacobson (1899–1987), on May 13, 1929. He had three children: William Hammerstein (1918–2001) and Alice Hammerstein Mathias by his first wife, Myra Finn, and James Hammerstein by Blanchard. By Dorothy he also had a stepdaughter, Susan Blanchard (whose four husbands included Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
and Richard Widmark), and a stepson, Henry Jacobson. Reputation[edit] Hammerstein was one of the most important "book writers" in Broadway history[24][25] – he made the story, not the songs or the stars, central to the musical and brought musical theater to full maturity as an art form. According to Stephen Sondheim, "What few people understand is that Oscar's big contribution to the theater was as a theoretician, as a Peter Brook, as an innovator. People don't understand how experimental Show Boat
Show Boat
and Oklahoma! felt at the time they were done. Oscar is not about the 'lark that is learning to pray' – that's easy to make fun of. He's about Allegro."[26] His reputation for being sentimental is based largely on the movie versions of the musicals, especially The Sound of Music, in which a song sung by those in favor of reaching an accommodation with the Nazis, "No Way to Stop It", was cut. As recent revivals of Show Boat, Oklahoma!, Carousel, and The King and I
The King and I
in London and New York show, Hammerstein was one of the more tough-minded and socially conscious American musical theater artists. According to Richard Kislan, "The shows of Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
were the product of sincerity. In the light of criticism directed against them and their universe of sweetness and light, it is important to understand that they believed sincerely in what they wrote."[27] According to Marc Bauch, "The Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
musicals are romantic musical plays. Love is important."[28] According to The Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
Story by Stanley Green, "For three minutes, on the night of September first, the entire Times Square area in New York City
New York City
was blacked out in honor of the man who had done so much to light up that particular part of the world. From 8:57 to 9:00 p.m., every neon sign and every light bulb was turned off and all traffic was halted between 42nd Street and 53rd Street, and between 8th Ave and the Avenue of the Americas. A crowd of 5,000 people, many with heads bowed, assembled at the base of the statue of Father Duffy on Times Square
Times Square
where two trumpeters blew taps. It was the most complete blackout on Broadway since World War II, and the greatest tribute of its kind ever paid to one man."[this quote needs a citation] Songs[edit] Hammerstein contributed the lyrics to 850 songs, according to The Complete Lyrics of Oscar Hammerstein II, edited by Amy Asch.[29] Some well-known songs are "Ol' Man River", "Can't Help Lovin' That Man" and "Make Believe" from Show Boat; "Indian Love Call" from Rose-Marie; "People Will Say We're in Love" and "Oklahoma" (which has been the official state song of Oklahoma since 1953) from Oklahoma!; "Some Enchanted Evening", from South Pacific; "Getting to Know You" and "Shall We Dance" from The King and I; and the title song as well as "Climb Ev'ry Mountain" from The Sound of Music. Several albums of Hammerstein's musicals were named to the "Songs of the Century" list as compiled by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), the National Endowment for the Arts, and Scholastic Corporation:

The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
— # 36 Oklahoma! — # 66 South Pacific — # 224 The King and I
The King and I
— # 249 Show Boat
Show Boat
— # 312

Awards and legacy[edit] Hammerstein won two Oscars for best original song—in 1941 for "The Last Time I Saw Paris" in the film Lady Be Good, and in 1945 for "It Might as Well Be Spring" in State Fair. In 1950, the team of Rodgers and Hammerstein received The Hundred Year Association of New York's Gold Medal Award "in recognition of outstanding contributions to the City of New York." Hammerstein won eight Tony Awards, six for lyrics or book, and two as producer of the Best Musical (South Pacific and The Sound of Music). Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
began writing together before the era of the Tonys: Oklahoma! opened in 1943 and Carousel in 1945, and the Tony Awards were not awarded until 1947. They won a special Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for Oklahoma![30] and, with Joshua Logan, the annual Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1950 for South Pacific.[31] The Oscar Hammerstein II Center for Theater Studies at Columbia University
Columbia University
was established in 1981 with a $1-million gift from his family.[32] His advice and work influenced Stephen Sondheim, a friend of the Hammerstein family from childhood. Sondheim has attributed his success in theater, and especially as a lyricist, directly to Hammerstein's influence and guidance.[33] The Oscar Hammerstein Award for Lifetime Achievement in Musical Theatre is presented annually. The York Theatre Company in New York City is the Administrator of the award.[34] The 2009 winners were Jerry Bock
Jerry Bock
and Sheldon Harnick.[35] Past awardees are composers such as Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
and performers such as Carol Channing.[36] The 2010 award went to Thomas Meehan. Oscar Hammerstein was a member of the American Theater Hall of Fame.[37] References[edit]

^ ""MOVIES" FOR "NEWSIES."; Summer Camp for Street Merahants [sic] to be Aided by Films". The New York Times. June 19, 1914.  ^ Fordin 1995, p. 11 ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/921/000043792/ ^ Hischak 2007, p. xxix ^ Hischak 2007, p. 9 ^ a b Fordin 1995, p. 26 ^ Fordin 1995, p. 27 ^ Fordin 1995, p. 47 ^ "Always You Is Amusing", The New York Times, January 6, 1920 ^ http://www.THe-Lambs.org ^ Jones, Dylan, the Biographical Dictionary of Popular Music, Picador Press, 2012, pg. 99 ^ Biography, Songwriters Hall of Fame songwritershalloffame.org ^ Fordin 1995, p. 184 ^ Everett, William A. and Laird, Paul R. (2002), The Cambridge Companion to the Musical, Cambridge University Press, p. 124, ISBN 0-521-79639-3 ^ "American Musical Theatre: An Introduction", theatrehistory.com, republished from The Complete Book of Light Opera. Mark Lubbock. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1962. pp. 753–56, accessed December 3, 2008 ^ " Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
Is Dead", The New York Times, p. 1, August 23, 1960 ^ Maslon, Lawrence. The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music
Companion (2007), p. 177, Simon and Schuster, ISBN 1-4165-4954-4 ^ "Oscar Hammerstein II" rnh.com, accessed November 2011 ^ November 7, 2006. "How Do You Solve a Problem Like Maria?" BBC. ^ "Blackout on Broadway to Honor Hammerstein", The New York Times, p. 52, September 1, 1960 ^ "London Honors Hammerstein", The New York Times, p. 14, August 26, 1960 ^ "Rites for Hammerstein", The New York Times, p. 29, August 25, 1960. ^ "Hammerstein Honored", The New York Times, p. 32, May 24, 1961: "Mrs. Oscar Hammerstein 2nd, widow of the lyricist, unveiled a plaque today to his memory in Southwark Cathedral .... Mr. Hammerstein's will provided ₤2000 to support two choir-boys at Southwark Cathedral." ^ "Hammerstein biography on PBS". PBS.org. Retrieved 2014-12-25. perhaps the most influential lyricist and librettist of the American theater  ^ "Interview: Stephen Sondheim". Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 2010-12-12. Retrieved 2010-05-08. People underestimate what [Hammerstein] did in the way of musical theater. He was primarily an experimental writer, and what he was doing was marrying the traditions of opera and American musical comedy, using songs to tell a story that was worth telling. The first real instance of that is Show Boat, which is a watershed show in the history of musical theater, and Oklahoma!, which is innovative in different ways ... Now, because of the success of Oklahoma!, and subsequent shows, most musical theater now tells stories through songs. But that was not true prior to 1943, the year of Oklahoma!  ^ Rich, Frank. "Conversations with Sondheim", The New York Times Magazine, pp. 38ff, March 12, 2000 ^ (Kislan 1995, p. 141) ^ Bauch 2003, p. 155 ^ Jones, Kenneth. "Complete Lyrics" of Hammerstein, in Stores Now, Required Climbing Ev'ry Mountain" Archived 2008-12-04 at the Wayback Machine., playbill.com, December 1, 2008 ^ " Special
Awards and Citations". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved December 1, 2008. ^ "Drama". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved December 3, 2013. ^ "Columbia Names Stein To Theater Post", The New York Times, February 13, 1983 ^ Hammerstein biography on PBS, pbs.org, accessed November 29, 2008 ^ York Theatre history[permanent dead link] yorktheatre.org, accessed December 8, 2008 ^ Hetrick, Adam. "Bock and Harnick Receive Hammerstein Award Nov. 23; Cook, Kuhn, Kudisch and More Will Sing"[permanent dead link] playbill.com, November 23, 2009 ^ Gans, Andrew."Rivera, Vereen, Hirsch, Huffman and More to Salute Walton June 6"[permanent dead link] playbill.com, May 31, 2005 ^ "Theater Hall of Fame members". Retrieved February 9, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Lovensheimer, Jim, 2010, South Pacific: Paradise Revisited, Oxford University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-19-537702-6 Bauch, Marc (2003). The American Musical. Tectum Verlag DE. ISBN 3-8288-8458-X.  Fordin, Hugh (1995). Getting to Know Him:A Biography of Oscar Hammerstein II. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80668-1.  Hischak, Thomas S. (2007). The Rodgers and Hammerstein
Rodgers and Hammerstein
Encyclopedia. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-34140-0.  Kislan, Richard (1995). The Musical: A Look at the American Musical Theater. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 1-55783-217-X. 

External links[edit]

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Oscar Hammerstein II
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Internet Broadway Database
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Oscar Hammerstein II
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Oscar Hammerstein II
at RNH Official Site Oscar Hammerstein II
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interviewed by Mike Wallace
Mike Wallace
on The Mike Wallace Interview March 15, 1958 Oscar Hammerstein at Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Authorities, with 487 catalog records

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Rodgers and Hammerstein

Stage musicals

Oklahoma! Carousel Allegro South Pacific The King and I Me and Juliet Pipe Dream Flower Drum Song The Sound of Music A Grand Night for Singing State Fair Cinderella


I Remember Mama Annie Get Your Gun Happy Birthday John Loves Mary Show Boat The Happy Time Burning Bright


State Fair (1945) Oklahoma! Carousel The King and I South Pacific Flower Drum Song State Fair (1962) The Sound of Music Cinderella


Cinderella The Sound of Music
The Sound of Music


"Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'" "The Surrey with the Fringe on Top" "Kansas City" "I Cain't Say No" "Many a New Day" "It's a Scandal! It's a Outrage!" "People Will Say We're in Love" "Lonely Room" "The Farmer and the Cowman" "All Er Nuthin'" "Oklahoma" "If I Loved You" "Soliloquy" "You'll Never Walk Alone" "It Might as Well Be Spring" "That's for Me" "A Fellow Needs a Girl" "So Far" "Some Enchanted Evening" "There Is Nothing Like a Dame" "Bali Ha'i" "I'm Gonna Wash That Man Right Outa My Hair" "I'm in Love with a Wonderful Guy" "Younger Than Springtime" "Happy Talk" "You've Got to Be Carefully Taught" "I Whistle a Happy Tune" "Hello, Young Lovers" "Getting to Know You" "We Kiss in a Shadow" "Something Wonderful" "I Have Dreamed" "Shall We Dance?" "No Other Love" "I Enjoy Being a Girl" "The Sound of Music" "Maria" "My Favorite Things" "Do-Re-Mi" "Sixteen Going on Seventeen" "The Lonely Goatherd" "Climb Ev'ry Mountain" "So Long, Farewell" "No Way to Stop It" "Edelweiss"

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Pulitzer Prize for Drama: Authors

Jesse Lynch Williams (1918) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1920) Zona Gale
Zona Gale
(1921) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1922) Owen Davis
Owen Davis
(1923) Hatcher Hughes (1924) Sidney Howard
Sidney Howard
(1925) George Kelly (1926) Paul Green (1927) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1928) Elmer Rice
Elmer Rice
(1929) Marc Connelly
Marc Connelly
(1930) Susan Glaspell
Susan Glaspell
(1931) George S. Kaufman, Morrie Ryskind and Ira Gershwin
Ira Gershwin
(1932) Maxwell Anderson
Maxwell Anderson
(1933) Sidney Kingsley
Sidney Kingsley
(1934) Zoe Akins
Zoe Akins
(1935) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1936) Moss Hart
Moss Hart
and George S. Kaufman
George S. Kaufman
(1937) Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1938) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1939) William Saroyan
William Saroyan
(1940) Robert E. Sherwood
Robert E. Sherwood
(1941) Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1943) Mary Chase (1945) Russel Crouse and Howard Lindsay (1946) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1948) Arthur Miller
Arthur Miller
(1949) Richard Rodgers, Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
and Joshua Logan (1950) Joseph Kramm (1952) William Inge
William Inge
(1953) John Patrick (1954) Tennessee Williams
Tennessee Williams
(1955) Albert Hackett
Albert Hackett
and Frances Goodrich (1956) Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill
(1957) Ketti Frings (1958) Archibald MacLeish
Archibald MacLeish
(1959) Jerome Weidman, George Abbott, Jerry Bock
Jerry Bock
and Sheldon Harnick
Sheldon Harnick
(1960) Tad Mosel
Tad Mosel
(1961) Frank Loesser
Frank Loesser
and Abe Burrows
Abe Burrows
(1962) Frank D. Gilroy (1965) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1967) Howard Sackler (1969) Charles Gordone (1970) Paul Zindel
Paul Zindel
(1971) Jason Miller (1973) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1975) Michael Bennett, Nicholas Dante, James Kirkwood Jr., Marvin Hamlisch and Edward Kleban (1976) Michael Cristofer
Michael Cristofer
(1977) Donald L. Coburn (1978) Sam Shepard
Sam Shepard
(1979) Lanford Wilson
Lanford Wilson
(1980) Beth Henley (1981) Charles Fuller (1982) Marsha Norman
Marsha Norman
(1983) David Mamet
David Mamet
(1984) James Lapine
James Lapine
and Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim
(1985) August Wilson
August Wilson
(1987) Alfred Uhry
Alfred Uhry
(1988) Wendy Wasserstein
Wendy Wasserstein
(1989) August Wilson
August Wilson
(1990) Neil Simon
Neil Simon
(1991) Robert Schenkkan
Robert Schenkkan
(1992) Tony Kushner
Tony Kushner
(1993) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(1994) Horton Foote (1995) Jonathan Larson (1996) Paula Vogel
Paula Vogel
(1998) Margaret Edson (1999) Donald Margulies
Donald Margulies
(2000) David Auburn (2001) Suzan-Lori Parks
Suzan-Lori Parks
(2002) Nilo Cruz
Nilo Cruz
(2003) Doug Wright (2004) John Patrick Shanley
John Patrick Shanley
(2005) David Lindsay-Abaire (2007) Tracy Letts
Tracy Letts
(2008) Lynn Nottage
Lynn Nottage
(2009) Tom Kitt and Brian Yorkey (2010) Bruce Norris (2011) Quiara Alegría Hudes (2012) Ayad Akhtar
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(2013) Annie Baker
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(2014) Stephen Adly Guirgis (2015) Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Lynn Nottage
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Pulitzer Prize Special Citations and Awards
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Richard Rodgers
and Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
for Oklahoma! (1944) Roger Sessions
Roger Sessions
(1974) Scott Joplin
Scott Joplin
(1976) Milton Babbitt
Milton Babbitt
(1982) William Schuman (1985) George Gershwin
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(1998) Duke Ellington
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Academy Award for Best Original Song


"The Continental"

Music: Con Conrad Lyrics: Herb Magidson (1934)

"Lullaby of Broadway"

Music: Harry Warren Lyrics: Al Dubin (1935)

"The Way You Look Tonight"

Music: Jerome Kern Lyrics: Dorothy Fields
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"Sweet Leilani"

Music and lyrics: Harry Owens
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"Thanks for the Memory"

Music: Ralph Rainger Lyrics: Leo Robin (1938)

"Over the Rainbow"

Music: Harold Arlen Lyrics: E. Y. Harburg (1939)

"When You Wish Upon a Star"

Music: Leigh Harline Lyrics: Ned Washington (1940)


"The Last Time I Saw Paris"

Music: Jerome Kern Lyrics: Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II

"White Christmas"

Music and lyrics: Irving Berlin
Irving Berlin

"You'll Never Know"

Music: Harry Warren Lyrics: Mack Gordon
Mack Gordon

"Swinging on a Star"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Johnny Burke (1944)

"It Might as Well Be Spring"

Music: Richard Rodgers Lyrics: Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II

"On the Atchison, Topeka and the Santa Fe"

Music: Harry Warren Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer


Music: Allie Wrubel Lyrics: Ray Gilbert (1947)

"Buttons and Bows"

Music: Jay Livingston Lyrics: Ray Evans (1948)

"Baby, It's Cold Outside"

Music and lyrics: Frank Loesser
Frank Loesser

"Mona Lisa"

Music and lyrics: Ray Evans and Jay Livingston
Jay Livingston


"In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening"

Music: Hoagy Carmichael Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer

"High Noon (Do Not Forsake Me, Oh My Darlin')"

Music: Dimitri Tiomkin Lyrics: Ned Washington (1952)

"Secret Love"

Music: Sammy Fain Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster (1953)

"Three Coins in the Fountain"

Music: Jule Styne Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn

"Love Is a Many Splendored Thing"

Music: Sammy Fain Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster (1955)

"Que Sera, Sera (Whatever Will Be, Will Be)"

Music and lyrics: Jay Livingston
Jay Livingston
and Ray Evans (1956)

"All the Way"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn


Music: Frederick Loewe Lyrics: Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner

"High Hopes"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn

"Never on Sunday"

Music and lyrics: Manos Hatzidakis
Manos Hatzidakis


"Moon River"

Music: Henry Mancini Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer

"Days of Wine and Roses"

Music: Henry Mancini Lyrics: Johnny Mercer
Johnny Mercer

"Call Me Irresponsible"

Music: Jimmy Van Heusen Lyrics: Sammy Cahn
Sammy Cahn

"Chim Chim Cher-ee"

Music and lyrics: Richard M. Sherman
Richard M. Sherman
and Robert B. Sherman
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"The Shadow of Your Smile"

Music: Johnny Mandel Lyrics: Paul Francis Webster (1965)

"Born Free"

Music: John Barry Lyrics: Don Black (1966)

" Talk
to the Animals"

Music and lyrics: Leslie Bricusse (1967)

"The Windmills of Your Mind"

Music: Michel Legrand Lyrics: Alan and Marilyn Bergman (1968)

"Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head"

Music: Burt Bacharach Lyrics: Hal David
Hal David

"For All We Know"

Music: Fred Karlin Lyrics: Robb Royer
Robb Royer
and Jimmy Griffin (1970)


"Theme from Shaft"

Music and lyrics: Isaac Hayes
Isaac Hayes

"The Morning After"

Music and lyrics: Al Kasha and Joel Hirschhorn (1972)

"The Way We Were"

Music: Marvin Hamlisch Lyrics: Alan and Marilyn Bergman (1973)

"We May Never Love Like This Again"

Music and lyrics: Al Kasha and Joel Hirschhorn (1974)

"I'm Easy"

Music and lyrics: Keith Carradine
Keith Carradine

"Evergreen (Love Theme from A Star Is Born)"

Music: Barbra Streisand Lyrics: Paul Williams (1976)

"You Light Up My Life"

Music and lyrics: Joseph Brooks (1977)

"Last Dance"

Music and lyrics: Paul Jabara
Paul Jabara

"It Goes Like It Goes"

Music: David Shire Lyrics: Norman Gimbel (1979)


Music: Michael Gore Lyrics: Dean Pitchford (1980)


"Arthur's Theme (Best That You Can Do)"

Music and lyrics: Burt Bacharach, Carole Bayer Sager, Christopher Cross and Peter Allen (1981)

"Up Where We Belong"

Music: Jack Nitzsche
Jack Nitzsche
and Buffy Sainte-Marie Lyrics: Will Jennings (1982)

"Flashdance... What a Feeling"

Music: Giorgio Moroder Lyrics: Keith Forsey and Irene Cara (1983)

"I Just Called to Say I Love You"

Music and lyrics: Stevie Wonder
Stevie Wonder

"Say You, Say Me"

Music and lyrics: Lionel Richie
Lionel Richie

"Take My Breath Away"

Music: Giorgio Moroder Lyrics: Tom Whitlock (1986)

"(I've Had) The Time of My Life"

Music: Franke Previte, John DeNicola and Donald Markowitz Lyrics: Franke Previte (1987)

"Let the River Run"

Music and lyrics: Carly Simon
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"Under the Sea"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Howard Ashman (1989)

"Sooner or Later (I Always Get My Man)"

Music and lyrics: Stephen Sondheim
Stephen Sondheim


"Beauty and the Beast"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Howard Ashman (1991)

"A Whole New World"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Tim Rice
Tim Rice

"Streets of Philadelphia"

Music and lyrics: Bruce Springsteen
Bruce Springsteen

"Can You Feel the Love Tonight"

Music: Elton John Lyrics: Tim Rice
Tim Rice

"Colors of the Wind"

Music: Alan Menken Lyrics: Stephen Schwartz (1995)

"You Must Love Me"

Music: Andrew Lloyd Webber Lyrics: Tim Rice
Tim Rice

"My Heart Will Go On"

Music: James Horner Lyrics: Will Jennings (1997)

"When You Believe"

Music and lyrics: Stephen Schwartz (1998)

"You'll Be in My Heart"

Music and lyrics: Phil Collins
Phil Collins

"Things Have Changed"

Music and lyrics: Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan


"If I Didn't Have You (Disney song)"

Music and lyrics: Randy Newman
Randy Newman

"Lose Yourself"

Music: Eminem, Jeff Bass and Luis Resto Lyrics: Eminem

"Into the West"

Music and lyrics: Fran Walsh, Howard Shore
Howard Shore
and Annie Lennox
Annie Lennox

"Al otro lado del río"

Music and lyrics: Jorge Drexler
Jorge Drexler

"It's Hard out Here for a Pimp"

Music and lyrics: Juicy J, Frayser Boy and DJ Paul
DJ Paul

"I Need to Wake Up"

Music and lyrics: Melissa Etheridge
Melissa Etheridge

"Falling Slowly"

Music and lyrics: Glen Hansard
Glen Hansard
and Markéta Irglová
Markéta Irglová

"Jai Ho"

Music: A. R. Rahman Lyrics: Gulzar

"The Weary Kind"

Music and lyrics: Ryan Bingham
Ryan Bingham
and T Bone Burnett
T Bone Burnett

"We Belong Together"

Music and lyrics: Randy Newman
Randy Newman


"Man or Muppet"

Music and lyrics: Bret McKenzie
Bret McKenzie


Music and lyrics: Adele
Adkins and Paul Epworth (2012)

"Let It Go"

Music and lyrics: Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez


Music and lyrics: John Stephens and Lonnie Lynn (2014)

"Writing's on the Wall"

Music and lyrics: James Napier and Sam Smith (2015)

"City of Stars"

Music: Justin Hurwitz Lyrics: Benj Pasek and Justin Paul (2016)

"Remember Me"

Music and lyrics: Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez

v t e

Tony Award
Tony Award
for Best Book of a Musical


South Pacific by Oscar Hammerstein II
Oscar Hammerstein II
and Joshua Logan (1950) Hello, Dolly! by Michael Stewart (1964) Fiddler on the Roof
Fiddler on the Roof
by Joseph Stein (1965) Company by George Furth (1971) Two Gentlemen of Verona by John Guare
John Guare
and Mel Shapiro (1972) A Little Night Music
A Little Night Music
by Hugh Wheeler (1973) Candide by Hugh Wheeler (1974) Shenandoah by James Lee Barrett, Peter Udell and Philip Rose (1975)


A Chorus Line
A Chorus Line
by James Kirkwood Jr. and Nicholas Dante (1976) Annie by Thomas Meehan (1977) On the Twentieth Century by Betty Comden
Betty Comden
and Adolph Green
Adolph Green
(1978) Sweeney Todd
Sweeney Todd
by Hugh Wheeler (1979) Evita by Tim Rice
Tim Rice
(1980) Woman of the Year by Peter Stone (1981) Dreamgirls by Tom Eyen (1982) Cats by T. S. Eliot
T. S. Eliot
(1983) La Cage aux Folles by Harvey Fierstein
Harvey Fierstein
(1984) Big River by William Hauptman (1985) Drood
by Rupert Holmes (1986) Les Misérables by Alain Boublil and Claude-Michel Schönberg (1987) Into the Woods
Into the Woods
by James Lapine
James Lapine
(1988) No Award (1989) City of Angels by Larry Gelbart
Larry Gelbart
(1990) The Secret Garden by Marsha Norman
Marsha Norman
(1991) Falsettos by William Finn
William Finn
and James Lapine
James Lapine
(1992) Kiss of the Spider Woman by Terrence McNally
Terrence McNally
(1993) Passion by James Lapine
James Lapine
(1994) Sunset Boulevard by Don Black and Christopher Hampton
Christopher Hampton
(1995) Rent by Jonathan Larson (1996) Titanic by Peter Stone (1997) Ragtime by Terrence McNally
Terrence McNally
(1998) Parade by Alfred Uhry
Alfred Uhry
(1999) James Joyce's The Dead
James Joyce's The Dead
by Richard Nelson (2000)


The Producers by Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
and Thomas Meehan (2001) Urinetown
by Greg Kotis (2002) Hairspray by Thomas Meehan and Mark O'Donnell
Mark O'Donnell
(2003) Avenue Q
Avenue Q
by Jeff Whitty (2004) The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee
The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee
by Rachel Sheinkin (2005) The Drowsy Chaperone
The Drowsy Chaperone
by Bob Martin and Don McKellar
Don McKellar
(2006) Spring Awakening by Steven Sater (2007) Passing Strange by Stew (2008) Billy Elliot the Musical
Billy Elliot the Musical
by Lee Hall (2009) Memphis by Joe DiPietro (2010) The Book of Mormon by Trey Parker, Robert Lopez
Robert Lopez
and Matt Stone
Matt Stone
(2011) Once by Enda Walsh
Enda Walsh
(2012) Matilda the Musical
Matilda the Musical
by Dennis Kelly (2013) A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder
A Gentleman's Guide to Love and Murder
by Robert L. Freedman (2014) Fun Home by Lisa Kron (2015) Hamilton by Lin-Manuel Miranda
Lin-Manuel Miranda
(2016) Dear Evan Hansen
Dear Evan Hansen
by Steven Levenson (2017)

v t e

Richard Rodgers
Richard Rodgers
and Oscar Hammerstein II's Oklahoma! (1943)


Lynn Riggs' Green Grow the Lilacs


Oklahoma! (1955 film)


Act 1

"Oh, What a Beautiful Mornin'" "The Surrey with the Fringe on Top" "Kansas City" "I Cain't Say No" "Many a New Day" "It's a Scandal! It's a Outrage!" "People Will Say We're in Love" "Lonely Room"

Act 2

"The Farmer and the Cowman" "All Er Nuthin'" "Oklahoma!"

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 196386 LCCN: n50020012 ISNI: 0000 0001 1735 8007 GND: 11872018X SELIBR: 253652 SUDOC: 070202877 BNF: cb13894931j (data) MusicBrainz: a383f062-e527-4a57-98b0-9205b2f8f171 NDL: 001152149 BNE: XX1057664 SN