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Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
(from Greek ορθοδοξία, orthodoxía – "right opinion")[1] is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.[2] In the Christian sense the term means "conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church."[3] The first seven Ecumenical Councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines. In some English speaking countries, Jews who adhere to all the traditions and commandments as legislated in the Talmud
Talmud
are often called Orthodox Jews, although the term "orthodox" historically first described Christian beliefs.

Contents

1 Religions

1.1 Buddhism 1.2 Christianity 1.3 Hinduism 1.4 Islam 1.5 Judaism

2 Related concepts in religion 3 Non-religious contexts 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography

Religions[edit] Buddhism[edit] Main article: Theravada The historical Buddha was known to denounce mere attachment to scriptures or dogmatic principles, as it was mentioned in the Kalama Sutta[4]. Moreover, the Theravada
Theravada
school of Buddhism
Buddhism
follows strict adherence to the Pāli Canon
Pāli Canon
(tripitaka) and the commentaries such as the Visuddhimagga. Hence, the Theravada
Theravada
school came to be considered the most orthodox of all Buddhist schools, as it is known to be highly conservative especially within the discipline and practice of the Vinaya. Christianity[edit]

The Orthodox Cross, flanked by the Greek letters "ICXC NIKA" which means "JESUS CHRIST CONQUERS".

In classical Christian usage, the term orthodox refers to the set of doctrines which were believed by the early Christians. A series of ecumenical councils were held over a period of several centuries to try to formalize these doctrines. The most significant of these early decisions was that between the Homoousian doctrine of Athanasius and Eustathius (which became Trinitarianism) and the Heteroousian
Heteroousian
doctrine of Arius
Arius
and Eusebius (called Arianism). The Homoousian doctrine, which defined Jesus as both God and man with the canons of the 431 Council of Ephesus, won out in the Church and was referred to as Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
in most Christian contexts, since this was the viewpoint of previous Christian Church Fathers and was reaffirmed at these councils. (The minority nontrinitarian Christians object to this terminology). Following the 1054 Great Schism, both the Western Church and Eastern Church continued to consider themselves uniquely orthodox and catholic. Over time, the Western Church gradually identified with the "Catholic" label, and people of Western Europe gradually associated the "Orthodox" label with the Eastern Church (in some languages the "Catholic" label is not necessarily identified with the Western Church). This was in note of the fact that both Catholic
Catholic
and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively. Much earlier, Oriental Orthodoxy
Oriental Orthodoxy
had split from Chalcedonian Christianity
Christianity
after the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
(AD 451), because of several christological differences.[5] Since then, Oriental Orthodox Churches are maintaining the orthodox designation as a symbol of their theological traditions.[6] Hinduism[edit] Main article: Orthodox Hinduism The term Orthodox Hinduism
Orthodox Hinduism
commonly refers to the religious teachings and practices of Sanātanī, one of the traditionalist branches of Hinduism. Islam[edit] Main article: Sunni Islam The term Orthodox Islam generally refers to the doctrinal teachings and religious practices of traditional Sunni Islam. As of 2009[update], Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population.[7] Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or ahl as-sunnah for short.[8][9] In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism,[10] while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam".[11][12][13] However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there's no such thing as "orthodox Islam".[14] Judaism[edit] Main article: Orthodox Judaism Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
is the approach to religious Judaism
Judaism
which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah
Torah
as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tannaim and Amoraim. Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
is split into various different movements and factions. They have different ways of interpreting and following the laws and traditions of Judaism, and include movements such as Modern Orthodox Judaism (אורתודוקסיה מודרנית) and Ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism
Judaism
(יהדות חרדית). Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
is distinct from Conservative Judaism. Related concepts in religion[edit] Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
is opposed to heterodoxy ("other teaching") or heresy. People who deviate from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are called heretics, while those who, perhaps without professing heretical beliefs, break from the perceived main body of believers are called schismatics. The term employed sometimes depends on the aspect most in view: if one is addressing corporate unity, the emphasis may be on schism; if one is addressing doctrinal coherence, the emphasis may be on heresy. A deviation lighter than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being grave enough to cause total estrangement, while yet seriously affecting communion. Sometimes error is also used to cover both full heresies and minor errors. The concept of orthodoxy is prevalent in many forms of organized monotheism. However, orthodox belief is not usually overly emphasized in polytheistic or animist religions, in which there is often little or no concept of dogma, and varied interpretations of doctrine and theology are tolerated and sometimes even encouraged within certain contexts. Syncretism, for example, plays a much wider role in non-monotheistic (and particularly, non-scriptural) religion. The prevailing governing norm within polytheism is often orthopraxy ("right practice") rather than the "right belief" of orthodoxy. Non-religious contexts[edit] Outside the context of religion, the term "orthodoxy" is often used to refer to any commonly held belief or set of beliefs in some field, in particular when these tenets, possibly referred to as "dogmas", are being challenged. In this sense, the term has a mildly pejorative connotation. Among various "orthodoxies" in distinctive fields, the most commonly used terms are:

Political orthodoxy Social orthodoxy Economic orthodoxy Scientific orthodoxy Artistic orthodoxy

The terms "orthodox" and "orthodoxy" are also used more broadly to refer to things other than ideas and beliefs. A new and unusual way of solving a problem could be referred to as "unorthodox", while a common and 'normal' way of solving a problem would be referred to as "orthodox". See also[edit]

Christianity
Christianity
portal

Catholicism Chalcedonian Definition Eastern Catholicism Eastern Christianity Four Marks of the Church Heresy
Heresy
in Christianity History of Oriental Orthodoxy History of the Eastern Orthodox Church Lutheran orthodoxy Neo-orthodoxy Nicene Christianity Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed Non-Chalcedonianism Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
(book) Paleo-orthodoxy Proto-orthodox Christianity Radical orthodoxy Rule of Faith

References[edit]

^ Harper, Douglas. "orthodoxy". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-27.  ^ orthodox. Dictionary.com. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Dictionary definition (accessed: March 03, 2008). ^ Robert M. Wills (2013). Taking Caesar Out of Jesus: Uncovering the Lost Relevance of Jesus. Xlibris Corporation. p. 246. ISBN 1-4931-0810-7. [self-published source] ^ "Kalama Sutta: To the Kalamas". www.accesstoinsight.org. Retrieved 2018-03-14.  ^ Meyendorff 1989. ^ Krikorian 2010. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014.  ^ Michael E. Marmura (2009). "Sunnī Islam. Historical Overview". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-0764 (inactive 2018-03-23). (Subscription required (help)). Sunnī Muslims have thus referred to themselves as ahl al-sunnah wa al-jamāʿah (people of the sunnah and the community).  ^ Lucas, Scott C. (2011). "Sunnism, Sunni". Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
Online. Brill. doi:10.1163/2211-2685_eco_SI.100. (Subscription required (help)). The terms “Sunnism” and “Sunni” are anglicizations of Arab. ahl al-sunnah (the people of the Sunna [lit. “custom, way”]) or ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamāʿa (the people of the Sunna and community).  ^ "Sunnism". -Ologies & -Isms. The Gale Group. Retrieved Oct 5, 2016.  ^ John Richard Thackrah (5 Sep 2013). Dictionary of Terrorism (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-135-16595-6.  ^ Nasir, Jamal J., ed. (2009). The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation (revised ed.). BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 9789004172739.  ^ George W. Braswell (2000). What You Need to Know about Islam & Muslims (illustrated ed.). B&H Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8054-1829-3.  ^ An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining sunna, especially the Sunna of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim 'unorthodox' implies heretical, mubtadi, from bid'a, the contrary of sunna, and so 'innovation'."

Bibliography[edit]

Henderson, John B. (1998). The Construction of Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
and Heresy: Neo-Confucian, Islamic, Jewish, and Early Christian Patterns. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.  Krikorian, Mesrob K. (2010). Christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches: Christology in the Tradition of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Peter Lang.  Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian divisions: The Church 450-680 A.D. The Church in history. 2. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Sem

.