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The Info List - Osama Bin Laden


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Maktab al-Khidamat (1984–1988) Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
(1988–2011)

Years of service 1984–May 2, 2011

Rank General Emir
Emir
of Al-Qaeda

Battles/wars

Soviet War

Battle of Jaji

Global War on Terrorism

War in Afghanistan

Battle of Tora Bora

War in North-West Pakistan Operation Neptune Spear †

Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎, usāmah ibn muḥammad ibn ‘awaḍ ibn lādin), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (/oʊˈsɑːmə bɪn ˈlɑːdən/; March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011),[7] was the founder of al-Qaeda, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
in the United States
United States
and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.[8][9][10] He was a Saudi Arabian until 1994 (stateless thereafter), a member of the wealthy bin Laden family, and an ethnic Yemeni Kindite.[11] Bin Laden was born to the family of billionaire Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden in Saudi Arabia. He studied at university in the country until 1979, when he joined Mujahideen
Mujahideen
forces in Pakistan
Pakistan
fighting against the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in Afghanistan. He helped to fund the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
by funneling arms, money and fighters from the Arab world into Afghanistan, and gained popularity among many Arabs.[12] In 1988, he formed al-Qaeda.[13] He was banished from Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1992, and shifted his base to Sudan, until U.S. pressure forced him to leave Sudan
Sudan
in 1996. After establishing a new base in Afghanistan, he declared a war against the United States, initiating a series of bombings and related attacks.[14] Bin Laden was on the American Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) lists of Ten Most Wanted Fugitives and Most Wanted Terrorists for his involvement in the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings.[15][16][17] From 2001 to 2011, bin Laden was a major target of the United States, as the FBI placed a $25 million bounty on him in their search for him.[18] On May 2, 2011, bin Laden was shot and killed[19] inside a private residential compound in Abbottabad, where he lived with a local family from Waziristan, during a covert operation conducted by members of the United States
United States
Naval Special
Special
Warfare Development Group and Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
SAD/SOG operators on the orders of U.S. President Barack Obama.[20]

Contents

1 Name 2 Early life and education 3 Personal life 4 Beliefs and ideology

4.1 Criticism

5 Militant and political career

5.1 Mujahideen
Mujahideen
in Afghanistan 5.2 1988 Gilgit
Gilgit
massacre 5.3 Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda 5.4 Sudan
Sudan
and return to Afghanistan 5.5 Early attacks and aid for attacks 5.6 Yugoslav Wars 5.7 September 11 attacks

6 Criminal charges 7 Pursuit by the United States

7.1 Clinton administration 7.2 Bush administration 7.3 Obama administration

8 Activities and whereabouts after the September 11 attacks

8.1 Whereabouts just before his death

9 Death

9.1 Allegations of Pakistani protection of bin Laden

10 See also 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Bibliography

13 Further reading 14 External links

Name Further information: Romanization of Arabic There is no universally accepted standard for transliterating Arabic words and Arabic names into English;[21] however, bin Laden's name is most frequently rendered "Osama bin Laden". The FBI and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), as well as other U.S. governmental agencies, have used either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin". Less common renderings include "Ussamah bin Ladin" and, in the French-language media, "Oussama ben Laden". Other spellings include "Binladen" or, as used by his family in the West, "Binladin". The decapitalization of bin is based on the convention of leaving short prepositions, articles, and patronymics uncapitalized in surnames; the nasab bin means "son of". The spellings with o and e come from a Persian-influenced pronunciation also used in Afghanistan, where bin Laden spent many years. Osama bin Laden's full name, Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of Awad, son of Laden". "Mohammed" refers to bin Laden's father Mohammed bin Laden; "Awad" refers to his grandfather, Awad bin Aboud bin Laden, a Kindite Hadhrami tribesman; "Laden" refers not to bin Laden's great-grandfather, who was named Aboud, but to Aboud's father, Laden Ali al-Qahtani.[22] The Arabic linguistic convention would be to refer to him as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden" alone, as "bin Laden" is a patronymic, not a surname in the Western manner. According to bin Laden's son Omar bin Laden, the family's hereditary surname is "al-Qahtani" (Arabic: القحطاني‎, āl-Qaḥṭānī), but bin Laden's father, Mohammed bin Laden, never officially registered the name.[23] Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
had also assumed the kunyah "Abū 'Abdāllāh" ("father of Abdallah"). His admirers have referred to him by several nicknames, including the "Prince" or "Emir" (الأمير, al-Amīr), the "Sheik" (الشيخ, aš-Šaykh), the "Jihadist Sheik" or "Sheik al-Mujahid" (شيخ المجاهد, Šaykh al-Mujāhid), "Hajj" (حج, Ḥajj), and the "Director".[24] The word usāmah (أسامة) means "lion",[25] earning him the nicknames "Lion" and "Lion Sheik".[26] Early life and education Main article: Personal life of Osama bin Laden See also: Bin Laden family Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden[27] was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, a son of Yemeni Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden, a billionaire construction magnate with close ties to the Saudi royal family,[28] and Mohammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Syrian
Syrian
Hamida al-Attas (then called Alia Ghanem).[29] In a 1998 interview, bin Laden gave his birth date as March 10, 1957.[30] Mohammed bin Laden divorced Hamida soon after Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was born. Mohammed recommended Hamida to Mohammed al-Attas, an associate. Al-Attas married Hamida in the late 1950s or early 1960s, and they are still together.[31] The couple had four children, and bin Laden lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.[29] The bin Laden family made $5 billion in the construction industry, of which Osama later inherited around $25–30 million.[32] Bin Laden was raised as a devout Sunni
Sunni
Muslim.[33] From 1968 to 1976, he attended the élite secular Al-Thager Model School.[29][34] He studied economics and business administration[35] at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest he earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979,[36] or a degree in public administration in 1981.[37] One source described him as "hard working";[38] another said he left university during his third year without completing a college degree.[39] At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran
Quran
and jihad" and charitable work.[40] Other interests included writing poetry;[41] reading, with the works of Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery and Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
said to be among his favorites; black stallions; and association football, in which he enjoyed playing at centre forward and followed the English club Arsenal[42] Personal life At age 17 in 1974, bin Laden married Najwa Ghanem at Latakia, Syria;[43] they were separated before September 11, 2001. Bin Laden's other known wives were Khadijah Sharif (married 1983, divorced 1990s); Khairiah Sabar (married 1985); Siham Sabar (married 1987); and Amal al-Sadah (married 2000). Some sources also list a sixth wife, name unknown, whose marriage to bin Laden was annulled soon after the ceremony.[44] Bin Laden fathered between 20 and 26 children with his wives.[45][46] Many of bin Laden's children fled to Iran following the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
and as of 2010[update], Iranian authorities reportedly continue to control their movements.[47] Nasser al-Bahri, who was bin Laden's personal bodyguard from 1997–2001, details bin Laden's personal life in his memoir. He describes him as a frugal man and strict father, who enjoyed taking his large family on shooting trips and picnics in the desert.[48] Bin Laden's father Mohammed died in 1967 in an airplane crash in Saudi Arabia when his American pilot Jim Harrington[49] misjudged a landing.[50] Bin Laden's eldest half-brother, Salem bin Laden, the subsequent head of the bin Laden family, was killed in 1988 near San Antonio, Texas, in the United States, when he accidentally flew a plane into power lines.[51] The FBI described bin Laden as an adult as tall and thin, between 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in) and 1.98 m (6 ft 6 in) in height and weighing about 73 kilograms (160 lb), although the author Lawrence Wright, in his Pulitzer Prize-winning book on Al-Qaeda, The Looming Tower, writes that a number of bin Laden's close friends confirmed that reports of his height were greatly exaggerated, and that bin Laden was actually "just over 6 feet (1.8 m) tall".[52] Eventually, after his death, he was measured to be around 1.93 m (6 ft 4 in).[53] Bin Laden had an olive complexion and was left-handed, usually walking with a cane. He wore a plain white keffiyeh. Bin Laden had stopped wearing the traditional Saudi male keffiyeh and instead wore the traditional Yemeni male keffiyeh.[54] Bin Laden was described as soft-spoken and mild-mannered in demeanor.[55] Beliefs and ideology Main article: Beliefs and ideology of Osama bin Laden A major component of bin Laden's ideology was the concept that civilians from enemy countries, including women and children, were legitimate targets for jihadists to kill.[56][57] According to former CIA
CIA
analyst Michael Scheuer, who led the CIA's hunt for Osama bin Laden, the al-Qaeda leader was motivated by a belief that U.S. foreign policy has oppressed, killed, or otherwise harmed Muslims in the Middle East,[58] condensed in the phrase, "They hate us for what we do, not who we are." Nonetheless, bin Laden criticized the U.S. for its secular form of governance, calling upon Americans to convert to Islam
Islam
and "reject the immoral acts of fornication, homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling, and usury", in a letter published in late 2002.[59] His vocal criticism of Western government and society, and his claims that they were dominated by Jews, earned him respect from various sectors of the far right in Europe and North America.[60] Bin Laden believed that the Islamic world was in crisis and that the complete restoration of Sharia
Sharia
law would be the only way to "set things right" in the Muslim world. He opposed such alternatives such as secular government,[59] as well as "pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy."[61] He subscribed to the Athari
Athari
(literalist) school of Islamic theology.[62] These beliefs, in conjunction with violent jihad, have sometimes been called Qutbism
Qutbism
after being promoted by Sayyid Qutb.[63] Bin Laden believed that Afghanistan, under the rule of Mullah Omar's Taliban, was "the only Islamic country" in the Muslim world.[64] Bin Laden consistently dwelt on the need for violent jihad to right what he believed were injustices against Muslims perpetrated by the United States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states.[65] He also called for the elimination of the Israeli state, and called upon the United States to withdraw all of its civilians and military personnel from the Middle East, as well as from every Islamic country of the world. His viewpoints and methods of achieving them had led to him being designated as a terrorist by scholars,[66][67] journalists from The New York Times,[68][69] the BBC,[70] and Qatari news station Al Jazeera,[71] analysts such as Peter Bergen,[72] Michael Scheuer,[73] Marc Sageman,[74] and Bruce Hoffman.[75][76] He was indicted on terrorism charges by law enforcement agencies in Madrid, New York City, and Tripoli.[77] Bin Laden was heavily anti-Semitic, stating that most of the negative events that occurred in the world were the direct result of Jewish actions. In a December 1998 interview with Pakistani journalist Rahimullah Yusufzai, bin Laden stated that Operation Desert Fox
Operation Desert Fox
was proof that Israeli Jews controlled the governments of the United States and United Kingdom, directing them to kill as many Muslims as they could.[78] In a letter released in late 2002, he stated that Jews controlled the civilian media outlets, politics, and economic institutions of the United States.[59] In a May 1998 interview with ABC's John Miller, bin Laden stated that the Israeli state's ultimate goal was to annex the Arabian Peninsula and the Middle East into its territory and enslave its peoples, as part of what he called a "Greater Israel".[79] He stated that Jews and Muslims could never get along and that war was "inevitable" between them, and further accused the U.S. of stirring up anti-Islamic sentiment.[79] He claimed that the U.S. State Department and U.S. Department of Defense were controlled by Jews, for the sole purpose of serving the Israeli state's goals.[79] He often delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: "These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next."[80] Shia
Shia
Muslims have been listed along with "heretics, [...] America, and Israel" as the four principal "enemies of Islam" at ideology classes of bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization.[81] Bin Laden was opposed to music on religious grounds,[82] and his attitude towards technology was mixed. He was interested in "earth-moving machinery and genetic engineering of plants" on the one hand, but rejected "chilled water" on the other.[83] Bin Laden's overall strategy for achieving his goals against much larger enemies such as the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and United States
United States
was to lure them into a long war of attrition in Muslim countries, attracting large numbers of jihadists who would never surrender. He believed this would lead to economic collapse of the enemy countries, by "bleeding" them dry.[84] Indeed, al-Qaeda manuals clearly express this strategy. In a 2004 tape broadcast by al-Jazeera, bin Laden spoke of "bleeding America to the point of bankruptcy".[85] Bin Laden also believed climate change to be a serious threat and penned a letter urging Americans to work with president Barack Obama to make "a rational decision to save humanity from the harmful gases that threaten its destiny".[86][87] Criticism A number of errors and inconsistencies in bin Laden's arguments have been alleged by authors such as Max Rodenbeck and Noah Feldman.

bin Laden described the US as having "no mentionable role" in "the collapse of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
... but rather the credit goes to God and the mujahidin in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
...".[88] In fact the United States delivered $3 billion worth of arms and money to mujahideen between 1981 and 1989.[89]

Bin Laden made a number of contradictory comments on democracy:

He invoked democracy both as an example of the deceit and fraudulence of western political system — American law being "the law of the rich and wealthy"[90] — and as the reason civilians are responsible for their government's actions and so can be lawfully punished by death.[91] He denounced democracy as a "religion of ignorance" that violates Islam
Islam
by issuing man-made laws, but in a later statement compares the Western democracy of Spain
Spain
favorably to the Muslim world - because "the ruler there is accountable." "Evidently, [bin Laden] has never heard theological justifications for democracy, based on the notion that the will of the people must necessarily reflect the will of an all-knowing God," Rodenbeck comments. It is worth noting that Spain was once under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate. In 1997 he condemned the United States
United States
government for its hypocrisy in not labeling the bombing of Hiroshima as terrorism. In November 2001, he maintained that revenge killing of Americans was justified because he claimed that Islamic law allows believers to attack invaders even when the enemy uses human shields. However, according to Rodenbeck, "this classical position was originally intended as a legal justification for the accidental killings of civilians under very limited circumstances — not as a basis for the intentional targeting of noncombatants."[89] A few months later in a 2002 letter, he made no mention of this justification but claimed "that since the United States
United States
is a democracy, all citizens bear responsibility for its government's actions, and civilians are therefore fair targets."[92][89] But (another critic (S. Shirazi) points out) bin Laden also contradicted this democracy-creates-responsibility position in another, more typical, Islamist description of Western democracy (specifically American democracy) as `the law of the rich and wealthy, who hold sway in the political parties.`[93][94][89]

There were also questionable claims in his arguments about the exploitation and oppression of Muslims and Arabs by the US:

He asserted infidels were "attacking Muslims like people fight over a plate of food," planning to "enslave" Muslims or to "annihilate" Islam.[95] Yet if America bore enmity towards Muslims why hadn't it attacked the militarily undefended city of Mecca
Mecca
-- holy to Muslims?[89] The claim that America "`robs` Arabs of their oil"[96] was belied (according to critics) by the 100s of millions of dollars in petroleum revenue earned by the Gulf states .[89] Bin Laden "repeatedly" accused the Christian West of having waged war on Islam
Islam
"for 80 years". But during this time European imperialism was in retreat. Events he describes as the most "penetrating and brutal" acts of imperialism — Dutch conquest of the East Indies, the French invasion of Algeria in the 1830s, or Britain's crushing of the 1857 Indian Mutiny
Indian Mutiny
— happened outside the period.[89] He claimed "Muslims are starving to death" because "the United States is stealing their oil" by paying too little for it, but bases the claim of theft on the assumption that oil prices would continue to climb following the massive price increases of 1973 and 1974;[97] He claimed that the high infant mortality rates in Iraq
Iraq
from American-supported economic sanctions were "the greatest slaughter of children that mankind has known". Similarly extremely high infant and young children mortality rates in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
caused by the Taliban expelling international aid groups were not only not criticized, but bin Laden praising the rulers of that country (Taliban) for making Afghanistan
Afghanistan
"the only Islamic country" in existence.[98]

Militant and political career Main article: Militant activity of Osama bin Laden See also: CIA–al-Qaeda controversy Mujahideen
Mujahideen
in Afghanistan After leaving college in 1979, bin Laden went to Pakistan, joined Abdullah Azzam
Abdullah Azzam
and used money and machinery from his own construction company to help the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
resistance in the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[99] He later told a journalist: "I felt outraged that an injustice had been committed against the people of Afghanistan."[100] Under CIA's Operation Cyclone
Operation Cyclone
from 1979 to 1989, the United States
United States
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
provided $40 billion worth of financial aid and weapons to almost 100,000 Mujahideen
Mujahideen
and "Afghan Arabs" from forty Muslim countries through Pakistan's ISI.[101] Bin Laden met and built relations with Hamid Gul, who was a three-star general in the Pakistani army and head of the ISI agency. Although the United States provided the money and weapons, the training of militant groups was entirely done by the Pakistani Armed Forces
Pakistani Armed Forces
and the ISI.[102] By 1984, bin Laden and Azzam established Maktab al-Khidamat, which funneled money, arms and fighters from around the Arab world into Afghanistan. Through al-Khadamat, bin Laden's inherited family fortune[103] paid for air tickets and accommodation, paid for paperwork with Pakistani authorities and provided other such services for the jihadi fighters. Bin Laden established camps inside Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan
Pakistan
and trained volunteers from across the Muslim world to fight against the Soviet-backed regime, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan; he would also participate in some combat activity, such as the Battle of Jaji. It was during this time that he became idolised by many Arabs.[12] 1988 Gilgit
Gilgit
massacre See also: 1988 Gilgit
Gilgit
massacre Large numbers of Shias
Shias
in the city and surrounding region of Gilgit were killed in a massacre that occurred in response to rumours of a massacre of Sunnis by Shias,[104] in May 1988. Shia
Shia
civilians were also subjected to rape.[105] The massacre is alleged by B. Raman, a founder of India's Research and Analysis Wing,[106] to have been in response to a revolt by the Shias of Gilgit
Gilgit
during the rule of military dictator Zia-ul Haq,[107] He alleged that the Pakistan
Pakistan
Army inducted Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
to lead an armed group of Sunni
Sunni
tribals, from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and the North-West Frontier Province, into Gilgit
Gilgit
and its surrounding areas to suppress the revolt.[108] Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda Main article: Al-Qaeda By 1988, bin Laden had split from Maktab al-Khidamat. While Azzam acted as support for Afghan fighters, bin Laden wanted a more military role. One of the main points leading to the split and the creation of al-Qaeda was Azzam's insistence that Arab fighters be integrated among the Afghan fighting groups instead of forming a separate fighting force.[109] Notes of a meeting of bin Laden and others on August 20, 1988 indicate that al-Qaeda was a formal group by that time: "Basically an organized Islamic faction, its goal is to lift the word of God, to make his religion victorious." A list of requirements for membership itemized the following: listening ability, good manners, obedience, and making a pledge (bayat) to follow one's superiors.[110] According to Wright, the group's real name was not used in public pronouncements because "its existence was still a closely held secret".[111] His research suggests that al-Qaeda was formed at an August 11, 1988, meeting between "several senior leaders" of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Abdullah Azzam, and bin Laden, where it was agreed to join bin Laden's money with the expertise of the Islamic Jihad organization and take up the jihadist cause elsewhere after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan.[112] Following the Soviet Union's withdrawal from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in February 1989, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
returned to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
in 1990 as a hero of jihad. Along with his Arab legion, he was thought to have "brought down the mighty superpower" of the Soviet Union.[113] He was angered by the internecine tribal fighting among the Afghans.[114] The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait under Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
on August 2, 1990, put the Saudi kingdom and the royal family at risk. With Iraqi forces on the Saudi border, Saddam's appeal to pan-Arabism was potentially inciting internal dissent. Bin Laden met with King Fahd, and Saudi Defense Minister Sultan, telling them not to depend on non-Muslim assistance from the United States
United States
and others, and offering to help defend Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
with his Arab legion. Bin Laden's offer was rebuffed, and the Saudi monarchy invited the deployment of U.S. forces in Saudi territory.[115] Bin Laden publicly denounced Saudi dependence on the U.S. military, arguing the two holiest shrines of Islam, Mecca and Medina, the cities in which the Prophet Mohamed
Prophet Mohamed
received and recited Allah's message, should only be defended by Muslims. Bin Laden's criticism of the Saudi monarchy led them to try to silence him. The U.S. 82nd Airborne Division landed in the north-eastern Saudi city of Dhahran
Dhahran
and was deployed in the desert barely 400 miles from Medina.[114] Meanwhile, on November 8, 1990, the FBI raided the New Jersey
New Jersey
home of El Sayyid Nosair, an associate of al-Qaeda operative Ali Mohamed. They discovered copious evidence of terrorist plots, including plans to blow up New York City skyscrapers. This marked the earliest discovery of al-Qaeda terrorist plans outside of Muslim countries.[116] Nosair was eventually convicted in connection to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and later admitted guilt for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane in New York City on November 5, 1990. In March–April 1992, Bin Laden tried to play a pacifying role in the escalating civil war in Afghanistan, by urging warlord Gulbuddin Hekmatyar to join the other mujahideen leaders negotiating a coalition government instead of trying to conquer Kabul for himself.[117] Bin Laden continued to speak publicly against the Saudi government, for which the Saudis banished him. In 1992 he went to live in exile in Sudan, in a deal brokered by Ali Mohamed.[118] Bin Laden's personal security detail consisted of "bodyguards...personally selected by him." Their "arsenal included SAM-7
SAM-7
and Stinger missiles, AK-47s, RPGs, and PK machine guns (similar to an M60)."[119] Sudan
Sudan
and return to Afghanistan In Sudan, bin Laden established a new base for Mujahideen
Mujahideen
operations in Khartoum. He bought a house on Al-Mashtal Street in the affluent Al- Riyadh
Riyadh
quarter and a retreat at Soba on the Blue Nile.[120][121] During his time in Sudan, he heavily invested in the infrastructure, in agriculture and businesses. He was the Sudan
Sudan
agent for the British firm Hunting Surveys,[122] and built roads using the same bulldozers he had employed to construct mountain tracks in Afghanistan. Many of his labourers were the same fighters who had been his comrades in the war against the Soviet Union. He was generous to the poor and popular with the people.[123][124] He continued to criticize King Fahd
King Fahd
of Saudi Arabia. In response, in 1994 Fahd stripped bin Laden of his Saudi citizenship and persuaded his family to cut off his $7 million a year stipend.[1][125] By that time, bin Laden was being linked with Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), which made up the core of al-Qaeda. In 1995 the EIJ attempted to assassinate the Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The attempt failed, and Sudan
Sudan
expelled the EIJ. The U.S. State Department accused Sudan
Sudan
of being a "sponsor of international terrorism" and bin Laden of operating "terrorist training camps in the Sudanese desert". According to Sudan
Sudan
officials, however, this stance became obsolete as the Islamist political leader Hassan al-Turabi
Hassan al-Turabi
lost influence in their country. The Sudanese wanted to engage with the U.S. but American officials refused to meet with them even after they had expelled bin Laden. It was not until 2000 that the State Department authorized U.S. intelligence officials to visit Sudan.[122] The 9/11 Commission Report
9/11 Commission Report
states:

In late 1995, when Bin Laden was still in Sudan, the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA) learned that Sudanese officials were discussing with the Saudi government the possibility of expelling Bin Laden. CIA
CIA
paramilitary officer Billy Waugh
Billy Waugh
tracked down Bin Ladin in Sudan
Sudan
and prepared an operation to apprehend him, but was denied authorization.[126] U.S. Ambassador Timothy Carney encouraged the Sudanese to pursue this course. The Saudis, however, did not want Bin Laden, giving as their reason their revocation of his citizenship. Sudan's minister of defense, Fatih Erwa, has claimed that Sudan offered to hand Bin Laden over to the United States. The Commission has found no credible evidence that this was so. Ambassador Carney had instructions only to push the Sudanese to expel Bin Laden. Ambassador Carney had no legal basis to ask for more from the Sudanese since, at the time, there was no indictment outstanding against bin Laden in any country.[127]

The 9/11 Commission Report
9/11 Commission Report
further states:

In February 1996, Sudanese officials began approaching officials from the United States
United States
and other governments, asking what actions of theirs might ease foreign pressure. In secret meetings with Saudi officials, Sudan
Sudan
offered to expel Bin Laden to Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and asked the Saudis to pardon him. U.S. officials became aware of these secret discussions, certainly by March. Saudi officials apparently wanted Bin Laden expelled from Sudan. They had already revoked his citizenship, however, and would not tolerate his presence in their country. Also Bin Laden may have no longer felt safe in Sudan, where he had already escaped at least one assassination attempt that he believed to have been the work of the Egyptian or Saudi regimes, and paid for by the CIA.

Due to the increasing pressure on Sudan
Sudan
from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United States, bin Laden was permitted to leave for a country of his choice. He chose to return to Jalalabad, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
aboard a chartered flight on May 18, 1996; there he forged a close relationship with Mullah Mohammed Omar.[128][129] According to the 9/11 Commission, the expulsion from Sudan
Sudan
significantly weakened bin Laden and his organization.[130] Some African intelligence sources have argued that the expulsion left bin Laden without an option other than becoming a full-time radical, and that most of the 300 Afghan Arabs
Afghan Arabs
who left with him subsequently became terrorists.[122] Various sources report that bin Laden lost between $20 million[131] and $300 million[132] in Sudan; the government seized his construction equipment, and bin Laden was forced to liquidate his businesses, land, and even his horses. In August 1996, bin Laden declared war against the United States.[133] Despite the assurance of President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
to King Fahd
King Fahd
in 1990, that all U.S. forces based in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
would be withdrawn once the Iraqi threat had been dealt with, by 1996 the Americans were still there. Bush cited the necessity of dealing with the remnants of Saddam's regime (which Bush had chosen not to destroy). Bin Laden's view was that "the 'evils' of the Middle East arose from America's attempt to take over the region and from its support for Israel. Saudi Arabia had been turned into 'an American colony".[14] He issued a fatwā against the United States, which was first published in Al Quds Al Arabi, a London-based newspaper. It was entitled "Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places."[134] Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is sometimes called "The Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Mecca
Mecca
and Medina, the two holiest places in Islam. The reference to "occupation" in the fatwā referred to US forces based in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
for the purpose of controlling air space in Iraq, known as Operation Southern Watch. In Afghanistan, bin Laden and al-Qaeda raised money from "donors from the days of the Soviet jihad", and from the Pakistani ISI to establish more training camps for Mujahideen
Mujahideen
fighters.[135] Bin Laden effectively took over Ariana Afghan Airlines, which ferried Islamic militants, arms, cash and opium through the United Arab Emirates and Pakistan, as well as provided false identifications to members of bin Laden's terrorist network.[136] The arms smuggler Viktor Bout
Viktor Bout
helped to run the airline, maintaining planes and loading cargo. Michael Scheuer, head of the CIA's bin Laden unit, concluded that Ariana was being used as a "terrorist taxi service".[137] Early attacks and aid for attacks It is believed that the first bombing attack involving bin Laden was the December 29, 1992, bombing of the Gold Mihor Hotel
Gold Mihor Hotel
in Aden
Aden
in which two people were killed.[138]

Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir
Hamid Mir
interviewing Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
in Kabul in 1997. The AKS-74U in the background is a symbol of the mujadin's victory over the Soviets, since these weapons were captured from Spetsnaz
Spetsnaz
forces.

It was after this bombing that al-Qaeda was reported to have developed its justification for the killing of innocent people. According to a fatwa issued by Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, the killing of someone standing near the enemy is justified because any innocent bystander will find a proper reward in death, going to Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise) if they were good Muslims and to Jahannam
Jahannam
(hell) if they were bad or non-believers.[139] The fatwa was issued to al-Qaeda members but not the general public. In the 1990s, bin Laden's al-Qaeda assisted jihadis financially and sometimes militarily in Algeria, Egypt and Afghanistan. In 1992 or 1993 bin Laden sent an emissary, Qari el-Said, with $40,000 to Algeria to aid the Islamists and urge war rather than negotiation with the government. Their advice was heeded. The war that followed caused the deaths of 150,000–200,000 Algerians and ended with the Islamist surrender to the government. It has been claimed that bin Laden funded the Luxor massacre
Luxor massacre
of November 17, 1997,[140][141][142] which killed 62 civilians, and outraged the Egyptian public. In mid-1997, the Northern Alliance threatened to overrun Jalalabad, causing bin Laden to abandon his Najim Jihad
Jihad
compound and move his operations to Tarnak Farms
Tarnak Farms
in the south.[143] Another successful attack was carried out in the city of Mazar-e-Sharif
Mazar-e-Sharif
in Afghanistan. Bin Laden helped cement his alliance with the Taliban
Taliban
by sending several hundred Afghan Arab fighters along to help the Taliban
Taliban
kill between five and six thousand Hazaras overrunning the city.[144] In February 1998, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Ayman al-Zawahiri
Ayman al-Zawahiri
co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad
Jihad
Against Jews and Crusaders, which declared the killing of North Americans and their allies an "individual duty for every Muslim" to "liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip".[145][146] At the public announcement of the fatwa bin Laden announced that North Americans are "very easy targets". He told the attending journalists, "You will see the results of this in a very short time."[147] Bin Laden and Al-Zawahiri organized an al-Qaeda congress on June 24, 1998.[148] The 1998 U.S. Embassy bombings
1998 U.S. Embassy bombings
were a series of attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which hundreds of people were killed in simultaneous truck bomb explosions at the United States embassies in the major East African cities of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The attacks were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
and Ayman al-Zawahiri to the attention of the United States
United States
public for the first time, and resulted in the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
placing bin Laden on its Ten Most Wanted list. In December 1998, the Director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorist Center reported to President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
that al-Qaeda was preparing for attacks in the United States
United States
of America, including the training of personnel to hijack aircraft.[149] At the end of 2000, Richard Clarke revealed that Islamic militants headed by bin Laden had planned a triple attack on January 3, 2000, which would have included bombings in Jordan of the Radisson SAS Hotel
Radisson SAS Hotel
in Amman and tourists at Mount Nebo and a site on the Jordan River, the sinking of the destroyer USS The Sullivans in Yemen, as well as an attack on a target within the United States. The plan was foiled by the arrest of the Jordanian terrorist cell, the sinking of the explosive-filled skiff intended to target the destroyer, and the arrest of Ahmed Ressam.[150] Yugoslav Wars

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See also: Bosnian Mujahideen A former U.S. State Department official in October 2001 described Bosnia and Herzegovina as a safe haven for terrorists, and asserted that militant elements of the former Sarajevo government were protecting extremists, some with ties to Osama bin Laden.[151] In 1997, Rzeczpospolita, one of the largest Polish daily newspapers, had reported that intelligence services of the Nordic-Polish SFOR
SFOR
Brigade suspected that a center for training terrorists from Islamic countries was located in the Bocina Donja village near Maglaj
Maglaj
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1992, hundreds of volunteers joined an "all-mujahedeen unit" called El Moujahed in an abandoned hillside factory, a compound with a hospital and prayer hall. According to Middle East intelligence reports, bin Laden financed small convoys of recruits from the Arab world through his businesses in Sudan. Among them was Karim Said Atmani, who was identified by authorities as the document forger for a group of Algerians accused of plotting the bombings in the United States.[152] He is a former roommate of Ahmed Ressam, the man arrested at the Canadian-U.S. border in mid-December 1999 with a car full of nitroglycerin and bomb-making materials.[153][154] He was convicted of colluding with Osama bin Laden by a French court.[155] A Bosnian government search of passport and residency records, conducted at the urging of the United States, revealed other former Mujahideen
Mujahideen
who were linked to the same Algerian group or to other groups of suspected terrorists, and had lived in the area 100 km (60 mi) north of Sarajevo, the capital, in the past few years. Khalil al-Deek was arrested in Jordan in late December 1999 on suspicion of involvement in a plot to blow up tourist sites. A second man with Bosnian citizenship, Hamid Aich, lived in Canada at the same time as Atmani and worked for a charity associated with Osama bin Laden. In its June 26, 1997, report on the bombing of the Al Khobar building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, The New York Times
The New York Times
noted that those arrested confessed to serving with Bosnian Muslims forces. Further, the captured men also admitted to ties with Osama bin Laden.[156][157] In 1999 the press reported that bin Laden and his Tunisian assistant Mehrez Aodouni were granted citizenship and Bosnian passports in 1993 by the government in Sarajevo. This information was denied by the Bosnian government following the September 11 attacks, but it was later found that Aodouni was arrested in Turkey and that at that time he possessed the Bosnian passport. Following this revelation, a new explanation was given that bin Laden "did not personally collect his Bosnian passport" and that officials at the Bosnian embassy in Vienna, which issued the passport, could not have known who bin Laden was at the time.[156][157] The Bosnian daily Oslobođenje
Oslobođenje
published in 2001 that three men, believed to be linked to bin Laden, were arrested in Sarajevo in July 2001. The three, one of whom was identified as Imad El Misri, were Egyptian nationals. The paper said that two of the suspects were holding Bosnian passports. By 1998 four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Jihad
(EIJ) were arrested in Albania and extradited to Egypt.[158] During his trial at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, former Serbian President Slobodan Milošević
Slobodan Milošević
presented FBI documents that verified bin Laden's al-Qaeda had a presence in the Balkans and aided the Kosovo Liberation Army. The U.S. State Department had identified this as a terrorist organization shortly before the 1998 embassy bombings in Tanzania and Kenya. Milošević had argued that the United States
United States
aided the terrorists, which culminated in its backing of the 1999 NATO
NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War.[159] September 11 attacks See also: September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
and Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden

God knows it did not cross our minds to attack the Towers, but after the situation became unbearable—and we witnessed the injustice and tyranny of the American-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon—I thought about it. And the events that affected me directly were that of 1982 and the events that followed—when America allowed the Israelis to invade Lebanon, helped by the U.S. Sixth Fleet. As I watched the destroyed towers in Lebanon, it occurred to me punish the unjust the same way: to destroy towers in America so it could taste some of what we are tasting and to stop killing our children and women. — Osama bin Laden, 2004[160]

United Airlines Flight 175
United Airlines Flight 175
crashes into the South Tower

After his initial denial,[161][162][163] in the wake of the attacks, bin Laden announced, "what the United States
United States
is tasting today is nothing compared to what we have tasted for decades. Our umma has known this humiliation and contempt for over eighty years. Its sons are killed, its blood is spilled, its holy sites are attacked, and it is not governed according to Allah's command. Despite this, no one cares".[164] In response to the attacks, the United States
United States
launched the War on Terror
War on Terror
to depose the Taliban
Taliban
regime in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and capture al-Qaeda operatives, and several countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation to preclude future attacks. The CIA's Special Activities Division
Special Activities Division
was given the lead in tracking down and killing or capturing bin Laden.[165] The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that classified[166] evidence linking al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
is clear and irrefutable.[167] The UK Government reached a similar conclusion regarding al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11 attacks, although the government report noted that the evidence presented is not necessarily sufficient to prosecute the case.[168] Bin Laden initially denied involvement in the attacks. On September 16, 2001, bin Laden read a statement later broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel denying responsibility for the attack.[169] In a videotape recovered by U.S. forces in November 2001 in Jalalabad, bin Laden was seen discussing the attack with Khaled al-Harbi in a way that indicates foreknowledge.[170] The tape was broadcast on various news networks on December 13, 2001. The merits of this translation have been disputed. Arabist Dr. Abdel El M. Husseini stated: "This translation is very problematic. At the most important places where it is held to prove the guilt of bin Laden, it is not identical with the Arabic."[171]

2001 video of bin Laden

In the 2004 video, bin Laden abandoned his denials without retracting past statements. In it he said he had personally directed the nineteen hijackers.[172][173] In the 18-minute tape, played on Al-Jazeera, four days before the American presidential election, bin Laden accused U.S. President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
of negligence in the hijacking of the planes on September 11.[172] According to the tapes, bin Laden claimed he was inspired to destroy the World Trade Center after watching the destruction of towers in Lebanon by Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War.[174] Through two other tapes aired by Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
in 2006, Osama bin Laden announced, "I am the one in charge of the nineteen brothers. [...] I was responsible for entrusting the nineteen brothers [...] with the raids" (May 23, 2006).[175] In the tapes he was seen with Ramzi bin al-Shibh, as well as two of the 9/11 hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi
Hamza al-Ghamdi
and Wail al-Shehri, as they made preparations for the attacks (videotape broadcast September 7, 2006).[176] Identified motivations of the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
include the support of Israel by the United States, presence of the U.S. military in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the U.S. enforcement of sanctions against Iraq. Criminal charges On March 16, 1998, Libya issued the first official Interpol
Interpol
arrest warrant against bin Laden and three other people. They were charged for killing Silvan Becker, agent of Germany's domestic intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, in the Terrorism Department, and his wife Vera in Libya on March 10, 1994.[77][177] Bin Laden was still wanted by the Libyan government
Libyan government
at the time of his death.[178][179] Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was first indicted by a grand jury of the United States
United States
on June 8, 1998 on a charges of "conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States" and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden was the head of the terrorist organization called al-Qaeda, and that he was a major financial backer of Islamic fighters worldwide.[180] On November 4, 1998, Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in the United States
United States
District Court for the Southern District of New York, on charges of Murder of U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder U.S. Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death[181] for his alleged role in the 1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. The evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony by former al-Qaeda members and satellite phone records, from a phone purchased for him by al-Qaeda procurement agent Ziyad Khaleel in the United States.[182][183] However the Taliban
Taliban
ruled not to extradite Bin Laden on the grounds that there was insufficient evidence published in the indictments and that non-Muslim courts lacked standing to try Muslims.[184] Bin Laden became the 456th person listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list, when he was added on June 7, 1999, following his indictment along with others for capital crimes in the 1998 embassy attacks. Attempts at assassination and requests for the extradition of bin Laden from the Taliban
Taliban
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
were met with failure before the bombing of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in October 2001.[185] In 1999, U.S. President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
convinced the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in an attempt to force the Taliban
Taliban
to extradite him.[186] Years later, on October 10, 2001, bin Laden appeared as well on the initial list of the top 22 FBI Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by the President of the United States
United States
George W. Bush, in direct response to the September 11 attacks, but which was again based on the indictment for the 1998 embassy attack. Bin Laden was among a group of thirteen fugitive terrorists wanted on that latter list for questioning about the 1998 embassy bombings. Bin Laden remains the only fugitive ever to be listed on both FBI fugitive lists. Despite the multiple indictments listed above and multiple requests, the Taliban
Taliban
refused to extradite Osama bin Laden. They did however offer to try him before an Islamic court if evidence of Osama bin Laden's involvement in the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
was provided. It was not until eight days after the bombing of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
began in October 2001 that the Taliban
Taliban
finally did offer to turn over Osama bin Laden to a third-party country for trial in return for the United States ending the bombing. This offer was rejected by President Bush stating that this was no longer negotiable, with Bush responding "there's no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he's guilty."[187] On June 15, 2011, federal prosecutors of the United States
United States
of America officially dropped all criminal charges against Osama bin Laden following his death in May.[188] Pursuit by the United States

U.S. propaganda leaflet used in Afghanistan, with bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri

Clinton administration Capturing Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
had been an objective of the United States government since the presidency of Bill Clinton.[189] Shortly after the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
it was revealed that President Clinton had signed a directive authorizing the CIA
CIA
(and specifically their elite Special
Special
Activities Division) to apprehend bin Laden and bring him to the United States
United States
to stand trial after the 1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings in Africa; if taking bin Laden alive was deemed impossible, then deadly force was authorized.[190] On August 20, 1998, 66 cruise missiles launched by United States
United States
Navy ships in the Arabian Sea struck bin Laden's training camps near Khost
Khost
in Afghanistan, missing him by a few hours.[191] In 1999 the CIA, together with Pakistani military intelligence, had prepared a team of approximately 60 Pakistani commandos to infiltrate Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to capture or kill bin Laden, but the plan was aborted by the 1999 Pakistani coup d'état;[191] in 2000, foreign operatives working on behalf of the CIA had fired a rocket-propelled grenade at a convoy of vehicles in which bin Laden was traveling through the mountains of Afghanistan, hitting one of the vehicles but not the one in which bin Laden was riding.[190] In 2000, before to the September 11 attacks, Paul Bremer
Paul Bremer
characterized the Clinton administration
Clinton administration
as "correctly focused on bin Laden", while Robert Oakley criticized their "obsession with Osama".[150] Bush administration

Delta Force
Delta Force
GIs disguised as Afghan civilians, while they searched for bin Laden in November 2001

Immediately after the September 11 attacks, U.S. government officials named bin Laden and the al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects and offered a reward of $25 million for information leading to his capture or death.[24][192] On July 13, 2007, the Senate voted to double the reward to $50 million though the amount was never changed.[193] The Airline Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association offered an additional $2 million reward.[194] According to The Washington Post, the U.S. government concluded that Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was present during the Battle of Tora Bora, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in late 2001, and according to civilian and military officials with first-hand knowledge, failure by the United States
United States
to commit enough U.S. ground troops to hunt him led to his escape and was the gravest failure by the United States
United States
in the war against al-Qaeda. Intelligence officials assembled what they believed to be decisive evidence, from contemporary and subsequent interrogations and intercepted communications, that bin Laden began the Battle of Tora Bora inside the cave complex along Afghanistan's mountainous eastern border.[195] The Washington Post
The Washington Post
also reported that the CIA
CIA
unit composed of special operations paramilitary forces dedicated to capturing bin Laden was shut down in late 2005.[196] U.S. and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
forces raided the mountain caves in Tora Bora between August 14–16, 2007. The military was drawn to the area after receiving intelligence of a pre- Ramadan
Ramadan
meeting held by al-Qaeda members. After killing dozens of al-Qaeda and Taliban
Taliban
members, they did not find either Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
or Ayman al-Zawahiri.[197] Obama administration

White House Situation Room, in which members of the Obama administration track the mission that killed bin Laden

On October 7, 2008, in the second presidential debate, on foreign policy, then-presidential candidate Barack Obama
Barack Obama
pledged, "We will kill bin Laden. We will crush al-Qaeda. That has to be our biggest national security priority."[198] Upon being elected, then President-elect Obama expressed his plans to "renew U.S. commitment to finding al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, according to his national security advisers" in an effort to ratchet up the hunt for the terrorist.[198] President Obama rejected the Bush administration's policy on bin Laden that "conflated all terror threats from al-Qaeda to Hamas to Hezbollah," replacing it with "a covert, laserlike focus on al-Qaeda and its spawn."[199][200] U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
said in December 2009 that officials had had no reliable information on bin Laden's whereabouts for years. One week later, General Stanley McChrystal, the top U.S. commander in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
said in December 2009 that al-Qaeda would not be defeated unless its leader, Osama bin Laden, were captured or killed. Testifying to the U.S. Congress, he said that bin Laden had become an "iconic figure, whose survival emboldens al-Qaeda as a franchising organization across the world", and that Obama's deployment of 30,000 extra troops to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
meant that success would be possible. "I don't think that we can finally defeat al-Qaeda until he's captured or killed," McChrystal said of bin Laden. According to him, killing or capturing bin Laden would not spell the end of al-Qaeda, but the movement could not be eradicated while he remained at large.[201] In April 2011, President Obama ordered a covert operation to kill or capture bin Laden. On May 2, 2011, the White House announced that U.S. Navy SEALs had successfully carried out the operation, killing him in his Abbottabad
Abbottabad
compound in Pakistan.[202]

Activities and whereabouts after the September 11 attacks Main article: Search for Osama bin Laden While referring to Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
in a CNN film clip on September 17, 2001, then President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
stated, "I want justice. There is an old poster out west, as I recall, that said, 'Wanted dead or alive' ".[203] Subsequently, bin Laden retreated further from public contact to avoid capture. Numerous speculative press reports were issued about his whereabouts or even death; some placed bin Laden in different locations during overlapping time periods. None were ever definitively proven. After military offensives in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
failed to uncover his whereabouts, Pakistan
Pakistan
was regularly identified as his suspected hiding place. Some of the conflicting reports regarding bin Laden's continued whereabouts and mistaken claims about his death follow:

On December 11, 2005, a letter from Atiyah Abd al-Rahman to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi indicated that bin Laden and the al-Qaeda leadership were based in the Waziristan
Waziristan
region of Pakistan
Pakistan
at the time. In the letter, translated by the United States
United States
military's Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, "Atiyah" instructs Zarqawi to "send messengers from your end to Waziristan
Waziristan
so that they meet with the brothers of the leadership [...] I am now on a visit to them and I am writing you this letter as I am with them ..." Al-Rahman also indicates that bin Laden and al-Qaeda are "weak" and "have many of their own problems." The letter has been deemed authentic by military and counterterrorism officials, according to The Washington Post.[204][205] Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
continued to release time-sensitive and professionally verified videos demonstrating bin Laden's continued survival as recently as August 2007.[206] Bin Laden claimed sole responsibility for the September 11 attacks
September 11 attacks
and specifically denied any prior knowledge of them by the Taliban
Taliban
or the Afghan people.[207] In 2009, a research team led by Thomas W. Gillespie and John A. Agnew of UCLA
UCLA
used satellite-aided geographical analysis to pinpoint three compounds in Parachinar
Parachinar
as bin Laden's likely hideouts.[208] In March 2009, the New York Daily News
New York Daily News
reported that the hunt for bin Laden had centered in the Chitral District
Chitral District
of Pakistan, including the Kalam Valley. Author Rohan Gunaratna stated that captured al-Qaeda leaders had confirmed that bin Laden was hiding in Chitral.[209] In the first week of December 2009, a Taliban
Taliban
detainee in Pakistan said he had information that bin Laden was in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 2009. The detainee reported that in January or February (2009) he met a trusted contact who had seen bin Laden in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
about 15 to 20 days earlier. However, on December 6, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
stated that the United States
United States
had had no reliable information on the whereabouts of bin Laden in years.[210] Pakistan's Prime Minister Gillani rejected claims that Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was hiding in Pakistan.[211] On December 9, 2009, BBC
BBC
News reported that U.S. Army General Stanley A. McChrystal, who served as Commander of the U.S. forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from June 15, 2009, until June 23, 2010, emphasized the continued importance of the capture or killing of bin Laden, thus indicating that the U.S. high command believed that bin Laden was still alive.[212] On February 2, 2010, Afghan president Hamid Karzai
Hamid Karzai
arrived in Saudi Arabia for an official visit. The agenda included discussion of a possible Saudi role in Karzai's plan to reintegrate Taliban
Taliban
militants. During the visit an anonymous official of the Saudi Foreign Ministry declared that the kingdom had no intention of getting involved in peacemaking in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
unless the Taliban
Taliban
severed ties with extremists and expelled Osama bin Laden.[213] On June 7, 2010, the Kuwaiti newspaper Al Siyassa reported that bin Laden was hiding out in the mountainous town of Savzevar, in northeastern Iran.[214] On June 9, The Australian News's online edition repeated the claim.[215] On October 18, 2010, an unnamed NATO
NATO
official suggested that bin Laden was "alive and well and living comfortably" in Pakistan, protected by elements of the country's intelligence services. A senior Pakistani official denied the allegations and said that the accusations were designed to put pressure on the Pakistani government ahead of talks aimed at strengthening ties between Pakistan
Pakistan
and the United States.[216] On April 16, 2011, a leaked Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
report claimed that bin Laden had been captured by U.S. forces in Afghanistan.[217]

On March 29, 2012, Pakistani newspaper Dawn acquired a report produced by Pakistani security officials, based on interrogation of his three surviving wives, that detailed his movements while living underground in Pakistan.[218] In a 2010 letter, bin Laden chastised followers who had reinterpreted al-tatarrus—an Islamic doctrine meant to excuse the unintended killing of non-combatants in unusual circumstances—to justify routine massacres of Muslim civilians, which had turned Muslims against the extremist movement. Of the groups affiliated with al-Qaida, Bin Laden condemned Tehrik-e- Taliban
Taliban
Pakistan
Pakistan
for an attack on members of a hostile tribe, declaring that "the operation is not justified, as there were casualties of noncombatants." Bin Laden wrote that the tatarrus doctrine "needs to be revisited based on the modern-day context and clear boundaries established." He asked a subordinate to draw up a jihadist code of conduct that would constrain military operations in order to avoid civilian casualties. In Yemen, Bin Laden urged his allies to seek a "truce" that would bring the country "stability" or would at least "show the people that we are careful in keeping ... the Muslims safe on the basis of peace." In Somalia, he called attention to the extreme poverty caused by constant warfare, and he advised al-Shabab to pursue economic development. He instructed his followers around the world to focus on education and persuasion rather than "entering into confrontations" with Islamic political parties.[219] Whereabouts just before his death In April 2011, various intelligence outlets were able to pinpoint bin Laden's suspected location near Abbottabad, Pakistan.[citation needed] It was previously believed that bin Laden was hiding near the border between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, but he was found 160 km (100 mi) away in a three-story mansion in Abbottabad
Abbottabad
at 34°10′9.51″N 73°14′32.78″E / 34.1693083°N 73.2424389°E / 34.1693083; 73.2424389.[220][221][222] Bin Laden's mansion was located 1.3 km (0.8 mi) southwest of the Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy.[223][224][225][226] Google Earth maps show that the compound was not present in 2001, but it was present on images taken in 2005.[227] Death Main article: Death of Osama bin Laden See also: Reactions to the death of Osama bin Laden
Reactions to the death of Osama bin Laden
and Osama bin Laden death conspiracy theories

Website of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
listing bin Laden as deceased on the Most Wanted List on May 3, 2011

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
was killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan, on May 2, 2011, shortly after 1:00 AM local time (4:00 PM eastern time)[note 1][228][229] by a United States
United States
military special operations unit. The operation, code-named Operation Neptune Spear, was ordered by United States
United States
President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and carried out in a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) operation by a team of United States
United States
Navy SEALs from the United States
United States
Naval Special
Special
Warfare Development Group (also known as DEVGRU or informally by its former name, SEAL Team Six) of the Joint Special
Special
Operations Command,[230] with support from CIA operatives on the ground.[231][232] The raid on bin Laden's compound in Abbottabad
Abbottabad
was launched from Afghanistan.[233] After the raid, reports at the time stated that U.S. forces had taken bin Laden's body to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
for positive identification, then buried it at sea, in accordance with Islamic law, within 24 hours of his death.[234] Subsequent reporting has called this account into question—citing, for example, the absence of evidence that there was an imam on board the USS Carl Vinson, where the burial was said to have taken place.[235] Allegations of Pakistani protection of bin Laden Main article: Allegations of support system in Pakistan
Pakistan
for Osama bin Laden Bin Laden was killed within the fortified complex of buildings that was probably built for him,[236] and had reportedly been his home for at least five years.[237][238] The compound was located less than a mile from Pakistan
Pakistan
Military Academy and less than 100 kilometers' drive from Pakistan's capital.[239][240][241] While the United States and Pakistan
Pakistan
governments both claimed, and later maintained, that no Pakistani officials, including senior military leaders, knew Bin Laden's whereabouts or had prior knowledge of the U.S. strike,[242][243] Carlotta Gall, writing in The New York Times Magazine in 2014, reported that ISI Director General Ahmad Shuja Pasha knew of Bin Laden's presence in Abbottabad.[244] In a 2015 London Review of Books article, investigative reporter Seymour M. Hersh asserted—citing U.S. sources—that bin Laden had been a prisoner of the ISI at the Abbottabad
Abbottabad
compound since 2006; that Pasha knew of the U.S. mission in advance, and authorized the helicopters delivering the SEALs to enter Pakistani airspace; and that the CIA
CIA
learned of bin Laden's whereabouts from a former senior Pakistani intelligence officer, who was paid an estimated $25 million for the information.[235] Both stories were denied by U.S. and Pakistani officials. Mosharraf Zia, a leading Pakistani columnist, stated, "It seems deeply improbable that bin Laden could have been where he was killed without the knowledge of some parts of the Pakistani state."[245] Pakistan's United States
United States
envoy, ambassador Husain Haqqani, promised a "full inquiry" into how Pakistani intelligence services could have failed to find bin Laden in a fortified compound so close to Islamabad. "Obviously bin Laden did have a support system," he said. "The issue is, was that support system within the government and the state of Pakistan, or within the society of Pakistan?"[246] Others argued that Bin Laden lived in the compound with a local family, and never used the internet or a mobile phone, which would have made him much harder to locate.[247] Pakistan's president Asif Ali Zardari denied that his country's security forces sheltered bin Laden, and called any supposed support for bin Laden by the Pakistani government "baseless speculation".[248][249] Government officials said that the country's limited resources had been committed to its war against the Pakistan
Pakistan
Taliban, and other insurgents who posed an active threat to it, rather than to finding or sheltering Bin Laden.[250] See also

Afghanistan
Afghanistan
portal Biography portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal Terrorism portal United States
United States
portal

Conflict in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(1978–present) Fatawā of Osama bin Laden The Golden Chain Islamic extremism Islamic fundamentalism Islamic terrorism Militant Islamism Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
in popular culture Pakistan
Pakistan
and state sponsored terrorism War against Terrorism

Notes

^ Depending on the time zone, the date of his death may be different locally

References

^ a b Dan Ackman. "The Cost Of Being Osama Bin Laden" Archived July 29, 2017, at the Wayback Machine.. September 14, 2001. Retrieved March 15, 2011. ^ Fair, C. Christine; Watson, Sarah J. (February 18, 2015). Pakistan's Enduring Challenges. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780812246902. Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
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George W. Bush
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at West Point. September 25, 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2007. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ "Experts warn of attack clues in Bin Laden video". September 6, 2007. Archived from the original on April 8, 2008. Retrieved May 25, 2010.  Bin Laden video release authenticity discussed. ^ "Bin Laden urges Europe to quit Afghanistan". Reuters. November 29, 2007. Archived from the original on January 12, 2009.  ^ Gillespie, Thomas W.; et al. (2009). "Finding Osama bin Laden: An Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery" (PDF). MIT International Review. Archived (PDF) from the original on August 5, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2010.  ^ Meek, James Gordon, "Tighten The Net on Evil", Daily News, 2009-03-15, p. 27. ^ "No Bin Laden information in years, says Gates" Archived December 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. December 6, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. ^ Bin Laden not in Pakistan, PM says Archived December 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved May 20, 2010. ^ "Gen McChrystal: Bin Laden is key to al-Qaeda defeat". BBC
BBC
News. December 9, 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2011.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Wants Taliban
Taliban
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Osama bin Laden
'living comfortably in Pakistan'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010.  ^ Qari, Sarah (April 16, 2011). "Al-Jazeera: LEAK: Osama Bin Laden Captured". The RMC News page. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011.  ^ Declan Walsh (March 30, 2012). "On the Run, Bin Laden Had 4 Children and 5 Houses, a Wife Says". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 30, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012.  ^ Saletan, William (May 4, 2012). "Reflections of a Terrorist". Slate. Archived from the original on May 6, 2012.  ^ Zengerle, Patricia; Bull, Alister (May 2, 2011). "Bin Laden was found at luxurious Pakistan
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compound". Reuters. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
death: Pakistan
Pakistan
locals flock to see villain's lair Archived September 27, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Declan Walsh The Guardian May 5, 2011 ^ "Map of Where Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
Was Killed – Map". The New York Times. May 2, 2011. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ "Osama Bin Laden's death: How it happened". BBC
BBC
News. June 7, 2011. Archived from the original on May 3, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ "Osama bin Laden, the face of terror, killed in Pakistan". CNN. May 2, 2011. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ "Spitzer: What role did Pakistan
Pakistan
play in the killing of Osama bin Laden? – In the Arena". CNN. May 2, 2011. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ "President Obama Praises Troops Who Killed Osama bin Laden". ABC news. Archived from the original on May 4, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ "Finding Osama Bin Laden's Abbottabad
Abbottabad
mansion with Google Earth". May 2, 2011. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved October 31, 2012.  ^ Greg Miller (May 5, 2011). " CIA
CIA
spied on bin Laden from safe house". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011.  ^ Cooper, Helene (May 1, 2011). "Obama Announces Killing of Osama bin Laden". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2011.  ^ Gal Perl Finkel, Back to the ground? Archived August 17, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., Israel Hayom, November 8, 2015. ^ Philip Sherwell (May 7, 2011). " Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
killed: Behind the scenes of the deadly raid". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 9, 2011.  ^ Dilanian, Ken (May 2, 2011). " CIA
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led U.S. special forces mission against Osama bin Laden". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved May 14, 2011.  ^ C. Christine Fair (May 4, 2011). "The bin Laden aftermath: The U.S. shouldn't hold Pakistan's military against Pakistan's civilians". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011. Retrieved May 10, 2011.  ^ "Osama Bin Laden, al-Qaeda leader, dead – Barack Obama". BBC
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News. May 1, 2011. Archived from the original on May 2, 2011. Retrieved May 2, 2011.  ^ a b Seymour M. Hersh
Seymour M. Hersh
(May 21, 2015). "The Killing of Osama bin Laden". London Review of Books. Archived from the original on May 10, 2015. Retrieved May 3, 2016.  ^ Westhead, Rick (April 1, 2011). "Questions about bin Laden embarrassing to Pakistan". Toronto Star. Toronto. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ Peter Walker and agencies (May 6, 2011). " Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
lived in two rooms for five years, wife says". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2011.  ^ "U.S.: Bin Laden lived in Pakistan
Pakistan
compound for at least 5 years". Haaretz. Israel. Reuters. May 3, 2011. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2012.  ^ Sherwell, Philip. " Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
killed: Behind the scenes of the deadly raid". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ Rodriguez, Alex (May 6, 2011). "Mystery shrouds the quiet man who built Bin Laden's compound". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 12, 2011.  ^ "8 Interesting Facts About Osama bin Laden's Compound". International Business Times. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ Ross, Brian. "Osama Bin Laden Killed: U.S. Intelligence Probes Possible Pakistani Support System". ABC News. Archived from the original on May 5, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.  ^ 'Osama raid took Pakistan
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Carlotta Gall
(March 19, 2014). "What Pakistan
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- TIME". Time. December 17, 2009. Archived from the original on January 1, 2016. 

Bibliography

Bergen, Peter (2006). The Osama Bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of Al Qaeda's Leader. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-9592-7.  Bergen, Peter (2008). "Al Qaeda, the Organization: A Five-Year Forecast". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 618: 14–30. JSTOR 40375772.  Gutman, Roy (2008). How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban, and the Hijacking of Afghanistan. US Institute of Peace Press. ISBN 978-1-60127-024-5.  Scheuer, Michael (2002). Through Our Enemies' Eyes. Washington, D.C.: Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-553-7.  Stern, Jessica (2003). Terror in the Name of God (1 ed.). New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-050533-8.  Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda
And The Road To 9/11. New York: Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-3084-6. 

Further reading

Al-Bahri, Nasser (2013). Guarding bin Laden: My Life in Al-Qaeda. Thin Man Press. ISBN 9780956247360.  Atwan, Abdel Bari (2012). After Bin Laden: Al-Qaeda, the Next Generation. Saqi. ISBN 9780863564192.  Atwan, Abdel Bari (2006). The Secret History of Al-Qaeda. Saqi. ISBN 9780863567605.  Berner, Brad K (2007). Quotations from Osama Bin Laden. Peacock Books. ISBN 81-248-0113-4.  Bin Laden, Osama; Lawrence, Bruce (2005). Messages to the world: the statements of Osama Bin Laden. Verso. ISBN 1-84467-045-7.  Burke, Jason (2007). Al-Qaeda: The True Story of Radical Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). London: Penguin. ISBN 978-0-141-03136-1.  Foreign Broadcast Information Service (2006) – Compilation of Usama Bin Laden Statements 1994 – January 2004 Mura, Andrea (2015). The Symbolic Scenarios of Islamism: A Study in Islamic Political Thought. London: Routledge.  Ibrahim, Raymond (2007). The Al Qaeda Reader. Broadway Books. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-7679-2262-3.  Scheuer, Michael (2011). Osama Bin Laden. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-973866-1. 

External links

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collected news and commentary". The New York Times.  "Osama bin Laden". JURIST.  Full text: bin Laden's 'letter to America', The Observer, November 24, 2002 Hunting Bin Laden, PBS
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Frontline, (November 2002) "5 Facts You Probably Didn't Know About Osama bin Laden", Dainik Bhaskar, (May 2016) Young Osama, Steve Coll, The New Yorker, December 12, 2005 How the World Sees Osama bin Laden, slideshow by Life The Osama bin Laden
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v t e

Osama bin Laden

Background

Childhood, education, and personal life Militant activity Beliefs and ideology Search Khartoum
Khartoum
compound Abbottabad
Abbottabad
compound Death

reactions code name controversy conspiracy theories

Family

Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden (father) Hamida al-Attas (mother) Najwa Ghanem (first wife) Abdallah bin Laden (son) Hamza bin Laden (son) Saad bin Laden (son) Omar bin Laden
Omar bin Laden
(son)

Work

al-Qaeda Wadi al Aqiq Messages to the World Fatawā 2004 video 19 January 2006 tape 7 September 2007 video 11 September 2007 video 20 September 2007 tape (more)

In media

In popular culture Growing Up bin Laden Holy War, Inc. The Looming Tower No Easy Day Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? Zero Dark Thirty Interviews

Related

Allegations of support system in Pakistan
Pakistan
for Osama bin Laden Bodyguard Issue Station September 11 attacks Allegations of CIA
CIA
assistance to Osama bin Laden False sightings

v t e

al-Qaeda

Leadership

Ayman al-Zawahiri Saif al-Adel Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah Hamza bin Laden Abdelmalek Droukdel Mokhtar Belmokhtar Qasim al-Raymi Abu Mohammad al-Julani Ahmad Umar Asim Umar Ezedin Abdel Aziz Khalil

Former leadership

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
(killed) Abu Yahya al-Libi (killed) Khalid Sheikh
Sheikh
Mohammed (captured) Mamdouh Mahmud Salim
Mamdouh Mahmud Salim
(captured) Anwar al-Awlaki
Anwar al-Awlaki
(killed) Samir Khan (killed) Younis al-Mauritani (captured) Mohammed Atef
Mohammed Atef
(killed) Fazul Abdullah Mohammed (killed) Abu Faraj al-Libbi (captured) Atiyah Abd al-Rahman (killed) Abu Laith al-Libi
Abu Laith al-Libi
(killed) Fahd al-Quso (killed) Ilyas Kashmiri
Ilyas Kashmiri
(killed) Abu Hamza Rabia (killed) Haitham al-Yemeni (killed) Abdullah Said al Libi (killed) Abu Sulayman Al-Jazairi (killed) Saleh al-Somali (killed) Abu Ubaidah al-Masri (died) Saad bin Laden (killed) Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam (killed) Sheikh
Sheikh
Ahmed Salim Swedan (killed) Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali (killed) Mohammad Hasan Khalil al-Hakim (killed) Mushin Musa Matwalli Atwah (killed) Midhat Mursi (killed) Saeed al-Masri (killed) Hassan Ghul (killed) Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri (died) Walid bin Attash
Walid bin Attash
(captured) Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri
Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri
(captured) Mustafa Setmariam Nasar (captured) Qaed Salim Sinan al-Harethi (killed) Khalid Habib (killed) Abdul Hadi al Iraqi (captured) Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil
Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil
(killed) Mohamed Abul-Khair (killed) Mahfouz Ould al-Walid (left) Sulaiman Abu Ghaith (captured) Abu Anas al-Libi (captured and died) Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
Abu Musab al-Zarqawi
(killed) Abu Ayyub al-Masri (killed) Abu Omar al-Baghdadi (killed) Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
(expelled) Abu-Zaid al Kuwaiti
Abu-Zaid al Kuwaiti
(killed) Omar al-Faruq (killed) Said Ali al-Shihri
Said Ali al-Shihri
(killed) Ahmed Abdi Godane (killed) Adnan Gulshair el Shukrijumah (killed) Adam Yahiye Gadahn (killed) Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari
Harith bin Ghazi al-Nadhari
(killed) Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh
Ibrahim Sulayman Muhammad Arbaysh
(killed) Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi
Nasser bin Ali al-Ansi
(killed) Nasir al-Wuhayshi
Nasir al-Wuhayshi
(killed) Muhsin al-Fadhli
Muhsin al-Fadhli
(killed) Abu Khalil al-Madani (killed) Abu Khayr al-Masri (killed)

Timeline of attacks

1998 United States
United States
embassy bombings 2000 USS Cole bombing 2001 September 11 attacks 2002 Bali bombings 2007 Algiers bombings 2008 Islamabad Danish embassy bombing 2008 Islamabad Marriott Hotel bombing 2012 Benghazi attack 2013 In Amenas hostage crisis 2013 Westgate shopping mall attack 2015 Charlie Hebdo shooting 2015 Garissa University College attack 2015 Bamako hotel attack 2016 Ouagadougou attacks 2016 Grand-Bassam shootings 2016 Bamako attack

Wars

Soviet–Afghan War Afghan Civil War (1989–92) Afghan Civil War (1992–96) Bosnian War

Bosnian Al-Qaeda

First Chechen War Afghan Civil War (1996–2001) Second Chechen War War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2001–2014) Iraq
Iraq
War Somali Civil War War in North-West Pakistan
Pakistan
(Drone strikes) Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) War in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(2015–present) Syrian
Syrian
Civil War Yemeni Civil War

al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Houthi insurgency in Yemen

Affiliates

al-Shabaab (Somalia) al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (Yemen) al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (North Africa) Egyptian Islamic Jihad
Jihad
(Egypt) al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (Indian Subcontinent) Tahrir al-Sham
Tahrir al-Sham
(Syria)

Charity organizations

Benevolence International Foundation al-Haramain Foundation

Media

Al Qaeda Handbook Al Neda As-Sahab Fatawā of Osama bin Laden Inspire Al-Khansaa Kuala Lumpur al-Qaeda Summit Management of Savagery Voice of Jihad Qaedat al-Jihad Global Islamic Media Front

Video and audio

Videos and audio recordings of Osama bin Laden Videos and audio recordings of Ayman al-Zawahiri USS Cole bombing

v t e

Alleged chiefs of al-Qaeda

Head of al-Qaeda

Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
(1988–2011) Saif al-Adel
Saif al-Adel
(2011, interim) Ayman al-Zawahiri
Ayman al-Zawahiri
(2011–present)

Military chiefs

Abu Ayub al-Iraqi (1989, alleged) Abu Ubaidah al-Banshiri (1991–1996) Mohammed Atef
Mohammed Atef
(1996–2001) Saif al-Adel
Saif al-Adel
(2001–present)

Financial chiefs

Saeed al-Masri (1995–2010)

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul- Jihad
Jihad
al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism portal War portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 97678624 LCCN: n98940446 ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 6819 GND: 123147808 SELIBR: 173491 SUDOC: 060381167 BNF: cb137709717 (data) BIBSYS: 1076526 NLA: 36588726 NDL: 00865473 NKC: jo2002101051 BNE: XX1220

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