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George Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(/wɛlz/; May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film. He is remembered for his innovative[1] work in all three: in theatre, most notably Caesar (1937), a Broadway adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar; in radio, the legendary[2] 1938 broadcast "The War of the Worlds"; and in film, Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941), consistently ranked as one of the greatest films ever made. In his 20s, Welles directed a number of high-profile stage productions for the Federal Theatre Project, including an adaptation of Macbeth with an entirely African American cast, and the political musical The Cradle Will Rock. In 1937 he and John Houseman
John Houseman
founded the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented a series of productions on Broadway through 1941. Welles found national and international fame as the director and narrator of a 1938 radio adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
performed for his radio anthology series The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air. It reportedly caused widespread panic when listeners thought that an invasion by extraterrestrial beings was actually occurring. Although some contemporary sources claim these reports of panic were mostly false and overstated,[3] they rocketed Welles to notoriety. His first film was Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941), which he co-wrote, produced, directed, and starred in as Charles Foster Kane. Welles was an outsider to the studio system and directed only 13 full-length films in his career. He struggled for creative control on his projects early on with the major film studios and later in life with a variety of independent financiers, and his films were either heavily edited or remained unreleased. His distinctive directorial style featured layered and nonlinear narrative forms, uses of lighting such as chiaroscuro, unusual camera angles, sound techniques borrowed from radio, deep focus shots, and long takes. He has been praised as "the ultimate auteur".[4]:6 Welles followed up Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
with 12 other feature films, the most acclaimed of which include The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
(1942), Touch of Evil (1958), and Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966). Other works of his, such as The Lady from Shanghai
The Lady from Shanghai
(1947)[5] and F for Fake
F for Fake
(1973),[6] are also well-regarded. In 2002, Welles was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute
British Film Institute
polls among directors and critics.[7][8] Known for his baritone voice,[9] Welles was an actor in radio and film, a Shakespearean
Shakespearean
stage actor, and a magician noted for presenting troop variety shows in the war years.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Early career (1931–1935) 3 Theatre (1936–1938)

3.1 Federal Theatre Project 3.2 Mercury Theatre

4 Radio (1936–1940)

4.1 The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air

5 Hollywood
Hollywood
(1939–1948)

5.1 Citizen Kane 5.2 The Magnificent Ambersons 5.3 Journey into Fear 5.4 War work

5.4.1 Goodwill ambassador 5.4.2 It's All True 5.4.3 Radio (1942–43) 5.4.4 The Mercury Wonder Show 5.4.5 Radio (1944–45)

5.5 The Stranger 5.6 Around the World 5.7 Radio (1946) 5.8 The Lady from Shanghai 5.9 Macbeth

6 Europe (1948–1956)

6.1 Othello 6.2 Mr. Arkadin 6.3 Television projects

7 Return to Hollywood
Hollywood
(1956–1959)

7.1 Touch of Evil

8 Return to Europe (1959–1970)

8.1 The Trial 8.2 Chimes at Midnight

9 Later career (1970–1985) 10 Personal life

10.1 Relationships and family 10.2 Physical characteristics 10.3 Religious beliefs

11 Politics 12 Death and tributes 13 Unfinished projects

13.1 Don Quixote 13.2 The Merchant of Venice 13.3 The Other Side of the Wind 13.4 Other unfinished films and unfilmed screenplays

14 Theatre credits 15 Radio credits 16 Filmography 17 Discography 18 Awards and honors 19 Cultural references 20 See also 21 Notes 22 References 23 Further reading

23.1 Archival sources

24 External links

Early life[edit]

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at age three (1918)

Orson Welles's birthplace in Kenosha, Wisconsin
Kenosha, Wisconsin
(2013)

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
with his mother, Beatrice Ives Welles

George Orson Welles
Orson Welles
was born May 6, 1915, in Kenosha, Wisconsin, son of Richard Head Welles (b. Richard Hodgdon Wells, November 12, 1872, near St. Joseph, Missouri; d. December 28, 1930, Chicago, Illinois)[10]:26[11][a] and Beatrice Ives Welles (b. Beatrice Lucy Ives, September 1, 1883, Springfield, Illinois; d. May 10, 1924, Chicago).[11][12]:9[b] He was named after his paternal great-grandfather, influential Kenosha attorney Orson S. Head, and his brother George Head.[10]:37 An alternative story of the source of his first and middle names was told by George Ade, who met Welles's parents on a West Indies cruise toward the end of 1914. Ade was traveling with a friend, Orson Wells (no relation), and the two of them sat at the same table as Mr. and Mrs. Richard Welles. Mrs. Welles was pregnant at the time, and when they said good-by, she told them that she had enjoyed their company so much that if the child were a boy, she intended to name it for them: George Orson.[14] Welles's birth announcement and a picture of him as a young boy are among George Ade's papers at Purdue University. Despite his family's affluence, Welles encountered hardship in childhood. His parents separated and moved to Chicago
Chicago
in 1919. His father, who made a fortune as the inventor of a popular bicycle lamp,[15] became an alcoholic and stopped working. Welles's mother, a pianist, played during lectures by Dudley Crafts Watson at the Art Institute of Chicago
Chicago
to support her son and herself; the oldest Welles boy, "Dickie", was institutionalized at an early age because he had learning difficulties. Beatrice died of hepatitis in a Chicago hospital[16]:3–5 May 10, 1924, just after Welles's ninth birthday.[17]:326 The Gordon String Quartet, which had made its first appearance at her home in 1921, played at Beatrice's funeral.[18][19] After his mother's death, Welles ceased pursuing music. It was decided that he would spend the summer with the Watson family at a private art colony in Wyoming, New York, established by Lydia Avery Coonley Ward.[20]:8 There he played and became friends with the children of the Aga Khan, including the 12-year-old Prince Aly Khan. Then, in what Welles later described as "a hectic period" in his life, he lived in a Chicago
Chicago
apartment with both his father and Dr. Maurice Bernstein, a Chicago
Chicago
physician who had been a close friend of both his parents. Welles briefly attended public school[21]:133 before his alcoholic father left business altogether and took him along on his travels to Jamaica and the Far East. When they returned they settled in a hotel in Grand Detour, Illinois, that was owned by his father. When the hotel burned down, Welles and his father took to the road again.[20]:9 "During the three years that Orson lived with his father, some observers wondered who took care of whom", wrote biographer Frank Brady.[20]:9 "In some ways, he was never really a young boy, you know," said Roger Hill, who became Welles's teacher and lifelong friend.[22]:24

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
in 1926: "Cartoonist, Actor, Poet and only 10"

Welles briefly attended public school in Madison, Wisconsin, enrolled in the fourth grade.[20]:9 On September 15, 1926, he entered the Todd Seminary for Boys,[21]:3 an expensive independent school in Woodstock, Illinois, that his older brother, Richard Ives Welles, had attended ten years before but was expelled for misbehavior.[10]:48 At Todd School, Welles came under the influence of Roger Hill, a teacher who was later Todd's headmaster. Hill provided Welles with an ad hoc educational environment that proved invaluable to his creative experience, allowing Welles to concentrate on subjects that interested him. Welles performed and staged theatrical experiments and productions there.[23]

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(fourth from left) with classmates at the Todd School for Boys (1931)

"Todd provided Welles with many valuable experiences", wrote critic Richard France. "He was able to explore and experiment in an atmosphere of acceptance and encouragement. In addition to a theater the school's own radio station was at his disposal."[24]:27 Welles' first radio experience was on the Todd station, he performed an adaptation of Sherlock Holmes that was written by him.[16]:7 On December 28, 1930, when Welles was 15, his father died of heart and kidney failure at the age of 58, alone in a hotel in Chicago. Shortly before this, Welles had announced to his father that he would stop seeing him, believing it would prompt his father to refrain from drinking. As a result, Orson felt guilty because he believed his father had drunk himself to death because of him.[25] His father's will left it to Orson to name his guardian. When Roger Hill declined, Welles chose Maurice Bernstein.[26]:71–72 Following graduation from Todd in May 1931,[21]:3 Welles was awarded a scholarship to Harvard University, while his mentor Roger Hill advocated he attend Cornell College
Cornell College
in Iowa.[27] Rather than enrolling, he chose travel. He studied for a few weeks at the Art Institute of Chicago[28]:117 with Boris Anisfeld, who encouraged him to pursue painting.[20]:18 Welles would occasionally return to Woodstock, the place he eventually named when he was asked in a 1960 interview, "Where is home?" Welles replied, "I suppose it's Woodstock, Illinois, if it's anywhere. I went to school there for four years. If I try to think of a home, it's that."[29] Early career (1931–1935)[edit]

After graduating, 16-year-old Orson Welles
Orson Welles
embarked on a painting and sketching tour of Ireland
Ireland
and the Aran Islands, traveling by donkey cart (1931)

After his father's death, Welles traveled to Europe using a small portion of his inheritance. Welles said that while on a walking and painting trip through Ireland, he strode into the Gate Theatre
Gate Theatre
in Dublin
Dublin
and claimed he was a Broadway star. The manager of Gate, Hilton Edwards, later said he had not believed him but was impressed by his brashness and an impassioned audition he gave.[30]:134 Welles made his stage debut at the Gate Theatre
Gate Theatre
on October 13, 1931, appearing in Ashley Dukes's adaptation of Jew Suss as Duke Karl Alexander of Württemberg. He performed small supporting roles in subsequent Gate productions, and he produced and designed productions of his own in Dublin. In March 1932 Welles performed in W. Somerset Maugham's The Circle at Dublin's Abbey Theatre
Abbey Theatre
and travelled to London to find additional work in the theatre. Unable to obtain a work permit, he returned to the U.S.[17]:327–330 Welles found his fame ephemeral and turned to a writing project at Todd School that would become the immensely successful, first entitled Everybody's Shakespeare
Shakespeare
and subsequently, The Mercury Shakespeare. Welles traveled to North Africa while working on thousands of illustrations for the Everybody's Shakespeare
Shakespeare
series of educational books, a series that remained in print for decades.[citation needed] In 1933, Roger and Hortense Hill invited Welles to a party in Chicago, where Welles met Thornton Wilder. Wilder arranged for Welles to meet Alexander Woollcott
Alexander Woollcott
in New York, in order that he be introduced to Katharine Cornell, who was assembling a repertory theatre company. Cornell's husband, director Guthrie McClintic, immediately put Welles under contract and cast him in three plays.[20]:46–49 Romeo and Juliet, The Barretts of Wimpole Street
The Barretts of Wimpole Street
and Candida toured in repertory for 36 weeks beginning in November 1933, with the first of more than 200 performances taking place in Buffalo, New York.[17]:330–331 In 1934, Welles got his first job on radio—on The American School of the Air—through actor-director Paul Stewart, who introduced him to director Knowles Entrikin.[17]:331 That summer Welles staged a drama festival with the Todd School in Woodstock, Illinois, inviting Micheál Mac Liammóir
Micheál Mac Liammóir
and Hilton Edwards from Dublin's Gate Theatre to appear along with New York stage luminaries in productions including Trilby, Hamlet, The Drunkard
The Drunkard
and Tsar Paul. At the old firehouse in Woodstock he also shot his first film, an eight-minute short titled The Hearts of Age.[17]:330–331 On November 14, 1934, Welles married Chicago
Chicago
socialite and actress Virginia Nicolson[17]:332 (often misspelled "Nicholson")[31] in a civil ceremony in New York. To appease the Nicolsons, who were furious at the couple's elopement, a formal ceremony took place December 23, 1934, at the New Jersey mansion of the bride's godmother. Welles wore a cutaway borrowed from his friend George Macready.[26]:182

Playbill for Archibald MacLeish's Panic (March 14–15, 1935), Welles's first starring role on the U.S. stage

A revised production of Katharine Cornell's Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
opened December 20, 1934, at the Martin Beck Theatre in New York.[17]:331–332[32] The Broadway production brought the 19-year-old Welles (now playing Tybalt) to the notice of John Houseman, a theatrical producer who was casting the lead role in the debut production of Archibald MacLeish's verse play, Panic.[33]:144–158 On March 22, 1935, Welles made his debut on the CBS Radio
CBS Radio
series The March of Time, performing a scene from Panic for a news report on the stage production[20]:70–71 By 1935 Welles was supplementing his earnings in the theater as a radio actor in Manhattan, working with many actors who would later form the core of his Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on programs including America's Hour, Cavalcade of America, Columbia Workshop
Columbia Workshop
and The March of Time.[17]:331–332 "Within a year of his debut Welles could claim membership in that elite band of radio actors who commanded salaries second only to the highest paid movie stars," wrote critic Richard France.[24]:172 Theatre (1936–1938)[edit] Main article: Orson Welles
Orson Welles
theatre credits Federal Theatre Project[edit]

Macbeth
Macbeth
(1936)

Macbeth
Macbeth
opening night at the Lafayette Theatre (April 14, 1936)

Horse Eats Hat
Horse Eats Hat
(1936)

Faustus (1937)

The Cradle Will Rock
The Cradle Will Rock
(1937)

Part of the Works Progress Administration, the Federal Theatre Project (1935–39) was a New Deal
New Deal
program to fund theatre and other live artistic performances and entertainment programs in the United States during the Great Depression. It was created as a relief measure to employ artists, writers, directors and theater workers. Under national director Hallie Flanagan
Hallie Flanagan
it was shaped into a true national theatre that created relevant art, encouraged experimentation and innovation, and made it possible for millions of Americans to see live theatre for the first time.[34]

Macbeth
Macbeth
(Jack Carter, left) with the Murderers in Macbeth
Macbeth
(1936)

Houseman (left) and Welles at a rehearsal of Horse Eats Hat
Horse Eats Hat
(1936)

John Houseman, director of the Negro Theatre Unit in New York, invited Welles to join the Federal Theatre Project
Federal Theatre Project
in 1935. Far from unemployed — "I was so employed I forgot how to sleep" — Welles put a large share of his $1,500-a-week radio earnings into his stage productions, bypassing administrative red tape and mounting the projects more quickly and professionally. "Roosevelt once said that I was the only operator in history who ever illegally siphoned money into a Washington project," Welles said.[17]:11–13 The Federal Theatre Project
Federal Theatre Project
was the ideal environment in which Welles could develop his art. Its purpose was employment, so he was able to hire any number of artists, craftsmen and technicians, and he filled the stage with performers.[35]:3 The company for the first production, an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth
Macbeth
with an entirely African-American cast, numbered 150.[36] The production became known as the Voodoo Macbeth
Voodoo Macbeth
because Welles changed the setting to a mythical island suggesting the Haitian court of King Henri Christophe,[37]:179–180 with Haitian vodou fulfilling the rôle of Scottish witchcraft.[38]:86 The play opened April 14, 1936, at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem and was received rapturously. At 20, Welles was hailed as a prodigy.[39] The production then made a 4,000-mile national tour[17]:333[40] that included two weeks at the Texas Centennial Exposition
Texas Centennial Exposition
in Dallas.[41] Next mounted was the farce Horse Eats Hat, an adaptation by Welles and Edwin Denby of The Italian Straw Hat, an 1851 five-act farce by Eugène Marin Labiche
Eugène Marin Labiche
and Marc-Michel.[22]:114 The play was presented September 26 – December 5, 1936, at Maxine Elliott's Theatre, New York,[17]:334 and featured Joseph Cotten
Joseph Cotten
in his first starring role.[42]:34 It was followed by an adaptation of Dr. Faustus that used light as a prime unifying scenic element in a nearly black stage, presented January 8 – May 9, 1937, at Maxine Elliott's Theatre.[17]:335 Outside the scope of the Federal Theatre Project,[24]:100 American composer Aaron Copland
Aaron Copland
chose Welles to direct The Second Hurricane (1937), an operetta with a libretto by Edwin Denby. Presented at the Henry Street Settlement
Henry Street Settlement
Music School in New York for the benefit of high school students, the production opened April 21, 1937, and ran its scheduled three performances.[17]:337 In 1937, Welles rehearsed Marc Blitzstein's political operetta, The Cradle Will Rock.[43] It was originally scheduled to open June 16, 1937, in its first public preview. Because of severe federal cutbacks in the Works Progress projects, the show's premiere at the Maxine Elliott Theatre was canceled. The theater was locked and guarded to prevent any government-purchased materials from being used for a commercial production of the work. In a last-minute move, Welles announced to waiting ticket-holders that the show was being transferred to the Venice, 20 blocks away. Some cast, and some crew and audience, walked the distance on foot. The union musicians refused to perform in a commercial theater for lower non-union government wages. The actors' union stated that the production belonged to the Federal Theater Project and could not be performed outside that context without permission. Lacking the participation of the union members, The Cradle Will Rock
The Cradle Will Rock
began with Blitzstein introducing the show and playing the piano accompaniment on stage with some cast members performing from the audience. This impromptu performance was well received by its audience. Mercury Theatre[edit]

At age 22 Welles was Broadway's youngest impresario — producing, directing and starring in an adaptation of Julius Caesar that broke all performance records for the play (1938)

Welles as the octogenarian Captain Shotover in the Mercury Theatre production of Heartbreak House, on the cover of Time (May 9, 1938)

Main article: Mercury Theatre Breaking with the Federal Theatre Project
Federal Theatre Project
in 1937, Welles and Houseman founded their own repertory company, which they called the Mercury Theatre. The name was inspired by the title of the iconoclastic magazine, The American Mercury.[20]:119–120 Welles was executive producer, and the original company included such actors as Joseph Cotten, George Coulouris, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Arlene Francis, Martin Gabel, John Hoyt, Norman Lloyd, Vincent Price, Stefan Schnabel and Hiram Sherman. "I think he was the greatest directorial talent we've ever had in the [American] theater," Lloyd said of Welles in a 2014 interview. "When you saw a Welles production, you saw the text had been affected, the staging was remarkable, the sets were unusual, music, sound, lighting, a totality of everything. We had not had such a man in our theater. He was the first and remains the greatest."[44] The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
opened November 11, 1937, with Caesar, Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar — streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force that Joseph Cotten later described as "so vigorous, so contemporary that it set Broadway on its ear."[42]:108 The set was completely open with no curtain, and the brick stage wall was painted dark red. Scene changes were achieved by lighting alone.[45]:165 On the stage was a series of risers; squares were cut into one at intervals and lights were set beneath it, pointing straight up to evoke the "cathedral of light" at the Nuremberg Rallies. "He staged it like a political melodrama that happened the night before," said Lloyd.[44] Beginning January 1, 1938, Caesar was performed in repertory with The Shoemaker's Holiday; both productions moved to the larger National Theatre. They were followed by Heartbreak House
Heartbreak House
(April 29, 1938) and Danton's Death
Danton's Death
(November 5, 1938).[35]:344 As well as being presented in a pared-down oratorio version at the Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on Sunday nights in December 1937, The Cradle Will Rock
The Cradle Will Rock
was at the Windsor Theatre for 13 weeks (January 4–April 2, 1938).[17]:340 Such was the success of the Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
that Welles appeared on the cover of Time magazine, in full makeup as Captain Shotover in Heartbreak House, in the issue dated May 9, 1938—three days after his 23rd birthday.[46] Radio (1936–1940)[edit] Main article: Orson Welles
Orson Welles
radio credits

The Columbia Workshop
Columbia Workshop
broadcast of Archibald MacLeish's radio play The Fall of the City (April 11, 1937) made Welles an overnight star.

Simultaneously with his work in the theatre, Welles worked extensively in radio as an actor, writer, director and producer, often without credit.[35]:77 Between 1935 and 1937 he was earning as much as $2,000 a week, shuttling between radio studios at such a pace that he would arrive barely in time for a quick scan of his lines before he was on the air. While he was directing the Voodoo Macbeth
Voodoo Macbeth
Welles was dashing between Harlem and midtown Manhattan
Manhattan
three times a day to meet his radio commitments.[24]:172 In addition to continuing as a repertory player on The March of Time, in the fall of 1936 Welles adapted and performed Hamlet
Hamlet
in an early two-part episode of CBS
CBS
Radio's Columbia Workshop. His performance as the announcer in the series' April 1937 presentation of Archibald MacLeish's verse drama The Fall of the City
The Fall of the City
was an important development in his radio career[35]:78 and made the 21-year-old Welles an overnight star.[47]:46 In July 1937, the Mutual Network
Mutual Network
gave Welles a seven-week series to adapt Les Misérables. It was his first job as a writer-director for radio,[17]:338 the radio debut of the Mercury Theatre, and one of Welles's earliest and finest achievements.[48]:160 He invented the use of narration in radio.[17]:88 "By making himself the center of the storytelling process, Welles fostered the impression of self-adulation that was to haunt his career to his dying day," wrote critic Andrew Sarris. "For the most part, however, Welles was singularly generous to the other members of his cast and inspired loyalty from them above and beyond the call of professionalism."[47]:8 That September, Mutual chose Welles to play Lamont Cranston, also known as The Shadow. He performed the role anonymously through mid-September 1938.[35]:83[49] The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air[edit] Main articles: The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air, The War of the Worlds (radio drama), and The Campbell Playhouse (radio)

Welles at the press conference after "The War of the Worlds" broadcast (October 31, 1938)

After the theatrical successes of the Mercury Theatre, CBS
CBS
Radio invited Orson Welles
Orson Welles
to create a summer show for 13 weeks. The series began July 11, 1938, initially titled First Person Singular, with the formula that Welles would play the lead in each show. Some months later the show was called The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air.[47]:12 The weekly hour-long show presented radio plays based on classic literary works, with original music composed and conducted by Bernard Herrmann. The Mercury Theatre's radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
by H. G. Wells October 30, 1938, brought Welles instant fame. The combination of the news bulletin form of the performance with the between-breaks dial spinning habits of listeners was later reported to have created widespread confusion among listeners who failed to hear the introduction, although the extent of this confusion has come into question.[3][50][51][52] Panic was reportedly spread among listeners who believed the fictional news reports of a Martian invasion. The myth of the result created by the combination was reported as fact around the world and disparagingly mentioned by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in a public speech.[53]

The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air became The Campbell Playhouse in December 1938

Welles's growing fame drew Hollywood
Hollywood
offers, lures that the independent-minded Welles resisted at first. The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air, which had been a sustaining show (without sponsorship) was picked up by Campbell Soup and renamed The Campbell Playhouse.[54] The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air made its last broadcast on December 4, 1938, and The Campbell Playhouse began five days later. Welles began commuting from California
California
to New York for the two Sunday broadcasts of The Campbell Playhouse after signing a film contract with RKO Pictures
RKO Pictures
in August 1939. In November 1939, production of the show moved from New York to Los Angeles.[17]:353 After 20 shows, Campbell began to exercise more creative control and had complete control over story selection. As his contract with Campbell came to an end, Welles chose not to sign on for another season. After the broadcast of March 31, 1940, Welles and Campbell parted amicably.[20]:221–226 Hollywood
Hollywood
(1939–1948)[edit] RKO Radio Pictures
RKO Radio Pictures
president George Schaefer eventually offered Welles what generally is considered the greatest contract offered to a filmmaker, much less to one who was untried. Engaging him to write, produce, direct and perform in two motion pictures, the contract subordinated the studio's financial interests to Welles's creative control, and broke all precedent by granting Welles the right of final cut.[55]:1–2 After signing a summary agreement with RKO on July 22, Welles signed a full-length 63-page contract August 21, 1939.[17]:353 The agreement was bitterly resented by the Hollywood
Hollywood
studios and persistently mocked in the trade press.[55]:2 Citizen Kane[edit]

Welles in Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941)

Canada Lee
Canada Lee
as Bigger Thomas in Native Son
Native Son
(1941)

Main article: Citizen Kane RKO rejected Welles's first two movie proposals, but agreed on the third offer—Citizen Kane. Welles co-wrote, produced and directed the film, and performed the lead role.[56] Welles conceived the project with screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz, who was writing radio plays for The Campbell Playhouse.[55]:16 Mankiewicz based the original outline on the life of William Randolph Hearst, whom he knew socially and came to hate after being exiled from Hearst's circle.[57]:231 After agreeing on the storyline and character, Welles supplied Mankiewicz with 300 pages of notes and put him under contract to write the first draft screenplay under the supervision of John Houseman. Welles wrote his own draft,[17]:54 then drastically condensed and rearranged both versions and added scenes of his own. The industry accused Welles of underplaying Mankiewicz's contribution to the script, but Welles countered the attacks by saying, "At the end, naturally, I was the one making the picture, after all—who had to make the decisions. I used what I wanted of Mank's and, rightly or wrongly, kept what I liked of my own."[17]:54 Welles's project attracted some of Hollywood's best technicians, including cinematographer Gregg Toland.[56] For the cast, Welles primarily used actors from his Mercury Theatre. Filming Citizen Kane took ten weeks.[56] Hearst's newspapers barred all reference to Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
and exerted enormous pressure on the Hollywood
Hollywood
film community to force RKO to shelve the film.[55]:111 RKO chief George Schaefer received a cash offer from MGM's Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
and other major studio executives if he would destroy the negative and existing prints of the film.[55]:112 While waiting for Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
to be released, Welles produced and directed the original Broadway production of Native Son, a drama written by Paul Green and Richard Wright based on Wright's novel. Starring Canada Lee, the show ran March 24 – June 28, 1941, at the St. James Theatre. The Mercury Production was the last time Welles and Houseman worked together.[35]:12 Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
was given a limited release and the film received overwhelming critical praise. It was voted the best picture of 1941 by the National Board of Review
National Board of Review
and the New York Film Critics Circle. The film garnered nine Academy Award
Academy Award
nominations but won only for Best Original Screenplay, shared by Mankiewicz and Welles. Variety reported that block voting by screen extras deprived Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
of Oscars for Best Picture and Best Actor (Welles), and similar prejudices were likely to have been responsible for the film receiving no technical awards.[55]:117 The delay in the film's release and uneven distribution contributed to mediocre results at the box office. After it ran its course theatrically, Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
was retired to the vault in 1942. In postwar France, however, the film's reputation grew after it was seen for the first time in 1946.[55]:117–118 In the United States, it began to be re-evaluated after it began to appear on television in 1956. That year it was also re-released theatrically,[55]:119 and film critic Andrew Sarris described it as "the great American film" and "the work that influenced the cinema more profoundly than any American film since Birth of a Nation."[58] Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
is now hailed as one of the greatest films ever made.[59] The Magnificent Ambersons[edit]

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at work on The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
(1942)

Main article: The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
(film) Welles's second film for RKO was The Magnificent Ambersons, adapted by Welles from the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Booth Tarkington. Toland was not available, so Stanley Cortez was named cinematographer. The meticulous Cortez worked slowly and the film lagged behind schedule and over budget. Prior to production, Welles's contract was renegotiated, revoking his right to control the final cut.[60] The Magnificent Ambersons was in production October 28, 1941 – January 22, 1942.[61] Throughout the shooting of the film Welles was also producing a weekly half-hour radio series, The Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Show. Many of the Ambersons cast participated in the CBS Radio
CBS Radio
series, which ran September 15, 1941 – February 2, 1942.[62]:525 Journey into Fear[edit] Main article: Journey into Fear (1943 film) At RKO's request, Welles worked on an adaptation of Eric Ambler's spy thriller, Journey into Fear, co-written with Joseph Cotten. In addition to acting in the film, Welles was the producer. Direction was credited to Norman Foster. Welles later said that they were in such a rush that the director of each scene was determined by whoever was closest to the camera.[17]:165 Journey into Fear was in production January 6–March 12, 1942.[63] War work[edit] Goodwill ambassador[edit]

Delia Garcés
Delia Garcés
and Welles at an Argentine Film Critics Association awards reception for Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(April 1942)

In late November 1941, Welles was appointed as a goodwill ambassador to Latin America
Latin America
by Nelson Rockefeller, U.S. Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs and a principal stockholder in RKO Radio Pictures.[64]:244 The mission of the OCIAA was cultural diplomacy, promoting hemispheric solidarity and countering the growing influence of the Axis powers in Latin America.[64]:10–11 John Hay Whitney, head of the agency's Motion Picture Division, was asked by the Brazilian government to produce a documentary of the annual Rio Carnival celebration taking place in early February 1942.[64]:40–41 In a telegram December 20, 1941, Whitney wrote Welles, "Personally believe you would make great contribution to hemisphere solidarity with this project."[65]:65 The OCIAA sponsored cultural tours to Latin America
Latin America
and appointed goodwill ambassadors including George Balanchine
George Balanchine
and the American Ballet, Bing Crosby, Aaron Copland, Walt Disney, John Ford
John Ford
and Rita Hayworth. Welles was thoroughly briefed in Washington, D.C., immediately before his departure for Brazil, and film scholar Catherine L. Benamou, a specialist in Latin American affairs, finds it "not unlikely" that he was among the goodwill ambassadors who were asked to gather intelligence for the U.S. government in addition to their cultural duties. She concludes that Welles's acceptance of Whitney's request was "a logical and patently patriotic choice".[64]:245–247 In addition to working on his ill-fated film project, It's All True, Welles was responsible for radio programs, lectures, interviews and informal talks as part of his OCIAA-sponsored cultural mission, which was regarded as a success.[66]:192 He spoke on topics ranging from Shakespeare
Shakespeare
to visual art at gatherings of Brazil's elite, and his two intercontinental radio broadcasts in April 1942 were particularly intended to tell U.S. audiences that President Vargas was a partner with the Allies. Welles's ambassadorial mission was extended to permit his travel to other nations including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay.[64]:247–249, 328 Welles worked for more than half a year with no compensation.[64]:41, 328[66]:189 Welles's own expectations for the film were modest. " It's All True was not going to make any cinematic history, nor was it intended to," he later said. "It was intended to be a perfectly honorable execution of my job as a goodwill ambassador, bringing entertainment to the Northern Hemisphere that showed them something about the Southern one."[22]:253 It's All True[edit] Main article: It's All True (film) In July 1941, Welles conceived It's All True as an omnibus film mixing documentary and docufiction[22]:221[64]:27 in a project that emphasized the dignity of labor and celebrated the cultural and ethnic diversity of North America. It was to have been his third film for RKO, following Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941) and The Magnificent Ambersons (1942).[67]:109 Duke Ellington
Duke Ellington
was put under contract to score a segment with the working title, "The Story of Jazz", drawn from Louis Armstrong's 1936 autobiography, Swing That Music.[68]:232–233 Armstrong was cast to play himself in the brief dramatization of the history of jazz performance, from its roots to its place in American culture in the 1940s.[67]:109 "The Story of Jazz" was to go into production in December 1941.[64]:119–120 Mercury Productions purchased the stories for two other segments—"My Friend Bonito" and "The Captain's Chair"—from documentary filmmaker Robert J. Flaherty.[64]:33, 326 Adapted by Norman Foster and John Fante, "My Friend Bonito" was the only segment of the original It's All True to go into production.[67]:109 Filming took place in Mexico September–December 1941, with Norman Foster directing under Welles's supervision.[64]:311 In December 1941, the Office of the Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs asked Welles to make a film in Brazil that would showcase the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro.[65]:65 With filming of "My Friend Bonito" about two-thirds complete, Welles decided he could shift the geography of It's All True and incorporate Flaherty's story into an omnibus film about Latin America—supporting the Roosevelt administration's Good Neighbor policy, which Welles strongly advocated.[64]:41, 246 In this revised concept, "The Story of Jazz" was replaced by the story of samba, a musical form with a comparable history and one that came to fascinate Welles. He also decided to do a ripped-from-the-headlines episode about the epic voyage of four poor Brazilian fishermen, the jangadeiros, who had become national heroes. Welles later said this was the most valuable story.[17]:158–159[35]:15 Required to film the Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro in early February 1942, Welles rushed to edit The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
and finish his acting scenes in Journey into Fear. He ended his lucrative CBS
CBS
radio show[66]:189 February 2, flew to Washington, D.C., for a briefing, and then lashed together a rough cut of Ambersons in Miami with editor Robert Wise.[17]:369–370 Welles recorded the film's narration the night before he left for South America: "I went to the projection room at about four in the morning, did the whole thing, and then got on the plane and off to Rio—and the end of civilization as we know it."[17]:115 Welles left for Brazil on February 4 and began filming in Rio February 8, 1942.[17]:369–370 At the time it did not seem that Welles's other film projects would be disrupted, but as film historian Catherine L. Benamou wrote, "the ambassadorial appointment would be the first in a series of turning points leading—in 'zigs' and 'zags,' rather than in a straight line—to Welles's loss of complete directorial control over both The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
and It's All True, the cancellation of his contract at RKO Radio Studio, the expulsion of his company Mercury Productions from the RKO lot, and, ultimately, the total suspension of It's All True.[64]:46 In 1942 RKO Pictures
RKO Pictures
underwent major changes under new management. Nelson Rockefeller, the primary backer of the Brazil project, left its board of directors, and Welles's principal sponsor at RKO, studio president George Schaefer, resigned. RKO took control of Ambersons and edited the film into what the studio considered a commercial format. Welles's attempts to protect his version ultimately failed.[61][69] In South America, Welles requested resources to finish It's All True. Given a limited amount of black-and-white film stock and a silent camera, he was able to finish shooting the episode about the jangadeiros, but RKO refused to support further production on the film. "So I was fired from RKO," Welles later recalled. "And they made a great publicity point of the fact that I had gone to South America without a script and thrown all this money away. I never recovered from that attack."[70]:188 Later in 1942, when RKO Pictures
RKO Pictures
began promoting its new corporate motto, "Showmanship In Place of Genius: A New Deal
New Deal
at RKO",[65]:29 Welles understood it as a reference to him.[70]:188 Radio (1942–43)[edit]

Welles performs a card trick for Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
before the War Bond drive broadcast I Pledge America (August 1942).

Welles and Col. Arthur I. Ennis, head of the public relations branch of the Army Air Forces, discuss plans for the CBS Radio
CBS Radio
series Ceiling Unlimited (October 1942).

Welles leaves his Army physical after being judged unfit for military service (May 6, 1943).

"Hello, suckers!" Orson the Magnificent welcomes the audience to The Mercury Wonder Show (August 1943).

Welles returned to the United States August 22, 1942, after more than six months in South America.[17]:372 A week after his return[71][72] he produced and emceed the first two hours of a seven-hour coast-to-coast War Bond drive broadcast titled I Pledge America. Airing August 29, 1942, on the Blue Network, the program was presented in cooperation with the United States Department of the Treasury, Western Union
Western Union
(which wired bond subscriptions free of charge) and the American Women's Voluntary Services. Featuring 21 dance bands and a score of stage and screen and radio stars, the broadcast raised more than $10 million—more than $146 million today[73]—for the war effort.[74][75][76][77][78][79] On October 12, 1942, Cavalcade of America
Cavalcade of America
presented Welles's radio play, Admiral of the Ocean Sea, an entertaining and factual look at the legend of Christopher Columbus. "It belongs to a period when hemispheric unity was a crucial matter and many programs were being devoted to the common heritage of the Americas," wrote broadcasting historian Erik Barnouw. "Many such programs were being translated into Spanish and Portuguese and broadcast to Latin America, to counteract many years of successful Axis propaganda to that area. The Axis, trying to stir Latin America against Anglo-America, had constantly emphasized the differences between the two. It became the job of American radio to emphasize their common experience and essential unity."[80]:3 Admiral of the Ocean Sea, also known as Columbus Day, begins with the words, "Hello Americans"—the title Welles would choose for his own series five weeks later.[17]:373 Hello Americans, a CBS Radio
CBS Radio
series broadcast November 15, 1942 – January 31, 1943, was produced, directed and hosted by Welles under the auspices of the Office of the Coordinator for Inter-American Affairs. The 30-minute weekly program promoted inter-American understanding and friendship, drawing upon the research amassed for the ill-fated film, It's All True.[81] The series was produced concurrently with Welles's other CBS
CBS
series, Ceiling Unlimited (November 9, 1942 – February 1, 1943), sponsored by the Lockheed-Vega Corporation. The program was conceived to glorify the aviation industry and dramatize its role in World War II. Welles's shows were regarded as significant contributions to the war effort.[47]:64 Throughout the war Welles worked on patriotic radio programs including Command Performance, G.I. Journal, Mail Call, Nazi Eyes on Canada, Stage Door Canteen and Treasury Star Parade. The Mercury Wonder Show[edit] Main article: The Mercury Wonder Show In early 1943, the two concurrent radio series (Ceiling Unlimited, Hello Americans) that Orson Welles
Orson Welles
created for CBS
CBS
to support the war effort had ended. Filming also had wrapped on the 1943 film adaptation of Jane Eyre and that fee, in addition to the income from his regular guest-star roles in radio, made it possible for Welles to fulfill a lifelong dream. He approached the War Assistance League of Southern California
California
and proposed a show that evolved into a big-top spectacle, part circus and part magic show. He offered his services as magician and director,[82]:40 and invested some $40,000 of his own money in an extravaganza he co-produced with his friend Joseph Cotten: The Mercury Wonder Show for Service Men. Members of the U.S. armed forces were admitted free of charge, while the general public had to pay.[83]:26 The show entertained more than 1,000 service members each night, and proceeds went to the War Assistance League, a charity for military service personnel.[84] The development of the show coincided with the resolution of Welles's oft-changing draft status in May 1943, when he was finally declared 4-F—unfit for military service—for a variety of medical reasons. "I felt guilty about the war," Welles told biographer Barbara Leaming. "I was guilt-ridden about my civilian status."[85]:86 He had been publicly hounded about his patriotism since Citizen Kane, when the Hearst press began persistent inquiries about why Welles had not been drafted.[65]:66–67[86][87] The Mercury Wonder Show
The Mercury Wonder Show
ran August 3 – September 9, 1943, in an 80-by-120-foot tent[84] located at 9000 Cahuenga Boulevard, in the heart of Hollywood.[17]:377[83]:26 At intermission September 7, 1943, KMPC radio interviewed audience and cast members of The Mercury Wonder Show—including Welles and Rita Hayworth, who were married earlier that day. Welles remarked that The Mercury Wonder Show had been performed for approximately 48,000 members of the U.S. armed forces.[17]:378[35]:129 Radio (1944–45)[edit]

Welles led the Treasury Department's campaign urging Americans to buy $16 billion in War Bonds to finance the Normandy landings
Normandy landings
(June 12 – July 8, 1944).

Welles introduced Vice President Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
at a Madison Square Garden rally advocating a fourth term for President Franklin D. Roosevelt (September 21, 1944).[17]:385

The idea of doing a radio variety show occurred to Welles after his success as substitute host of four consecutive episodes (March 14 – April 4, 1943) of The Jack Benny
Jack Benny
Program, radio's most popular show, when Benny contracted pneumonia on a performance tour of military bases.[20]:368[88] A half-hour variety show broadcast January 26 – July 19, 1944, on the Columbia Pacific Network, The Orson Welles Almanac presented sketch comedy, magic, mindreading, music and readings from classic works. Many of the shows originated on U.S. military camps, where Welles and his repertory company and guests entertained the troops with a reduced version of The Mercury Wonder Show.[47]:64[89][90] The performances of the all-star jazz group Welles brought together for the show were so popular that the band became a regular feature and was an important force in reviving interest in traditional New Orleans jazz.[91]:85 Welles was placed on the U.S. Treasury payroll on May 15, 1944, as an expert consultant for the duration of the war, with a retainer of $1 a year.[92] On the recommendation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau asked Welles to lead the Fifth War Loan Drive, which opened June 12 with a one-hour radio show on all four networks, broadcast from Texarkana, Texas. Including a statement by the President,[93] the program defined the causes of the war and encouraged Americans to buy $16 billion in bonds to finance the Normandy landings
Normandy landings
and the most violent phase of World War II. Welles produced additional war loan drive broadcasts on June 14 from the Hollywood
Hollywood
Bowl, and June 16 from Soldier Field, Chicago.[20]:371–373 Americans purchased $20.6 billion in War Bonds during the Fifth War Loan Drive, which ended on July 8, 1944.[94] Welles campaigned ardently for Roosevelt in 1944. A longtime supporter and campaign speaker for FDR, he occasionally sent the president ideas and phrases that were sometimes incorporated into what Welles characterized as "less important speeches".[20]:372, 374 One of these ideas was the joke in what came to be called the Fala speech, Roosevelt's nationally broadcast September 23 address to the International Teamsters
Teamsters
Union which opened the 1944 presidential campaign.[22]:292–293[95] Welles campaigned for the Roosevelt–Truman ticket almost full-time in the fall of 1944, traveling to nearly every state[20]:373–374 to the detriment of his own health[22]:293–294 and at his own expense.[10]:219 In addition to his radio addresses he filled in for Roosevelt, opposite Republican presidential nominee Thomas E. Dewey, at The New York Herald Tribune Forum broadcast October 18 on the Blue Network.[17]:386[22]:292 Welles accompanied FDR to his last campaign rally, speaking at an event November 4 at Boston's Fenway Park
Fenway Park
before 40,000 people,[22]:294[96] and took part in a historic election-eve campaign broadcast November 6 on all four radio networks.[17]:387[62]:166–167 On November 21, 1944, Welles began his association with This Is My Best, a CBS
CBS
radio series he would briefly produce, direct, write and host (March 13 – April 24, 1945).[97][98] He wrote a political column called Orson Welles' Almanac (later titled Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Today) for The New York Post
New York Post
January–November 1945, and advocated the continuation of FDR's New Deal
New Deal
policies and his international vision, particularly the establishment of the United Nations and the cause of world peace.[65]:84 On April 12, 1945, the day Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
died, the Blue-ABC network marshalled its entire executive staff and national leaders to pay homage to the late president. "Among the outstanding programs which attracted wide attention was a special tribute delivered by Orson Welles", reported Broadcasting magazine.[99] Welles spoke at 10:10 p.m Eastern War Time, from Hollywood, and stressed the importance of continuing FDR's work: "He has no need for homage and we who loved him have no time for tears … Our fighting sons and brothers cannot pause tonight to mark the death of him whose name will be given to the age we live in."[100] Welles presented another special broadcast on the death of Roosevelt the following evening: "We must move on beyond mere death to that free world which was the hope and labor of his life."[17]:390[48]:242 He dedicated the April 17 episode of This Is My Best to Roosevelt and the future of America on the eve of the United Nations Conference on International Organization.[17]:390[97][98] Welles was an advisor and correspondent for the Blue-ABC radio network's coverage of the San Francisco conference that formed the UN, taking place April 24 – June 23, 1945. He presented a half-hour dramatic program written by Ben Hecht
Ben Hecht
on the opening day of the conference, and on Sunday afternoons (April 29 – June 10) he led a weekly discussion from the San Francisco Civic Auditorium.[101][102] The Stranger[edit] Main article: The Stranger (1946 film)

Director and star Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at work on The Stranger (October 1945)

In the fall of 1945 Welles began work on The Stranger (1946), a film noir drama about a war crimes investigator who tracks a high-ranking Nazi fugitive to an idyllic New England
New England
town. Edward G. Robinson, Loretta Young
Loretta Young
and Welles star.[103] Producer Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
initially planned to hire director John Huston, who had rewritten the screenplay by Anthony Veiller. When Huston entered the military, Welles was given the chance to direct and prove himself able to make a film on schedule and under budget[35]:19—something he was so eager to do that he accepted a disadvantageous contract. One of its concessions was that he would defer to the studio in any creative dispute.[20]:379[22]:309–310 The Stranger was Welles's first job as a film director in four years.[17]:391 He was told that if the film was successful he could sign a four-picture deal with International Pictures, making films of his own choosing.[20]:379 Welles was given some degree of creative control,[35]:19 and he endeavored to personalize the film and develop a nightmarish tone.[104]:2:30 He worked on the general rewrite of the script and wrote scenes at the beginning of the picture that were shot but subsequently cut by the producers.[17]:186 He filmed in long takes that largely thwarted the control given to editor Ernest J. Nims under the terms of the contract.[104]:15:45 The Stranger was the first commercial film to use documentary footage from the Nazi concentration camps.[17]:189[105] Welles had seen the footage in early May 1945[104]:102:03 in San Francisco,[106]:56 as a correspondent and discussion moderator at the UN Conference on International Organization.[22]:304 He wrote of the Holocaust footage in his syndicated New York Post
New York Post
column May 7, 1945.[106]:56–57 Completed a day ahead of schedule and under budget,[20]:379–380 The Stranger was the only film made by Welles to have been a bona fide box office success upon its release. Its cost was $1.034 million; 15 months after its release it had grossed $3.216 million.[107] Within weeks of the completion of the film, International Pictures backed out of its promised four-picture deal with Welles. No reason was given, but the impression was left that The Stranger would not make money.[20]:381 Around the World[edit] Main article: Around the World (musical) In the summer of 1946, Welles moved to New York to direct the Broadway musical Around the World, a stage adaptation of the Jules Verne
Jules Verne
novel Around the World in Eighty Days
Around the World in Eighty Days
with a book by Welles and music by Cole Porter. Producer Mike Todd, who would later produce the successful 1956 film adaptation, pulled out from the lavish and expensive production, leaving Welles to support the finances. When Welles ran out of money he convinced Columbia Pictures
Columbia Pictures
president Harry Cohn to send enough money to continue the show, and in exchange Welles promised to write, produce, direct and star in a film for Cohn for no further fee. The stage show soon failed due to poor box-office, with Welles unable to claim the losses on his taxes.[citation needed] Radio (1946)[edit] In 1946, Welles began two new radio series—The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air for CBS, and Orson Welles Commentaries
Orson Welles Commentaries
for ABC. While Mercury Summer Theatre featured half-hour adaptations of some classic Mercury radio shows from the 1930s, the first episode was a condensation of his Around the World stage play, and is the only record of Cole Porter's music for the project. Several original Mercury actors returned for the series, as well as Bernard Herrmann. Welles invested his earnings into his failing stage play. Commentaries was a political vehicle for him, continuing the themes from his New York Post column. Again, Welles lacked a clear focus, until the NAACP brought to his attention the case of Isaac Woodard. Welles brought significant attention to Woodard's cause.[citation needed] The last broadcast of Orson Welles Commentaries
Orson Welles Commentaries
on October 6, 1946, marked the end of Welles's own radio shows.[17]:401 The Lady from Shanghai[edit] Main article: The Lady from Shanghai The film that Welles was obliged to make in exchange for Harry Cohn's help in financing the stage production Around the World was The Lady from Shanghai, filmed in 1947 for Columbia Pictures. Intended as a modest thriller, the budget skyrocketed after Cohn suggested that Welles's then-estranged second wife Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
co-star.

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
in The Lady from Shanghai
The Lady from Shanghai
(1947)

Cohn disliked Welles's rough cut, particularly the confusing plot and lack of close-ups, and was not in sympathy with Welles's Brechtian
Brechtian
use of irony and black comedy, especially in a farcical courtroom scene. Cohn ordered extensive editing and re-shoots. After heavy editing by the studio, approximately one hour of Welles's first cut was removed, including much of a climactic confrontation scene in an amusement park funhouse. While expressing displeasure at the cuts, Welles was appalled particularly with the musical score. The film was considered a disaster in America at the time of release, though the closing shootout in a hall of mirrors has since become a touchstone of film noir. Not long after release, Welles and Hayworth finalized their divorce. Although The Lady From Shanghai
The Lady From Shanghai
was acclaimed in Europe, it was not embraced in the U.S. until decades later, where it is now often regarded as a classic of film noir.[108] A similar difference in reception on opposite sides of the Atlantic followed by greater American acceptance befell the Welles-inspired Chaplin film Monsieur Verdoux, originally to be directed by Welles starring Chaplin, then directed by Chaplin with the idea credited to Welles. Macbeth[edit] Main article: Macbeth
Macbeth
(1948 film) Prior to 1948, Welles convinced Republic Pictures
Republic Pictures
to let him direct a low-budget version of Macbeth, which featured highly stylized sets and costumes, and a cast of actors lip-syncing to a pre-recorded soundtrack, one of many innovative cost-cutting techniques Welles deployed in an attempt to make an epic film from B-movie
B-movie
resources. The script, adapted by Welles, is a violent reworking of Shakespeare's original, freely cutting and pasting lines into new contexts via a collage technique and recasting Macbeth
Macbeth
as a clash of pagan and proto- Christian
Christian
ideologies. Some voodoo trappings of the famous Welles/Houseman Negro Theatre stage adaptation are visible, especially in the film's characterization of the Weird Sisters, who create an effigy of Macbeth
Macbeth
as a charm to enchant him. Of all Welles's post-Kane Hollywood
Hollywood
productions, Macbeth
Macbeth
is stylistically closest to Citizen Kane in its long takes and deep focus photography. Republic initially trumpeted the film as an important work but decided it did not care for the Scottish accents and held up general release for almost a year after early negative press reaction, including Life's comment that Welles's film "doth foully slaughter Shakespeare."[109] Welles left for Europe, while co-producer and lifelong supporter Richard Wilson reworked the soundtrack. Welles returned and cut 20 minutes from the film at Republic's request and recorded narration to cover some gaps. The film was decried as a disaster. Macbeth
Macbeth
had influential fans in Europe, especially the French poet and filmmaker Jean Cocteau, who hailed the film's "crude, irreverent power" and careful shot design, and described the characters as haunting "the corridors of some dreamlike subway, an abandoned coal mine, and ruined cellars oozing with water."[110] Europe (1948–1956)[edit]

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In Italy he starred as Cagliostro
Cagliostro
in the 1948 film Black Magic. His co-star, Akim Tamiroff, impressed Welles so much that Tamiroff would appear in four of Welles's productions during the 1950s and 1960s. The following year, Welles starred as Harry Lime
Harry Lime
in Carol Reed's The Third Man, alongside Joseph Cotten, his friend and co-star from Citizen Kane, with a script by Graham Greene
Graham Greene
and a memorable score by Anton Karas. A few years later, British radio producer Harry Alan Towers
Harry Alan Towers
would resurrect the Lime character in the radio series The Adventures of Harry Lime. Welles appeared as Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
in the 1949 Italian film Prince of Foxes, with Tyrone Power
Tyrone Power
and Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
alumnus Everett Sloane, and as the Mongol warrior Bayan in the 1950 film version of the novel The Black Rose
The Black Rose
(again with Tyrone Power). [111] Othello[edit] Main article: Othello
Othello
(1951 film) During this time, Welles was channeling his money from acting jobs into a self-financed film version of Shakespeare's play Othello. From 1949 to 1951, Welles worked on Othello, filming on location in Europe and Morocco. The film featured Welles's friends, Micheál Mac Liammóir as Iago
Iago
and Hilton Edwards as Desdemona's father Brabantio. Suzanne Cloutier
Suzanne Cloutier
starred as Desdemona and Campbell Playhouse alumnus Robert Coote
Robert Coote
appeared as Iago's associate Roderigo. Filming was suspended several times as Welles ran out of funds and left for acting jobs, accounted in detail in MacLiammóir's published memoir Put Money in Thy Purse. The American release prints had a technically flawed soundtrack, suffering from a drop-out of sound at every quiet moment. Welles's daughter, Beatrice Welles-Smith, restored Othello
Othello
in 1992 for a wide re-release. The restoration included reconstructing Angelo Francesco Lavagnino's original musical score, which was originally inaudible, and adding ambient stereo sound effects, which were not in the original film. The restoration went on to a successful theatrical run in America. In 1952, Welles continued finding work in England after the success of the Harry Lime
Harry Lime
radio show. Harry Alan Towers
Harry Alan Towers
offered Welles another series, The Black Museum, which ran for 52 weeks with Welles as host and narrator. Director Herbert Wilcox
Herbert Wilcox
offered Welles the part of the murdered victim in Trent's Last Case, based on the novel by E. C. Bentley. In 1953, the BBC
BBC
hired Welles to read an hour of selections from Walt Whitman's epic poem Song of Myself. Towers hired Welles again, to play Professor Moriarty
Professor Moriarty
in the radio series, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, starring John Gielgud
John Gielgud
and Ralph Richardson. Welles briefly returned to America to make his first appearance on television, starring in the Omnibus presentation of King Lear, broadcast live on CBS
CBS
October 18, 1953. Directed by Peter Brook, the production costarred Natasha Parry, Beatrice Straight and Arnold Moss.[112] In 1954, director George More O'Ferrall offered Welles the title role in the 'Lord Mountdrago' segment of Three Cases of Murder, co-starring Alan Badel. Herbert Wilcox
Herbert Wilcox
cast Welles as the antagonist in Trouble in the Glen opposite Margaret Lockwood, Forrest Tucker
Forrest Tucker
and Victor McLaglen. Old friend John Huston
John Huston
cast him as Father Mapple in his 1956 film adaptation of Herman Melville's Moby-Dick, starring Gregory Peck. Mr. Arkadin[edit] Main article: Mr. Arkadin

Welles in Madrid during the filming of Mr. Arkadin
Mr. Arkadin
in 1954

Welles's next turn as director was the film Mr. Arkadin
Mr. Arkadin
(1955), which was produced by his political mentor from the 1940s, Louis Dolivet. It was filmed in France, Germany, Spain and Italy on a very limited budget. Based loosely on several episodes of the Harry Lime
Harry Lime
radio show, it stars Welles as a billionaire who hires a man to delve into the secrets of his past. The film stars Robert Arden, who had worked on the Harry Lime
Harry Lime
series; Welles's third wife, Paola Mori, whose voice was dubbed by actress Billie Whitelaw; and guest stars Akim Tamiroff, Michael Redgrave, Katina Paxinou
Katina Paxinou
and Mischa Auer. Frustrated by his slow progress in the editing room, producer Dolivet removed Welles from the project and finished the film without him. Eventually five different versions of the film would be released, two in Spanish and three in English. The version that Dolivet completed was retitled Confidential Report. In 2005 Stefan Droessler of the Munich Film Museum oversaw a reconstruction of the surviving film elements. Television projects[edit] In 1955, Welles also directed two television series for the BBC. The first was Orson Welles' Sketch Book, a series of six 15-minute shows featuring Welles drawing in a sketchbook to illustrate his reminiscences for the camera (including such topics as the filming of It's All True and the Isaac Woodard case), and the second was Around the World with Orson Welles, a series of six travelogues set in different locations around Europe (such as Venice, the Basque Country between France and Spain, and England). Welles served as host and interviewer, his commentary including documentary facts and his own personal observations (a technique he would continue to explore in later works). In 1956, Welles completed Portrait of Gina. The film cans would remain in a lost-and-found locker at the hotel for several decades, where they were discovered after Welles's death. Return to Hollywood
Hollywood
(1956–1959)[edit]

Welles the magician with Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
in I Love Lucy
I Love Lucy
(October 15, 1956)

In 1956, Welles returned to Hollywood.[citation needed] He began filming a projected pilot for Desilu, owned by Lucille Ball and her husband Desi Arnaz, who had recently purchased the former RKO studios. The film was The Fountain of Youth, based on a story by John Collier. Originally deemed not viable as a pilot, the film was not aired until 1958—and won the Peabody Award
Peabody Award
for excellence. Welles guest starred on television shows including I Love Lucy.[113] On radio, he was narrator of Tomorrow (October 17, 1956), a nuclear holocaust drama produced and syndicated by ABC and the Federal Civil Defense Administration.[114][115] Welles's next feature film role was in Man in the Shadow for Universal Pictures in 1957, starring Jeff Chandler. Touch of Evil[edit] Main article: Touch of Evil

Welles as corrupt police captain Hank Quinlan in Touch of Evil
Touch of Evil
(1958)

Welles stayed on at Universal to direct (and co-star with) Charlton Heston in the 1958 film Touch of Evil, based on Whit Masterson's novel Badge of Evil. Originally only hired as an actor, Welles was promoted to director by Universal Studios
Universal Studios
at the insistence of Charlton Heston.[116]:154 The film reunited many actors and technicians with whom Welles had worked in Hollywood
Hollywood
in the 1940s, including cameraman Russell Metty
Russell Metty
(The Stranger), makeup artist Maurice Seiderman (Citizen Kane), and actors Joseph Cotten, Marlene Dietrich
Marlene Dietrich
and Akim Tamiroff. Filming proceeded smoothly, with Welles finishing on schedule and on budget, and the studio bosses praising the daily rushes. Nevertheless, after the end of production, the studio re-edited the film, re-shot scenes, and shot new exposition scenes to clarify the plot.[116]:175–176 Welles wrote a 58-page memo outlining suggestions and objections, stating that the film was no longer his version—it was the studio's, but as such, he was still prepared to help with it.[116]:175–176 In 1978, a longer preview version of the film was discovered and released. As Universal reworked Touch of Evil, Welles began filming his adaptation of Miguel de Cervantes' novel Don Quixote
Don Quixote
in Mexico, starring Mischa Auer
Mischa Auer
as Quixote and Akim Tamiroff
Akim Tamiroff
as Sancho Panza. Return to Europe (1959–1970)[edit]

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Welles in Crack in the Mirror
Crack in the Mirror
(1960)

He continued shooting Don Quixote
Don Quixote
in Spain and Italy, but replaced Mischa Auer
Mischa Auer
with Francisco Reiguera, and resumed acting jobs. In Italy in 1959, Welles directed his own scenes as King Saul
King Saul
in Richard Pottier's film David and Goliath. In Hong Kong he co-starred with Curt Jürgens in Lewis Gilbert's film Ferry to Hong Kong. In 1960, in Paris he co-starred in Richard Fleischer's film Crack in the Mirror. In Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
he starred in Richard Thorpe's film The Tartars and Veljko Bulajić's Battle of Neretva. Throughout the 1960s, filming continued on Quixote on-and-off until the end of the decade, as Welles evolved the concept, tone and ending several times. Although he had a complete version of the film shot and edited at least once, he would continue toying with the editing well into the 1980s, he never completed a version film he was fully satisfied with, and would junk existing footage and shoot new footage. (In one case, he had a complete cut ready in which Quixote and Sancho Panza end up going to the moon, but he felt the ending was rendered obsolete by the 1969 moon landings, and burned 10 reels of this version.) As the process went on, Welles gradually voiced all of the characters himself and provided narration. In 1992, the director Jesús Franco
Jesús Franco
constructed a film out of the portions of Quixote left behind by Welles. Some of the film stock had decayed badly. While the Welles footage was greeted with interest, the post-production by Franco was met with harsh criticism.

Welles being interviewed in 1960

In 1961, Welles directed In the Land of Don Quixote, a series of eight half-hour episodes for the Italian television network RAI. Similar to the Around the World with Orson Welles
Around the World with Orson Welles
series, they presented travelogues of Spain and included Welles's wife, Paola, and their daughter, Beatrice. Though Welles was fluent in Italian, the network was not interested in him providing Italian narration because of his accent, and the series sat unreleased until 1964, by which time the network had added Italian narration of its own. Ultimately, versions of the episodes were released with the original musical score Welles had approved, but without the narration. The Trial[edit] Main article: The Trial
The Trial
(1962 film) In 1962, Welles directed his adaptation of The Trial, based on the novel by Franz Kafka
Franz Kafka
and produced by Michael and Alexander Salkind. The cast included Anthony Perkins
Anthony Perkins
as Josef K, Jeanne Moreau, Romy Schneider, Paola Mori
Paola Mori
and Akim Tamiroff. While filming exteriors in Zagreb, Welles was informed that the Salkinds had run out of money, meaning that there could be no set construction. No stranger to shooting on found locations, Welles soon filmed the interiors in the Gare d'Orsay, at that time an abandoned railway station in Paris. Welles thought the location possessed a " Jules Verne
Jules Verne
modernism" and a melancholy sense of "waiting", both suitable for Kafka. To remain in the spirit of Kafka Welles set up the cutting room together with the Film Editor, Frederick Muller (as Fritz Muller), in the old un-used, cold, depressing, station master office. The film failed at the box-office. Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
would later observe that Welles found the film riotously funny. Welles also told a BBC
BBC
interviewer that it was his best film.[117] While filming The Trial
The Trial
Welles met Oja Kodar, who later became his mistress and collaborator for the last 20 years of his life.[17]:428 Welles played a film director in La Ricotta
La Ricotta
(1963), Pier Paolo Pasolini's segment of the Ro.Go.Pa.G.
Ro.Go.Pa.G.
movie, although his renowned voice was dubbed by Italian writer Giorgio Bassani.[17]:516 He continued taking what work he could find acting, narrating or hosting other people's work, and began filming Chimes at Midnight, which was completed in 1966. Chimes at Midnight[edit] Main article: Chimes at Midnight

Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965)

Filmed in Spain, Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
was based on Welles's play, Five Kings, in which he drew material from six Shakespeare
Shakespeare
plays to tell the story of Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
(Welles) and his relationship with Prince Hal (Keith Baxter). The cast includes John Gielgud, Jeanne Moreau, Fernando Rey
Fernando Rey
and Margaret Rutherford; the film's narration, spoken by Ralph Richardson, is taken from the chronicler Raphael Holinshed.[35]:249 Welles held the film in high regard: "It's my favorite picture, yes. If I wanted to get into heaven on the basis of one movie, that's the one I would offer up."[70]:203 In 1966, Welles directed a film for French television, an adaptation of The Immortal Story, by Karen Blixen. Released in 1968, it stars Jeanne Moreau, Roger Coggio and Norman Eshley. The film had a successful run in French theaters. At this time Welles met Oja Kodar again, and gave her a letter he had written to her and had been keeping for four years; they would not be parted again. They immediately began a collaboration both personal and professional. The first of these was an adaptation of Blixen's The Heroine, meant to be a companion piece to The Immortal Story
The Immortal Story
and starring Kodar. Unfortunately, funding disappeared after one day's shooting. After completing this film, he appeared in a brief cameo as Cardinal Wolsey in Fred Zinnemann's adaptation of A Man for All Seasons—a role for which he won considerable acclaim.

Sergei Bondarchuk
Sergei Bondarchuk
and Welles at the Battle of Neretva premiere in Sarajevo
Sarajevo
(November 1969)

In 1967, Welles began directing The Deep, based on the novel Dead Calm by Charles Williams and filmed off the shore of Yugoslavia. The cast included Jeanne Moreau, Laurence Harvey
Laurence Harvey
and Kodar. Personally financed by Welles and Kodar, they could not obtain the funds to complete the project, and it was abandoned a few years later after the death of Harvey. The surviving footage was eventually edited and released by the Filmmuseum München. In 1968 Welles began filming a TV special for CBS
CBS
under the title Orson's Bag, combining travelogue, comedy skits and a condensation of Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice
Venice
with Welles as Shylock. In 1969 Welles called again the Film Editor Frederick Muller to work with him re-editing the material and they set up cutting rooms at the Safa Palatino Studios in Rome. Funding for the show sent by CBS
CBS
to Welles in Switzerland was seized by the IRS. Without funding, the show was not completed. The surviving film clips portions were eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. In 1969, Welles authorized the use of his name for a cinema in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The Orson Welles Cinema
Orson Welles Cinema
remained in operation until 1986, with Welles making a personal appearance there in 1977. Also in 1969 he played a supporting role in John Huston's The Kremlin Letter. Drawn by the numerous offers he received to work in television and films, and upset by a tabloid scandal reporting his affair with Kodar, Welles abandoned the editing of Don Quixote
Don Quixote
and moved back to America in 1970. Later career (1970–1985)[edit]

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Welles returned to Hollywood, where he continued to self-finance his film and television projects. While offers to act, narrate and host continued, Welles also found himself in great demand on television talk shows. He made frequent appearances for Dick Cavett, Johnny Carson, Dean Martin and Merv Griffin. Welles's primary focus during his final years was The Other Side of the Wind, an unfinished project that was filmed intermittently between 1970 and 1976. Written by Welles, it is the story of an aging film director (John Huston) looking for funds to complete his final film. The cast includes Peter Bogdanovich, Susan Strasberg, Norman Foster, Edmond O'Brien, Cameron Mitchell and Dennis Hopper. Financed by Iranian backers, ownership of the film fell into a legal quagmire after the Shah of Iran was deposed. While there have been several reports of all the legal disputes concerning ownership of the film being settled, enough disputes still exist to prevent its release.

Play media

Welles often invokes "The War of the Worlds" as host of Who's Out There? (1973), an award-winning NASA
NASA
documentary short film by Robert Drew about the likelihood of life on other planets[118][119]

Welles portrayed Louis XVIII of France
Louis XVIII of France
in the 1970 film Waterloo, and narrated the beginning and ending scenes of the historical comedy Start the Revolution Without Me
Start the Revolution Without Me
(1970). In 1971, Welles directed a short adaptation of Moby-Dick, a one-man performance on a bare stage, reminiscent of his 1955 stage production Moby Dick—Rehearsed. Never completed, it was eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. He also appeared in Ten Days' Wonder, co-starring with Anthony Perkins
Anthony Perkins
and directed by Claude Chabrol, based on a detective novel by Ellery Queen. That same year, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences gave him an honorary award "For superlative artistry and versatility in the creation of motion pictures". Welles pretended to be out of town and sent John Huston
John Huston
to claim the award, thanking the Academy on film. Huston criticized the Academy for awarding Welles, even while they refused to give Welles any work. In 1972, Welles acted as on-screen narrator for the film documentary version of Alvin Toffler's 1970 book Future Shock. Working again for a British producer, Welles played Long John Silver
Long John Silver
in director John Hough's Treasure Island (1972), an adaptation of the Robert Louis Stevenson novel, which had been the second story broadcast by The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air in 1938. This was the last time he played the lead role in a major film. Welles also contributed to the script, his writing credit was attributed to the pseudonym 'O. W. Jeeves'. In some versions of the film Welles's original recorded dialog was redubbed by Robert Rietty.

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
in F for Fake
F for Fake
(1974), a film essay and the last film he completed.

In 1973, Welles completed F for Fake, a personal essay film about art forger Elmyr de Hory
Elmyr de Hory
and the biographer Clifford Irving. Based on an existing documentary by François Reichenbach, it included new material with Oja Kodar, Joseph Cotten, Paul Stewart and William Alland. An excerpt of Welles's 1930s War of the Worlds broadcast was recreated for this film; however, none of the dialogue heard in the film actually matches what was originally broadcast. Welles filmed a five-minute trailer, rejected in the U.S., that featured several shots of a topless Kodar. Welles hosted a British syndicated anthology series, Orson Welles's Great Mysteries, during the 1973–74 television season. His brief introductions to the 26 half-hour episodes were shot in July 1973 by Gary Graver.[17]:443 The year 1974 also saw Welles lending his voice for that year's remake of Agatha Christie's classic thriller Ten Little Indians produced by his former associate, Harry Alan Towers
Harry Alan Towers
and starring an international cast that included Oliver Reed, Elke Sommer and Herbert Lom. In 1975, Welles narrated the documentary Bugs Bunny: Superstar, focusing on Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
cartoons from the 1940s. Also in 1975, the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
presented Welles with its third Lifetime Achievement Award (the first two going to director John Ford
John Ford
and actor James Cagney). At the ceremony, Welles screened two scenes from the nearly finished The Other Side of the Wind. In 1976, Paramount Television
Paramount Television
purchased the rights for the entire set of Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe
Nero Wolfe
stories for Orson Welles.[c][121][122][123] Welles had once wanted to make a series of Nero Wolfe
Nero Wolfe
movies, but Rex Stout—who was leery of Hollywood
Hollywood
adaptations during his lifetime after two disappointing 1930s films—turned him down.[122] Paramount planned to begin with an ABC-TV movie and hoped to persuade Welles to continue the role in a mini-series.[121] Frank D. Gilroy was signed to write the television script and direct the TV movie on the assurance that Welles would star, but by April 1977 Welles had bowed out.[124] In 1980 the Associated Press
Associated Press
reported "the distinct possibility" that Welles would star in a Nero Wolfe
Nero Wolfe
TV series for NBC
NBC
television.[125] Again, Welles bowed out of the project due to creative differences and William Conrad
William Conrad
was cast in the role.[126][127]:87–88 In 1979, Welles completed his documentary Filming Othello, which featured Michael MacLiammoir and Hilton Edwards. Made for West German television, it was also released in theaters. That same year, Welles completed his self-produced pilot for The Orson Welles Show television series, featuring interviews with Burt Reynolds, Jim Henson
Jim Henson
and Frank Oz and guest-starring the Muppets and Angie Dickinson. Unable to find network interest, the pilot was never broadcast. Also in 1979, Welles appeared in the biopic The Secret of Nikola Tesla, and a cameo in The Muppet Movie as Lew Lord. Beginning in the late 1970s, Welles participated in a series of famous television commercial advertisements. For two years he was on-camera spokesman for the Paul Masson
Paul Masson
Vineyards,[d] and sales grew by one third during the time Welles intoned what became a popular catchphrase: "We will sell no wine before its time."[129] He was also the voice behind the long-running Carlsberg "Probably the best lager in the world" campaign,[130] promoted Domecq sherry on British television[131] and provided narration on adverts for Findus, though the actual adverts have been overshadowed by a famous blooper reel of voice recordings, known as the Frozen Peas reel. He also did commercials for the Preview Subscription Television Service seen on stations around the country including WCLQ/Cleveland, KNDL/St. Louis and WSMW/Boston. As money ran short, he began directing commercials to make ends meet, including the famous British "Follow the Bear" commercials for Hofmeister lager.[132] In 1981, Welles hosted the documentary The Man Who Saw Tomorrow, about Renaissance-era prophet Nostradamus. In 1982, the BBC
BBC
broadcast The Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Story in the Arena series. Interviewed by Leslie Megahey, Welles examined his past in great detail, and several people from his professional past were interviewed as well. It was reissued in 1990 as With Orson Welles: Stories of a Life in Film. Welles provided narration for the tracks "Defender" from Manowar's 1987 album Fighting the World and "Dark Avenger" on their 1982 album, Battle Hymns. During the 1980s, Welles worked on such film projects as The Dreamers, based on two stories by Isak Dinesen
Isak Dinesen
and starring Oja Kodar, and Orson Welles' Magic Show, which reused material from his failed TV pilot. Another project he worked on was Filming The Trial, the second in a proposed series of documentaries examining his feature films. While much was shot for these projects, none of them was completed. All of them were eventually released by the Filmmuseum München. In 1984, Welles narrated the short-lived television series Scene of the Crime. During the early years of Magnum, P.I., Welles was the voice of the unseen character Robin Masters, a famous writer and playboy. Welles's death forced this minor character to largely be written out of the series. In an oblique homage to Welles, the Magnum, P.I. producers ambiguously concluded that story arc by having one character accuse another of having hired an actor to portray Robin Masters.[133] He also, in this penultimate year released a music single, titled "I Know What It Is To Be Young (But You Don't Know What It Is To Be Old)", which he recorded under Italian label Compagnia Generale del Disco. The song was performed with the Nick Perito Orchestra and the Ray Charles Singers
Ray Charles Singers
and produced by Jerry Abbott (father of guitarist "Dimebag Darrell" Abbott).[134] The last film roles before Welles's death included voice work in the animated films Enchanted Journey
Enchanted Journey
(1984) and The Transformers: The Movie (1986), in which he played the planet-eating robot Unicron. His last film appearance was in Henry Jaglom's 1987 independent film Someone to Love, released after his death but produced before his voice-over in Transformers: The Movie. His last television appearance was on the television show Moonlighting. He recorded an introduction to an episode entitled "The Dream Sequence Always Rings Twice", which was partially filmed in black and white. The episode aired five days after his death and was dedicated to his memory. In the mid-1980s, Henry Jaglom taped lunch conversations with Welles at Los Angeles's Ma Maison as well as in New York. Edited transcripts of these sessions appear in Peter Biskind's 2013 book My Lunches With Orson: Conversations Between Henry Jaglom and Orson Welles.[135] Personal life[edit] Relationships and family[edit]

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and Virginia Nicolson Welles with their daughter Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe
Welles (1938)

Welles and Dolores del Río
Dolores del Río
(1941)

Wedding of Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and Rita Hayworth, with best man Joseph Cotten (September 7, 1943)

Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
and daughter Rebecca Welles (December 23, 1946)

Paola Mori
Paola Mori
and Orson Welles, days before their marriage (May 1955)

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and Chicago-born actress and socialite Virginia Nicolson (1916–1996) were married on November 14, 1934.[17]:332 The couple separated in December 1939[20]:226 and were divorced on February 1, 1940.[136][137] After bearing with Welles's romances in New York, Virginia had learned that Welles had fallen in love with Mexican actress Dolores del Río.[20]:227 Infatuated with her since adolescence, Welles met del Río at Darryl Zanuck's ranch[22]:206 soon after he moved to Hollywood
Hollywood
in 1939.[20]:227[22]:168 Their relationship was kept secret until 1941, when del Río filed for divorce from her second husband. They openly appeared together in New York while Welles was directing the Mercury stage production Native Son.[22]:212 They acted together in the movie Journey into Fear (1943). Their relationship came to an end due, among other things, to Welles's infidelities. Del Río returned to México in 1943, shortly before Welles married Rita Hayworth.[138] Welles married Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
on September 7, 1943.[22]:278 They were divorced on November 10, 1947.[85]:142 During his last interview, recorded for The Merv Griffin Show on the evening before his death, Welles called Hayworth "one of the dearest and sweetest women that ever lived … and we were a long time together—I was lucky enough to have been with her longer than any of the other men in her life."[139] In 1955, Welles married actress Paola Mori
Paola Mori
(née Countess Paola di Girifalco), an Italian aristocrat who starred as Raina Arkadin in his 1955 film, Mr. Arkadin. The couple began a passionate affair, and they were married at her parents' insistence.[26]:168 They were wed in London May 8, 1955,[17]:417, 419 and never divorced. Croatian-born artist and actress Oja Kodar became Welles's longtime companion both personally and professionally from 1966 onward, and they lived together for some of the last 20 years of his life.[26]:255–258 Welles had three daughters from his marriages: Christopher Welles Feder (born March 27, 1938, with Virginia Nicolson);[e][22]:148 Rebecca Welles Manning (December 17, 1944 – October 17, 2004,[140] with Rita Hayworth); and Beatrice Welles (born November 13, 1955, with Paola Mori).[17]:419 Welles is thought to have had a son, British director Michael Lindsay-Hogg (born May 5, 1940), with Irish actress Geraldine Fitzgerald, then the wife of Sir Edward Lindsay-Hogg, 4th baronet.[31][141] When Lindsay-Hogg was 16, his mother reluctantly divulged pervasive rumors that his father was Welles, and she denied them—but in such detail that he doubted her veracity.[142][143]:15 Fitzgerald evaded the subject for the rest of her life. Lindsay-Hogg knew Welles, worked with him in the theatre and met him at intervals throughout Welles's life.[141] After learning that Welles's oldest daughter, Chris, his childhood playmate, had long suspected that he was her brother,[144] Lindsay-Hogg initiated a DNA test that proved inconclusive. In his 2011 autobiography, Lindsay-Hogg reported that his questions were resolved by his mother's close friend Gloria Vanderbilt, who wrote that Fitzgerald had told her that Welles was his father.[143]:265–267 A 2015 Welles biography by Patrick McGilligan, however, reports the impossibility of Welles's paternity: Fitzgerald left the U.S. for Ireland
Ireland
in May 1939, and her son was conceived before her return in late October, whereas Welles did not travel overseas during that period.[12]:602 After the death of Rebecca Welles Manning, a man named Marc McKerrow was revealed to be her son—and therefore a direct descendant of Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and Rita Hayworth. McKerrow's reactions to the revelation and his meeting with Oja Kodar are documented in the 2008 film Prodigal Sons.[145] McKerrow died on June 18, 2010.[146] Despite an urban legend promoted by Welles,[f] he was not related to Abraham Lincoln's wartime Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles. The myth dates back to the first newspaper feature ever written about Welles—"Cartoonist, Actor, Poet and only 10"—in the February 19, 1926, issue of The Capital Times. The article falsely states that he was descended from "Gideon Welles, who was a member of President Lincoln's cabinet".[10]:47–48[65]:311 As presented by Charles Higham in a genealogical chart that introduces his 1985 biography of Welles, Orson Welles's father was Richard Head Welles (born Wells), son of Richard Jones Wells, son of Henry Hill Wells (who had an uncle named Gideon Wells), son of William Hill Wells, son of Richard Wells (1734–1801).[10] Physical characteristics[edit] Peter Noble's 1956 biography describes Welles as "a magnificent figure of a man, over six feet tall, handsome, with flashing eyes and a gloriously resonant speaking-voice".[148]:19 Welles said that a voice specialist once told him he was born to be a heldentenor, a heroic tenor, but that when he was young and working at the Gate Theatre
Gate Theatre
in Dublin, he forced his voice down into a bass-baritone.[21]:144 Even as a baby, Welles was prone to illness, including diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, and malaria. From infancy he suffered from asthma, sinus headaches, and backache[20]:8 that was later found to be caused by congenital anomalies of the spine. Foot and ankle trouble throughout his life was the result of flat feet.[149]:560 "As he grew older," Brady wrote, "his ill health was exacerbated by the late hours he was allowed to keep [and] an early penchant for alcohol and tobacco".[20]:8 In 1928, at age 13, Welles was already more than six feet tall and weighed over 180 pounds.[10]:50 His passport recorded his height as six feet three inches, with brown hair and green eyes.[26]:229 "Crash diets, drugs, and corsets had slimmed him for his early film roles," wrote biographer Barton Whaley. "Then always back to gargantuan consumption of high-caloric food and booze. By summer 1949, when he was 34, his weight had crept up to a stout 230 pounds. In 1953, he ballooned from 250 to 275 pounds. After 1960, he remained permanently obese."[150]:329 Religious beliefs[edit] When Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
once asked him about his religion, Orson Welles gruffly replied that it was none of his business, then misinformed him that he was raised Catholic.[17]:xxx[150]:12 Although the Welles family was no longer devout, it was fourth-generation Protestant Episcopalian and, before that, Quaker and Puritan.[150]:12 Welles's earliest paternal forebear in America, Richard Wells, was a leader of the Quaker community in Pennsylvania. His earliest maternal ancestor in America was John Alden, a crew member on the Pilgrim ship Mayflower.[10]:5 The funeral of Welles's father, Richard H. Welles, was Episcopalian.[150]:12[151] In April 1982, when interviewer Merv Griffin
Merv Griffin
asked him about his religious beliefs, Welles replied, "I try to be a Christian. I don't pray really, because I don't want to bore God."[20]:576 Near the end of his life, Welles was dining at Ma Maison, his favorite restaurant in Los Angeles, when proprietor Patrick Terrail conveyed an invitation from the head of the Greek Orthodox Church, who asked Welles to be his guest of honor at divine liturgy at Saint Sophia Cathedral. Welles replied, "Please tell him I really appreciate that offer, but I am an atheist."[152]:104–105 "Orson never joked or teased about the religious beliefs of others," wrote biographer Barton Whaley. "He accepted it as a cultural artifact, suitable for the births, deaths, and marriages of strangers and even some friends—but without emotional or intellectual meaning for himself."[150]:12 Politics[edit] Welles was politically active from the beginning of his career. He remained aligned with the left throughout his life,[153] and always defined his political orientation as "progressive". He was a strong supporter of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
and the New Deal
New Deal
and often spoke out on radio in support of progressive politics.[153] He campaigned heavily for Roosevelt in the 1944 election.[153] Welles did not support the 1948 presidential bid of Roosevelt's vice president Henry A. Wallace for the Progressive Party, however, later describing Wallace as "a prisoner of the Communist Party."[135]p. 66 "During a White House dinner," Welles recalled in a 1983 conversation with his friend Roger Hill, "when I was campaigning for Roosevelt, in a toast, with considerable tongue in cheek, he said, 'Orson, you and I are the two greatest actors alive today.' In private that evening, and on several other occasions, he urged me to run for a Senate seat in either California
California
or Wisconsin. He wasn't alone."[21]:115 In the 1980s, Welles still expressed admiration for Roosevelt but also described his presidency as "a semidictatorship."[135]p. 187 For several years, he wrote a newspaper column on political issues and considered running for the U.S. Senate in 1946, representing his home state of Wisconsin—a seat that was ultimately won by Joseph McCarthy.[153] Welles's name and political activities are reported on pages 155–157 of Red Channels, the anti-Communist publication that, in part, fueled the already flourishing Hollywood
Hollywood
Blacklist.[154] He was in Europe during the height of the Red Scare, thereby adding one more reason for the Hollywood
Hollywood
establishment to ostracize him.[citation needed] In 1970, Welles narrated (but did not write) a satirical political record on the administration of President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
titled The Begatting of the President.[citation needed] He was also an outspoken critic of racism in the United States and the practice of segregation.[65]:46 Death and tributes[edit] On the evening of October 9, 1985, Welles recorded his final interview on syndicated TV program The Merv Griffin
Merv Griffin
Show, appearing with biographer Barbara Leaming. "Both Welles and Leaming talked of Welles's life, and the segment was a nostalgic interlude," wrote biographer Frank Brady.[20]:590–591 Welles returned to his house in Hollywood
Hollywood
and worked into the early hours typing stage directions for the project he and Gary Graver
Gary Graver
were planning to shoot at UCLA the following day. Welles died sometime on the morning of October 10, following a heart attack.[17]:453 He was found by his chauffeur at around 10 a.m.; the first of Welles's friends to arrive was Paul Stewart.[65]:295–297 Welles was cremated by prior agreement with the executor of his estate, Greg Garrison,[20]:592 whose advice about making lucrative TV appearances in the 1970s made it possible for Welles to pay off a portion of the taxes he owed the IRS.[20]:549–550 A brief private funeral was attended by Paola Mori
Paola Mori
and Welles's three daughters—the first time they had ever been together. Only a few close friends were invited: Garrison, Graver, Roger Hill[65]:298 and Prince Alessandro Tasca di Cuto. Chris Welles Feder later described the funeral as an awful experience.[26]:1–9 A public memorial tribute[20]:593 took place November 2, 1985, at the Directors Guild of America
Directors Guild of America
Theater in Los Angeles. Host Peter Bogdanovich introduced speakers including Charles Champlin, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Greg Garrison, Charlton Heston, Roger Hill, Henry Jaglom, Arthur Knight, Oja Kodar, Barbara Leaming, Janet Leigh, Norman Lloyd, Dan O'Herlihy, Patrick Terrail and Robert Wise.[20]:594[65]:299–300 "I know what his feelings were regarding his death," Joseph Cotten later wrote. "He did not want a funeral; he wanted to be buried quietly in a little place in Spain. He wanted no memorial services ..." Cotten declined to attend the memorial program; instead he sent a short message, ending with the last two lines of a Shakespeare
Shakespeare
sonnet that Welles had sent him on his most recent birthday:[42]:216

But if the while I think on thee, dear friend, All losses are restored and sorrows end.[42]:217

In 1987 the ashes of Welles and Mori (killed in a 1986 car crash[155]) were taken to Ronda, Spain, and buried in an old well covered by flowers on the rural estate of a longtime friend, bullfighter Antonio Ordóñez.[65]:298–299[156][g][h] Unfinished projects[edit] Welles's reliance on self-production meant that many of his later projects were filmed piecemeal or were not completed. Welles financed his later projects through his own fundraising activities. He often also took on other work to obtain money to fund his own films. Don Quixote[edit] Main article: Don Quixote
Don Quixote
(unfinished film) In the mid-1950s, Welles began work on Don Quixote, initially a commission from CBS
CBS
television. Welles expanded the film to feature length, developing the screenplay to take Quixote and Sancho Panza into the modern age. Filming stopped with the death of Francisco Reiguera, the actor playing Quixote, in 1969. Orson Welles
Orson Welles
continued editing the film into the early 1970s. At the time of his death, the film remained largely a collection of footage in various states of editing. The project and, more important, Welles's conception of the project changed radically over time. A version of the film was created from available fragments in 1992 and released to a very negative reception. A version Oja Kodar supervised, with help from Jess Franco, assistant director during production, was released in 2008 to mixed reactions. Frederick Muller — the film editor for The Trial, Chimes at Midnight and the CBS
CBS
Special
Special
Orson Bag was fortunate to work on editing three reels of the original, unadulterated version — and when asked for his opinion in 2013 from a journalist of Time Out, his reply was that he felt that if released without image re-editing but with the addition of ad hoc sound and music, it probably would have been rather successful. The Merchant of Venice[edit] Main article: The Merchant of Venice
Venice
(1969 film) In 1969, Welles was given another TV commission to film a condensed adaptation of The Merchant of Venice.[70]:XXXIV Although Welles had actually completed the film by 1970, the finished negative was later mysteriously stolen from his Rome production office.[65]:234 A restored and reconstructed version of the film, made by using the original script and composer's notes, premiered at the 72nd Venice International Film Festival alongside Othello
Othello
as part of the pre-opening ceremonies in 2015.[157] The Other Side of the Wind[edit] Main article: The Other Side of the Wind In 1970, Welles began shooting The Other Side of the Wind. The film relates the efforts of a film director (played by John Huston) to complete his last Hollywood
Hollywood
picture and is largely set at a lavish party. By 1972 the filming was reported by Welles as being "96% complete",[20]:546 though it is likely that Welles had only edited about 40 minutes of the film by 1979.[4]:320 In that year, legal complications over the ownership of the film forced the negative into a Paris vault. In 2004 director Peter Bogdanovich, who acted in the film, announced his intention to complete the production. As of 2009, legal complications over the Welles estate had kept the film from being finished or released. On October 28, 2014, Los Angeles-based production company Royal Road Entertainment announced it had negotiated an agreement, with the assistance of producer Frank Marshall, and would purchase the rights to complete and release The Other Side of the Wind. Bogdanovich and Marshall planned to complete Welles's nearly finished film in Los Angeles, aiming to have it ready for screening May 6, 2015, the 100th anniversary of Welles's birth.[158] Royal Road Entertainment and German producer Jens Koethner Kaul acquired the rights held by Les Films de l'Astrophore and the late Mehdi Boushehri. They reached an agreement with Oja Kodar, who inherited Welles's ownership of the film, and Beatrice Welles, manager of the Welles estate;[159] but at the end of 2015, efforts to complete the film were at an impasse.[160] In March 2017, Netflix
Netflix
acquired distribution rights to the film.[161][162] That same month, the original negative, dallies and other footage arrived in Los Angeles, thus resuming the post-production process.[163] Some footage is included in the documentaries Working with Orson Welles (1993) and Orson Welles: One Man Band (1995). Other unfinished films and unfilmed screenplays[edit]

Too Much Johnson, a 1938 comedy film written and directed by Welles. Designed as the cinematic aspect of Welles's Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
stage presentation of William Gillette's 1894 comedy, the film was not completely edited or publicly screened. Too Much Johnson
Too Much Johnson
was considered a lost film until August 2013 news reports that a pristine print was discovered in Italy in 2008. A copy restored by the George Eastman House museum was scheduled to premiere October 9, 2013, at the Pordenone Silent Film Festival, with a U.S. premiere to follow.[164] A single performance of Too Much Johnson, on February 2, 2015, at the Film Forum in New York City, was a great success. Produced by Bruce Goldstein and adapted and directed by Allen Lewis Rickman, it featured the Film Forum Players with live piano. Heart of Darkness: Welles's projected first film in 1940, planned in extreme detail and with some test shots filmed. (The footage is now lost.) It was planned to be entirely shot in long takes from the point of view of the narrator, Marlow, who would be played by Welles; his reflection would occasionally be seen in the window as his boat sailed down river. The project was abandoned, because it could not be delivered on budget, and Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
was made instead.[17]:30–33, 355–356 Santa: In 1941, Welles planned a film to his then partner, the Mexican actress Dolores del Río. The film was adapted from the novel by Mexican writer Federico Gamboa. The film which marked the debut of Dolores del Río
Dolores del Río
in the Mexican Cinema. Welles made a correction of the script in thirteen extraordinary sequences. Unfortunately, the high salary demanded by Del Río threw overboard the project. In 1943, the film finally done with the settings of Welles, led by Norman Foster and starring Mexican actress Esther Fernández.[165] The Way to Santiago: In 1941 Welles also planned a Mexican drama with Dolores del Río, which he gave to RKO to be budgeted. The film would a movie version of the same name novel by Calder Marshall. In the story, Dolores del Río
Dolores del Río
would play Elena Medina, "the most beautiful girl in the world", with Welles playing an American who becomes entangled in a mission to disrupt a Nazi plot to overthrow the Mexican government. Welles planned to shoot in Mexico, but the Mexican government had to approve the story, and this never occurred.[165] The Life of Christ: In 1941, Welles received the support of Bishop Fulton Sheen for a retelling of the life of Christ to be set in the American West in the 1890s. After filming of Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
was complete,[166] Welles, Perry Ferguson and Gregg Toland
Gregg Toland
scouted locations in Baja California
California
and Mexico. Welles wrote a screenplay with dialogue from the Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke. "Every word in the film was to be from the Bible — no original dialogue, but done as a sort of American primitive," Welles said, "set in the frontier country in the last century." The unrealized project was revisited by Welles in the 1950s when he wrote a second unfilmed screenplay, to be shot in Egypt.[17]:361–362 It's All True: Welles did not originally want to direct this 1942 documentary on South America, but after its abandonment by RKO, he spent much of the 1940s attempting to buy the negative of his material from RKO, so that he could edit and release it in some form. The footage remained unseen in vaults for decades, and was assumed lost. Over 50 years later, some (but not all) of the surviving material saw release in the 1993 documentary It's All True: Based on an Unfinished Film by Orson Welles. Monsieur Verdoux: In 1944, Welles wrote the first-draft script of this film, which he also intended to direct. Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
initially agreed to star in it, but later changed his mind, citing never having been directed by someone else in a feature before. Chaplin bought the film rights and made the film himself in 1947, with some changes (Welles said the gallows scenes were written by Chaplin, but that much of the film was unchanged from his own script). The final film credits Chaplin with the script, "based on an idea by Orson Welles". Cyrano de Bergerac: Welles spent around nine months c. 1947-8 co-writing the screenplay for this along with Ben Hecht, a project Welles was assigned to direct for Alexander Korda. He began scouting for locations in Europe whilst filming Black Magic, but Korda was short of money, so sold the rights to Columbia pictures, who eventually dismissed Welles from the project, and then sold the rights on to United Artists, who in turn made a film version in 1950, which was not based on Welles's script.[17]:106–108 Around the World in Eighty Days: After Welles's elaborate musical stageshow of this Jules Verne
Jules Verne
novel, encompassing 38 different sets, he began shooting some test footage in Morocco
Morocco
for a film version in 1947. The footage was never edited, funding never came through, and Welles abandoned the project. Nine years later, the stage show's producer Mike Todd
Mike Todd
made his own award-winning film version of the book.[17]:402 Moby Dick—Rehearsed: a film version of Welles's 1955 London meta-play, starring Gordon Jackson, Christopher Lee, Patrick McGoohan, and with Welles as Ahab. Using bare, minimalist sets, Welles alternated between a cast of nineteenth-century actors rehearsing a production of Moby Dick, with scenes from Moby Dick itself. Kenneth Williams, a cast member who was apprehensive about the entire project, recorded in his autobiography that Welles's dim, atmospheric stage lighting made some of the footage so dark as to be unwatchable. The entire play was filmed, but is now presumed lost. This was made during one weekend at the Hackney Empire
Hackney Empire
theatre.[167] Histoires extraordinaires: The producers of this 1968 anthology film, based on short stories by Edgar Allan Poe, announced in June 1967 that Welles would direct one segment based on both "Masque of the Red Death" and "The Cask of Amontillado" for the omnibus film. Welles withdrew in September 1967 and was replaced. The script, written in English by Welles and Oja Kodar, is in the Filmmuseum Munchen collection.[168] One-Man Band: This Monty Python-esque spoof in which Welles plays all but one of the characters (including two characters in drag), was made around 1968-9. Welles intended this completed sketch to be one of several items in a television special on London. Other items filmed for this special – all included in the "One Man Band" documentary by his partner Oja Kodar — comprised a sketch on Winston Churchill (played in silhouette by Welles), a sketch on peers in a stately home, a feature on London gentlemen's clubs, and a sketch featuring Welles being mocked by his snide Savile Row
Savile Row
tailor (played by Charles Gray). Treasure Island: Welles wrote two screenplays for this in the 1960s, and was eager to seek financial backing to direct it. Eventually, his own screenplay (under the pseudonym of O.W. Jeeves) was further rewritten, and formed the basis of the 1972 film version directed by John Hough, in which Welles played Long John Silver. The Deep: An adaptation of Charles Williams' Dead Calm. The picture was entirely set on two boats and shot mostly in close-ups, and was filmed off the coasts of Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and the Bahamas, between 1966 and 1969, with all but one scene completed. Originally planned as commercially viable thriller, to show that Welles could make a popular, successful film. It was put on hold in 1970 when Welles worried that critics would not respond favourably to this film as his theatrical follow-up to the much-lauded Chimes at Midnight, and Welles focused instead on F for Fake. It was abandoned altogether in 1973 due to the death of its star Laurence Harvey. Dune: An early attempt at adapting Frank Herbert's sci-fi novel Dune by Chilean film director Alejandro Jodorowsky
Alejandro Jodorowsky
was to star Welles as the evil Baron Vladimir Harkonnen, whom Jodorowsky had personally chosen for the role. However, the planned film never advanced past pre-production. Saint Jack. In 1978 Welles was lined up by his long-time protégé Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
(who was then acting as Welles's de facto agent) to direct this adaptation of the 1973 Paul Theroux
Paul Theroux
novel about an American pimp in Singapore. Hugh Hefner
Hugh Hefner
and Bogdanovich's then-partner Cybill Shepherd
Cybill Shepherd
were both attached to the project as producers, with Hefner providing finance through his Playboy
Playboy
productions. However, both Hefner and Shepherd became convinced that Bogdanovich himself would be a more commercially viable director than Welles, and insisted that Bogdanovich take over. Since Bogdanovich was also in need of work after a series of box office flops, he agreed. When the film was finally made in 1979 by Bogdanovich and Hefner (but without Welles or Shepherd's participation), Welles felt betrayed and according to Bogdanovich the two "drifted apart a bit".[169] Filming The Trial: After the success of his 1978 film Filming Othello made for West German television, and mostly consisting of a monologue to the camera, Welles began shooting scenes for this follow-up film, but never completed it.[65]:253 What Welles did film was an 80-minute question-and-answer session in 1981 with film students asking about the film. The footage was kept by Welles's cinematographer Gary Graver, who donated it to the Munich Film Museum, which then pieced it together with Welles's trailer for the film, into an 83-minute film which is occasionally screened at film festivals. The Big Brass Ring: This 1982 screenplay, written by Welles with Oja Kodar was adapted and filmed by director George Hickenlooper
George Hickenlooper
in partnership with writer F.X. Feeney. Both the Welles script and the 1999 film center on a U.S. Presidential hopeful in his 40s, his elderly mentor — a former candidate for the Presidency, brought low by homosexual scandal — and the Italian journalist probing for the truth of the relationship between these men. During the last years of his life, Welles struggled to get financing for the planned film; however, his efforts at casting Jack Nicholson, Robert Redford, Warren Beatty, Clint Eastwood, Burt Reynolds
Burt Reynolds
and Paul Newman
Paul Newman
as the main character were unsuccessful. All of the actors turned down the role for various reasons. The Cradle Will Rock: In 1984, Welles wrote the screenplay for a film he planned to direct, an autobiographical drama about the 1937 staging of The Cradle Will Rock.[21]:157–159 Rupert Everett
Rupert Everett
was slated to play the young Welles. However, Welles was unable to acquire funding. Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
later directed a similar film, but it was not based on Welles's script. King Lear: At the time of his death, Welles was in talks with a French production company to direct a film version of the Shakespeare
Shakespeare
play, in which he would also play the title role. An adaptation of Vladimir Nabokov's novel Ada for which Welles flew to Paris to discuss the project personally with the Russian author.

Theatre credits[edit]

See Orson Welles
Orson Welles
theatre credits

Radio credits[edit]

See Orson Welles
Orson Welles
radio credits

Filmography[edit]

See Orson Welles
Orson Welles
filmography

Discography[edit]

See Orson Welles
Orson Welles
discography

Awards and honors[edit]

The National Board of Review
National Board of Review
recognized both Welles and George Coulouris for their performances in Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941), which was also voted the year's best film

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1933: Welles's stage production of Twelfth Night for the Todd School for Boys received first prize[17]:330 from the Chicago
Chicago
Drama League after competition at the Century of Progress
Century of Progress
Exposition of 1933, the Chicago
Chicago
World's Fair.[170][i] 1938: As director of the Mercury Theatre, Welles received the New York Drama Study Club Award for "the greatest contribution toward a living, breathing theatre this season".[171] 1941: Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
received the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Picture.[172] 1942: The National Board of Review
National Board of Review
voted Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Best Film of 1941,[173] and recognized Welles for his performance.[174] 1942: Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
received nine nominations at the 1941 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director and Best Actor in a Leading Role for Welles. It won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Screenplay, an award Welles shared with Herman J. Mankiewicz. 1943: The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
was nominated for four 1942 Academy Awards, including Best Picture. 1945: On May 24, 1945, the Interracial Film and Radio Guild honored Welles for his contributions to interracial harmony through radio. Presented at the Shrine Auditorium
Shrine Auditorium
in Los Angeles, the guild's second annual awards ceremony also honored Eddie "Rochester" Anderson, Norman Corwin, Bing Crosby, Bette Davis, Lena Horne, James Wong Howe, Earl Robinson, Nathan Straus and Miguel C. Torres.[150]:214–215[175] 1947: The Stranger was nominated for the Golden Lion
Golden Lion
at the Venice Film Festival.[citation needed] 1952: Othello
Othello
won the Palme d'Or
Palme d'Or
at the 1952 Cannes Film Festival.[citation needed] 1959: For their ensemble work in Compulsion, Orson Welles, Bradford Dillman and Dean Stockwell
Dean Stockwell
shared the prize for Best Actor at the Cannes Film Festival.[17]:425 1966: Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
was screened in competition for the Palme d'Or at the 1966 Cannes Film Festival and won the 20th Anniversary Prize and the Technical Grand Prize. In Spain, it won the Citizens Writers Circle Award for Best Film.[citation needed] 1968: Welles was nominated for Best Foreign Actor in a Leading Role at the 21st British Academy Film Awards for his performance in Chimes at Midnight.[citation needed] 1970: The Venice
Venice
Film Festival awarded Welles the Golden Lion
Golden Lion
for Career Achievement.[176] 1970: Welles was given an Academy Honorary Award for "superlative and distinguished service in the making of motion pictures."[177] Welles did not attend the ceremony: "I didn't go, because I feel like a damn fool at those things. I feel foolish, really foolish. ... I made piece of film and said that I was in Spain, and thanked them."[22]:511 1975: Welles received the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
Lifetime Achievement Award.[178] 1976: Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album for "Great American Documents", shared with Helen Hayes, Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
and James Earl Jones.[179] 1978: Welles was presented with the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Film Critics Association Career Achievement Award.[180] 1979: Welles received the Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word Recording for the complete motion picture soundtrack for Citizen Kane.[181][182] 1979: Welles was inducted into the National Association of Broadcasters Broadcasting Hall of Fame.[183] 1981: Welles received a Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word Recording for his role on Donovan's Brain.[184][185] 1982: In Paris on February 23, 1982, President François Mitterrand presented Welles with the Order of Commander of the Légion d'honneur, the highest civilian decoration in France.[17]:449[65]:207 1982: Welles was nominated for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture at the Golden Globe Awards
Golden Globe Awards
for his role in Butterfly, the same role that had him nominated for the Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor, won by Ed McMahon
Ed McMahon
in the same film, which also won the award for Worst Picture. 1983: Welles was made a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts.[22]:508 1983: Welles was awarded a Fellowship of the British Film Institute
British Film Institute
in 1983. 1984: In 1984 the Directors Guild of America
Directors Guild of America
presented Welles with its greatest honor, the D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
Award.[1] 1984: Welles received a Special
Special
Fellowship from The Academy of Magical Arts.[186][187] 1985: Welles received the Career Achievement Award from the National Board of Review.[188] 1988: Welles was inducted into the National Radio Hall of Fame.[189] 1993: The 1992 audiobook version of This is Orson Welles
This is Orson Welles
by Welles and Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
was nominated for a Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album.[190][191] 1998: In 1998 and 2007, the American Film Institute
American Film Institute
ranked Citizen Kane as the greatest American movie. These other Welles films were nominated for the AFI list: The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
(1942, director/producer/screenwriter); The Third Man
The Third Man
(1949, actor); Touch of Evil (1958, actor/director/screenwriter); and A Man for All Seasons (1966, actor). 1999: The American Film Institute
American Film Institute
acknowledged Welles as one of the top 25 male motion picture stars of Classic Hollywood
Hollywood
cinema in its survey, AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars.[192] 2002: Welles was voted the greatest film director of all time in two British Film Institute
British Film Institute
polls, of directors[7] and critics.[8] 2002: A highly divergent genus of Hawaiian spiders Orsonwelles
Orsonwelles
is named in his honor.[193] 2007: A statue of Welles sculpted by Oja Kodar was installed in the city of Split, Croatia.[26]:256[194] 2013: On February 10, 2013, the Woodstock Opera House
Woodstock Opera House
in Woodstock, Illinois, dedicated its stage to Welles, honoring the site of his American debut as a professional theatre director.[195] 2015: Throughout 2015, numerous festivals and events observed the 100th anniversary of Welles's birth.[196] 2017: A survey of critical consensus, best-of lists, and historical retrospectives finds Welles to be the second most acclaimed director of all time (behind Alfred Hitchcock).[197]

Cultural references[edit]

Director Peter Jackson
Peter Jackson
cast Montreal actor Jean Guérin as Welles in his 1994 film, Heavenly Creatures.[198] Vincent D'Onofrio
Vincent D'Onofrio
portrayed Welles in a brief cameo appearance in Tim Burton's 1994 film, Ed Wood, where he briefly appears and encourages the titular filmmaker to fight for making his movies his own way in spite of his producers.[199] He reprised the role in "Five Minutes, Mr. Welles" (2005), a short film concerning Welles's part in the film The Third Man
The Third Man
that D'Onofrio also co-wrote and directed.[citation needed] Voice actor Maurice LaMarche
Maurice LaMarche
is known for his Welles impression, heard in Ed Wood (in which he dubbed the dialog of Vincent D'Onofrio); the 1994–95 primetime animated series, The Critic; a 2006 episode of The Simpsons; and a 2011 episode of Futurama
Futurama
for which LaMarche won an Emmy Award. The voice he created for the character Brain from the animated series Animaniacs
Animaniacs
and Pinky and the Brain
Pinky and the Brain
was largely influenced by Welles.[200] The 1996 film The Battle Over Citizen Kane, which chronicles the conflict between Welles and Hearst, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.[201][202] Welles is a recurring character in the Anno Dracula series by author and critic Kim Newman, appearing in Dracula Cha Cha Cha (1998) and Johnny Alucard (2013).[203][204] In 1999 Welles appeared on a U.S. postage stamp in a scene from Citizen Kane. The United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
was petitioned to honor Welles with a stamp in 2015, the 100th anniversary of his birth, but the effort did not succeed.[205] The 1999 HBO
HBO
docudrama, RKO 281, tells the story of the making of Citizen Kane, starring Liev Schreiber
Liev Schreiber
as Orson Welles.[206] Tim Robbins's 1999 film Cradle Will Rock
Cradle Will Rock
chronicles the process and events surrounding Welles and John Houseman's production of the 1937 musical by Marc Blitzstein. Welles is played by actor Angus MacFadyen.[207] Austin Pendleton's 2000 play, Orson's Shadow, concerns the 1960 London production of Eugène Ionesco's play Rhinoceros directed by Welles and starring Laurence Olivier. First presented by the Steppenwolf Theatre Company in 2000, the play opened off-Broadway in 2005[208] and had its European premiere in London in 2015.[209] In Michael Chabon's 2000 Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, the protagonists meet Orson Welles and attend the premiere of Citizen Kane.[210] The film Fade to Black (2006) is a fictional thriller based on Davide Ferrario's novel,[citation needed] set during Welles's 1948 journey to Rome to star in the movie Black Magic. Danny Huston
Danny Huston
stars as Welles.[211] Welles is a recurring character in novelist Craig McDonald's Hector Lassiter series of historical crime thrillers, including Head Games (2007) where he is depicted filming Touch of Evil; Toros & Torsos (2008), during the filming of The Lady From Shanghai
The Lady From Shanghai
and The Great Pretender (2014) when he was filming Black Magic. Me and Orson Welles
Me and Orson Welles
(2009), based on Robert Kaplow's 2003 novel,[212] stars Zac Efron
Zac Efron
as a teenager who convinces Welles ( Christian
Christian
McKay) to cast him in his 1937 production of Julius Caesar. McKay received numerous accolades for his performance, including a BAFTA nomination.[213] Welles is the central character in "Ian, George, and George," a novelette by Paul Levinson
Paul Levinson
published in 2013 in Analog Science Fiction and Fact magazine.[214] In 2014 comedic actor Jack Black
Jack Black
portrayed Welles in the sketch comedy show Drunk History.[215] A 2014 documentary by Chuck Workman, Magician: The Astonishing Life and Work of Orson Welles, was released to critical acclaim.[216][217]

See also[edit]

Biography portal Film portal Radio portal Theatre portal

Notes[edit]

^ Richard H. Welles had changed the spelling of his surname by the time of the 1900 Federal Census, when he was living at Rudolphsheim, the 1888 Kenosha mansion built by his mother Mary Head Wells and her second husband, Frederick Gottfredsen. ^ Sources vary regarding Beatrice Ives Welles's birth year; her grave marker reads 1881, not 1883.[13] For more information see the talk page. ^ Pre-production materials for Nero Wolfe
Nero Wolfe
(1976) are contained in the Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Oja Kodar Papers at the University of Michigan.[120] ^ Paul Masson's spokesman since 1979, Welles parted company with Paul Masson in 1981, and in 1982 he was replaced by John Gielgud.[128] ^ "On March 27, 1938," biographer Barbara Leaming wrote, "Orson's close friends received a most peculiar telegram: 'Christopher, she is born.' It was no joke'"[22]:148 Her full name was given to be Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe
in a January 1940 magazine profile of Welles by Lucille Fletcher. ^ For example, while bantering with Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
on a 1944 broadcast of The Orson Welles Almanac
The Orson Welles Almanac
before an audience of U.S. Navy service members, Welles says, "My great-granduncle was Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy in Lincoln's cabinet". ( Lucille Ball
Lucille Ball
AFRS broadcast, May 3, 1944, 2:42.)[147] ^ A photograph of the grave site appears opposite the title page of Orson Welles
Orson Welles
on Shakespeare: The W.P.A. and Mercury Theatre Playscripts, edited by Richard France. France notes the inscription on the plaque: "Ronda. Al Maestro de Maestros."[45]:ii ^ The gravesite is not accessible to the public but can be seen in Kristian Petri's 2005 documentary, Brunnen (The Well),[65]:298–299 which is about Welles's time in Spain. ^ "Amateur dramatic groups from all sections of Metropolitan Chicago will compete this summer at Enchanted Island, World's Fair fairyland for children at A Century of Progress, for a silver cup to be awarded by the Chicago
Chicago
Drama League, Miss Anna Agress, director of the Children's Theatre on the Island, has announced. Twenty-four groups, ranging from Thespians of years' experience to child actors, are on the schedule. Although most of the program will be played during July and August, the contest opened several days ago with the Todd School for Boys, of Woodstock, Ill., presenting Shakespeare's Twelfth Night. The Todd boys were the 1932 cup winners."[170]

References[edit]

^ a b " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
is Dead at 70; Innovator of Film and Stage". The New York Times, October 11, 1985. Retrieved 2014-05-15.  ^ Schwartz, A. Brad (2015). Broadcast Hysteria: Orson Welles's War of the Worlds and the Art of Fake News. New York: Hill and Wang. p. 336. ISBN 0-8090-3161-2.  ^ a b Bartholomew, Robert E. (2001). Little Green Men, Meowing Nuns, and Head-Hunting Panics: A Study of Mass Psychogenic Illness and Social Delusion. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. ISBN 9780786409976. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ a b Rosenbaum, Jonathan, Discovering Orson Welles. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California
California
Press, 2007 ISBN 0-520-25123-7 ^ "List-o-Mania, or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love American Movies". Jonathan Rosenbaum. June 25, 1998. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ "Great Movie: Chimes at Midnight". Roger Ebert. June 4, 2006. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002 – The Directors' Top Ten Directors". BFI. September 5, 2006. Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ a b "Sight & Sound Top Ten Poll 2002 – The Critics' Top Ten Directors". BFI. September 5, 2006. Retrieved December 30, 2009.  ^ Christley, Jaime N. (2003). "Orson Welles". Senses of Cinema. Archived from the original on September 14, 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h Higham, Charles, Orson Welles: The Rise and Fall of an American Genius. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985 ISBN 0-312-31280-6 ^ a b Ancestry.com, Illinois, Deaths and Stillbirths Index 1916–1947 [database online], Provo, Utah. Ancestry.com Operations 2011. Retrieved 2014-09-29. ^ a b McGilligan, Patrick (2015). Young Orson. New York: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-211248-4.  ^ "Green Ridge Cemetery Photo Gallery". Kenosha (Wisconsin) Cemetery Association. Retrieved 2016-11-12.  ^ Kelly, Fred C. (1947). George Ade, Warmhearted Satirist (First ed.). Indianapolis, IN: The Bobs-Merrill Company. p. 209.  ^ " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Biography". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ a b Heyer, Paul, The Medium and the Magician: Orson Welles, the Radio Years 1934–1952. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005 ISBN 0-7425-3797-8 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba Welles, Orson; Bogdanovich, Peter; Rosenbaum, Jonathan (1992). This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins
HarperCollins
Publishers. ISBN 0-06-016616-9.  ^ " Chicago
Chicago
Musicians Mourn Passing of Mrs. Welles". Chicago
Chicago
Tribune, May 13, 1924, page 10. Retrieved 2014-10-06.  ^ "The Gordon Collection of String Music". University of Rochester Library Bulletin, Winter 1952. Retrieved 2014-08-31.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Brady, Frank, Citizen Welles: A Biography of Orson Welles. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons 1989 ISBN 0-684-18982-8 ^ a b c d e f Tarbox, Todd (2013). Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and Roger Hill: A Friendship in Three Acts. Albany, Georgia: BearManor Media. ISBN 1-59393-260-X.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Leaming, Barbara, Orson Welles, A Biography. New York: Viking, 1985 ISBN 0-670-52895-1 ^ France, Richard (2013-04-15). Orson Welles
Orson Welles
on Shakespeare: The W.P.A. and Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
Playscripts. Routledge. ISBN 9781134979936.  ^ a b c d France, Richard, The Theatre of Orson Welles. Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press, 1977 ISBN 0-8387-1972-4 ^ Leaming, Barbara (1985). Orson Welles: A Biography. Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0670528950.  ^ a b c d e f g Feder, Chris Welles (2009). In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers Orson Welles. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books. ISBN 9781565125995.  ^ "When Orson Welles
Orson Welles
was recommended to Cornell College". Cornell College. May 6, 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ Hill, Roger, One Man's Time and Chance, a Memoir of Eighty Years 1895 to 1975. Privately printed, 1977. Woodstock Public Library collection, digitized by Illinois State Library. ^ Close Up: Orson Welles, part 1. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 25, 1960. Event occurs at 22:58–23:12). Retrieved December 26, 2017.  ^ Mac Liammóir, Micheál, All For Hecuba: An Irish Theatrical Biography. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd., 1946, ISBN 9780828311373 ^ a b "Book review, In My Father's Shadow: A Daughter Remembers Orson Welles". Joseph McBride, Bright Lights Film Journal, November 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2013.  ^ "Romeo and Juliet". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2014-04-27.  ^ Houseman, John, Run-Through: A Memoir. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1972, ISBN 0-671-21034-3 ^ Flanagan, Hallie (1965). Arena: The History of the Federal Theatre. New York: Benjamin Blom, reprint edition [1940]. OCLC 855945294.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wood, Bret, Orson Welles: A Bio-Bibliography. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1990 ISBN 0-313-26538-0 ^ Collins, Charles (August 30, 1936). "'Macbeth' as Negro Play Comes to Great Northern Theater". Chicago
Chicago
Tribune. Retrieved 2015-02-17.  ^ Hill, Anthony D. (2009). The A to Z of African American Theater. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group. ISBN 9780810870611.  ^ Kliman, Bernice W. (1992). Macbeth. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719027314.  ^ Callow, Simon (1995). Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. Penguin. p. 145. ISBN 0-670-86722-5.  ^ "No title". Syracuse Herald. August 27, 1936. p. 12.  ^ "All-Negro Cast to Produce Macbeth". The Olney Enterprise. August 14, 1936.  ^ a b c d Cotten, Joseph (1987). Vanity Will Get You Somewhere. San Francisco: Mercury House. ISBN 0-916515-17-6.  ^ Barone, Joshua (2017-07-09). "'The Cradle Will Rock' Returns With Its Brazen Politics Intact". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-10-27.  ^ a b Lattanzio, Ryan (2014). "Orson Welles' World, and We're Just Living in It: A Conversation with Norman Lloyd". EatDrinkFilms.com. Retrieved 2015-08-06.  ^ a b France, Richard (2001). Orson Welles
Orson Welles
on Shakespeare: The W.P.A. and Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
Playscripts. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415937269.  ^ "Orson Welles, May 9, 1938". Time. Time Inc.
Time Inc.
Retrieved 2015-08-06.  ^ a b c d e Orson Welles
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on the Air: The Radio Years. New York: The Museum of Broadcasting, catalogue for exhibition October 28–December 3, 1988. ^ a b Callow, Simon, Orson Welles: Hello Americans. New York: Viking Penguin 2006 ISBN 0-670-87256-3 ^ "The Shadow". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved January 12, 2014.  ^ Campbell, W. Joseph (2010). Getting It Wrong: Ten of the Greatest Misreported Stories in American Journalism. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26209-6.  ^ "The spoof in Georgia: Evocative of the 'War of the Worlds?". wordpress.com. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ "The Myth of The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
Panic". slate.com. Retrieved October 31, 2013.  ^ "evidence of the decadence and corrupt condition of democracy"—Hand, Richard J. (2006). Terror on the Air!: Horror Radio in America, 1931–1952. Jefferson, North Carolina: Macfarlane & Company. p. 7. ISBN 0-7864-2367-6.  ^ "Learn Out Loud". Learn Out Loud. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ a b c d e f g h Carringer, Robert L. (1985). The Making of Citizen Kane. Berkeley and Los Angeles
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California: University of California Press,. ISBN 0-520-20567-7.  ^ a b c McMahon, Thomas, "Orson Welles", Authors & Artists for Young Adults: Vol. 40. Michigan: Gale Research, 2001 ISBN 0787646733 ^ Meryman, Richard (1978). Mank: The Wit, World and Life of Herman Mankiewicz. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-688-03356-9.  ^ Sarris, Andrew (1956). "Citizen Kane: The American Baroque". Film Culture, number 9.  ^ "The 50 Greatest Films of All Time". British Film Institute. September 2012. Retrieved 2016-02-11.  ^ " Orson Welles
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Running into Trouble on CITIZEN KANE Follow-Up, THE MAGNIFICENT AMBERSONS". Collider. 2015-03-31. Retrieved 2017-01-31.  ^ a b "The Magnificent Ambersons". The American Film Institute
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Catalog of Motion Pictures. Retrieved 2014-08-23.  ^ a b Dunning, John, On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1998 ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3 hardcover; revised edition of Tune In Yesterday (1976) ^ "Journey into Fear". The American Film Institute
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Catalog of Motion Pictures. Retrieved 2014-08-23.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Benamou, Catherine L., It's All True: Orson Welles's Pan-American Odyssey. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007 ISBN 978-0-520-24247-0 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o McBride, Joseph, What Ever Happened to Orson Welles? A Portrait of an Independent Career. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2006, ISBN 0-8131-2410-7 ^ a b c Wilson, Richard, "It's Not Quite All True". Sight & Sound, Volume 39 Number 4, Autumn 1970. ^ a b c Benamou, Catherine, "It's All True". Barnard, Tim, and Peter Rist (eds.), South American Cinema: A Critical Filmography, 1915-1994. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1996; Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998 ISBN 978-0-292-70871-6 ^ Teachout, Terry, Duke: A Life of Duke Ellington. New York: Gotham Books, 2013 ISBN 978-1-592-40749-1 ^ Barnett, Vincent L. "Cutting Koerners: Floyd Odlum, the Atlas Corporation and the Dismissal of Orson Welles
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on Latin America". PM, September 13, 1942, pp. 16–17. ^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics CPI Inflation Calculator". United States Department of Labor. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "Bond Show Nets 10-Million Order". Detroit Free Press
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(Associated Press), August 31, 1942 ^ Des Moines Tribune, August 29, 1942 ^ The Washington Post, August 29, 1942 ^ "7 Hour Radio Show to Push War Bonds". The New York Times, August 29, 1942 ^ 100 Million in Bonds Already Sold by Radio for Gov't; Blue Net Alone Sold 16 Million. Billboard, September 12, 1942. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "More on War Bond Selling". Broadcasting, August 31, 1942, page 50. ^ Barnouw, Erik (ed.), Radio Drama in Action: 25 Plays of a Changing World. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1945. Written by Orson Welles in collaboration with Robert Meltzer and Norris Houghton, the radio play Columbus Day appears on pp. 4–13. ^ Hickerson, Jay, The Ultimate History of Network Radio Programming and Guide to All Circulating Shows. Hamden, Connecticut, second edition December 1992, page 303 ^ Charvet, David, " Orson Welles
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the Magician". Genii, The Conjurors' Magazine, Volume 63 Number 2, February 15, 2000 ^ a b Welles Dishes Magic, Sawdust at Mercury Bow. Abbott, Sam, Billboard, August 14, 1943, page 4. Retrieved 2014-06-10.  ^ a b Leaming, Barbara, If This Was Happiness: A Biography of Rita Hayworth. New York: Viking, 1989 ISBN 0-670-81978-6 ^ " Orson Welles
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Times, September 28, 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "70 years ago: Orson Welles's patriotism, military service made headlines". Wellesnet, May 3, 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ " The Jack Benny Program
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Almanac—Part 1". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ " Orson Welles
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Almanac—Part 2". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ Bigard, Barney, and Martyn, Barry (ed.), With Louis and the Duke: The Autobiography of a Jazz Clarinetist. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. ISBN 0-19-520637-1 ^ Associated Press
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in War Loan Drive". Oakland Tribune.  ^ "Opening Fifth War Loan Drive, June 12, 1944". Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ "Brief History of World War Two Advertising Campaigns War Loans and Bonds". Duke University Libraries. Retrieved 2015-08-27.  ^ "FDR Preparing Radio Address". The Miami News
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(United Press), September 21, 1944. Retrieved 2014-09-21.  ^ " Fenway Park
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is spectacle of color as leaders rally for FDR". Ainley, Leslie G., Boston Globe, November 5, 1944. Retrieved 2014-09-21.  ^ a b "This Is My Best". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-09-21.  ^ a b "This Is My Best". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2014-09-21.  ^ "Presidential Coverage Wins High Praise". Broadcasting April 23, 1945, page 68. ^ "Radio Handles Tragic News with Dignity". Broadcasting, April 16, 1945, page 18. ^ "Local Interest Coverage Aim of Independents at Conference". Broadcasting, April 2, 1945, page 20. ^ Display advertisement, "What America's Youngest News Network Is Doing About the Greatest News Story of Our Time". American Broadcasting Company, Inc., The Blue Network. Broadcasting, April 30, 1945, pp. 22–23 ^ "The Stranger". AFI Catalog of Feature Films. American Film Institute. Retrieved 2015-05-10.  ^ a b c Wood, Bret (2013). Audio commentary, The Stranger (Blu-ray Disc). New York: Kino Classics. OCLC 862466296.  ^ Wilson, Kristi M.; Crowder-Taraborrelli, Tomás F. (eds.). Film and Genocide. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin
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Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780299285647.  ^ a b Barker, Jennifer L. (2012). "Documenting the Holocaust in Orson Welles's The Stranger". In Wilson, Kristi M.; Crowder-Taraborrelli, Tomás F. Film and Genocide. Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin
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Press. pp. 55–58. ISBN 9780299285647.  ^ Thomson, David (1996). Rosebud: The Story of Orson Welles. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 268. ISBN 9780679418344.  ^ Kehr, Dave. "The Lady From Shanghai". Chicago
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Reader. Retrieved 2018-03-16.  ^ " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
doth foully slaughter Shakespeare
Shakespeare
in a dialect version of his "Tragedy of Macbeth" — or so sayeth LIFE magazine". Wellesnet. Retrieved September 1, 2011.  ^ Williams, Tony. "Macbeth". Senses of Cinema. Retrieved September 1, 2011.  ^ Carol Reed
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biography ^ DVD Talk
Talk
review February 9, 2010 (Retrieved December 29, 2011) ^ " I Love Lucy
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(1956–57), 'Lucy Meets Orson Welles'". The Classic TV Archive. Retrieved 2015-04-09.  ^ "Tomorrow". RadioGOLDINdex. Retrieved 2014-09-03.  ^ "Tomorrow". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2014-09-03.  ^ a b c Heston, Charlton, In the Arena: An Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995, ISBN 9780684803944 ^ "Welles BBC
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interview". Wellesnet.com. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ Drew, Robert (1973). "Who's Out There?". Drew Associates. Retrieved 2016-08-19.  ^ "Who's Out There— Orson Welles
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narrates a NASA
NASA
show on intelligent life in the Universe". Wellesnet. February 10, 2008. Retrieved 2016-08-19.  ^ " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Oja Kodar Papers 1910–1998 (Box 17)". University of Michigan Special
Special
Collections Library. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ a b Kleiner, Dick (December 30, 1976). "No title". Oakland Tribune.  ^ a b Lochte, Dick (January 30, 1977). "TV finally tunes in Nero Wolfe". Los Angeles
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Times.  ^ Smith, Liz (March 14, 1977). "People". The Baltimore Sun. Paramount bought the entire set of Nero Wolfe
Nero Wolfe
stories for Orson Welles, who is enjoying a renaissance of popularity in Hollywood
Hollywood
and the world.  ^ Gilroy, Frank D., I Wake Up Screening. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8093-1856-3 p. 147 ^ Boyer, Peter J., " NBC
NBC
Fall Schedule," Associated Press, March 24, 1980 ^ Beck, Marilyn (November 24, 1980). "Marilyn Beck's Hollywood". Milwaukee Journal ( Chicago
Chicago
Tribune New York News Syndicate).  ^ Jaffe, Michael (December 2001). "A Labor of Love: The Nero Wolfe Television Series". In Kaye, Marvin. The Nero Wolfe
Nero Wolfe
Files. Maryland: Wildside Press (published 2005). pp. 86–91. ISBN 0-8095-4494-6.  ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(October 26, 1982). "People in the News".  ^ Bronson, Gail, "In Advertising, Big Names Mean Big Money." U.S. News & World Report, July 4, 1983 ^ The "probably" tag is still in use today. ^ Salmans, Sandra, "Many Stars are Playing Pitchmen—With No Regrets." The New York Times, May 3, 1981 ^ Davies, Rob (November 21, 2016). "George the bear seeks new followers as Hofmeister lager returns". The Guardian.  ^ Magnum, P.I., episode "Paper War", 1986 ^ " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- I Know What It Is To Be Young (But You Don't Know What It Is To Be Old) (CD) at Discogs". Discogs.com. June 25, 1996. Retrieved December 21, 2012.  ^ a b c Biskind, Peter. "Three Courses of Orson Welles". New York magazine. New York Media LLC. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Biskind" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ "A Daughter Remembers Orson Welles: A talk with Chris Welles Feder on her new book, In My Father's Shadow – Part One". Lawrence French, Wellesnet, November 8, 2009. Retrieved November 10, 2013.  ^ " Orson Welles
Orson Welles
is Divorced by Wife". Associated Press
Associated Press
(Evening Independent), February 1, 1940. Retrieved February 7, 2014.  ^ Ramón, David (1997). Dolores del Río. México: Clío. p. 11. ISBN 968-6932-35-6.  ^ "Orson Welles' Last Interview (excerpt)". The Merv Griffin
Merv Griffin
Show, October 10, 1985. Retrieved 2014-09-11.  ^ "Rebecca Manning Obituary". The News Tribune, Tacoma, Washington, October 21–22, 2004. Retrieved 2014-05-11.  ^ a b Witchel, Alex (September 30, 2011). "Are You My Father, Orson Welles?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-04-27.  ^ Hodgson, Moira (September 30, 2011). "A Director Casts About for Clues". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015-08-31.  ^ a b Lindsay-Hogg, Michael (2011). Luck and Circumstance: A Coming of Age in Hollywood, New York and Points Beyond. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-59468-6.  ^ Thorpe, Vanessa (January 30, 2010). "The 'only son' of Orson Welles to take DNA test". Retrieved 2015-08-31.  ^ Weigand, David (March 5, 2010). "Twists, turns in 'Prodigal Sons' documentary". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation. Retrieved November 17, 2012.  ^ "In beloved memory of Marc McKerrow". Marc McKerrow Foundation. 2010. Archived from the original on November 17, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.  ^ "The Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Almanac—Part 1". Internet Archive. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ Noble, Peter, The Fabulous Orson Welles. London: Hutchinson and Co., 1956. ^ Callow, Simon. Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. ISBN 978-0099462514.  ^ a b c d e f Whaley, Barton, Orson Welles: The Man Who Was Magic. Lybrary.com, 2005, ^ Kirk Bates (February 8, 1940). "Kenosha Is Indignant Over Some Orson Welles Stories". The Milwaukee Journal.  ^ Terrail, Patrick, A Taste of Hollywood: The Story of Ma Maison. New York: Lebhar-Friedman Books, 1999. ISBN 9780867307672 ^ a b c d Callow, Simon (May 19, 2006). "'This Greater Drama'". The Guardian.  ^ "'Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television (1950)'". AuthenticHistory.com. July 18, 2012.  ^ "Widow of Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Dies After Car Crash". Associated Press. August 13, 1986. Retrieved 2014-12-12.  ^ "Spanish film association places flowers on Orson Welles
Orson Welles
grave". Wellesnet. May 7, 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-09.  ^ Roffman, Michael (August 7, 2015). "Lost Orson Welles
Orson Welles
film to premiere at the 72nd Venice
Venice
International Film Festival". Consequence of Sound. Retrieved August 7, 2015.  ^ " Hollywood
Hollywood
Ending Near for Orson Welles's Last Film". Carvajal, Doreen, The New York Times. October 28, 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-29.  ^ " Beatrice Welles on completing 'The Other Side of the Wind'". Kelly, Ray, Wellesnet. October 29, 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-30.  ^ "'The Other Side of the Wind' remains on Christmas wish list". Kelly, Ray, Wellesnet. December 1, 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-13.  ^ Barnes, Brooks (March 14, 2017). "Unfinished Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Film Gets a Netflix
Netflix
Commitment". The New York Times. Retrieved March 14, 2017.  ^ Fleming Jr, Mike (March 14, 2017). " Netflix
Netflix
To Finish Orson Welles Last Pic 'The Other Side Of The Wind'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved March 14, 2017.  ^ Raup, Jordan (March 14, 2017). "Orson Welles' 'The Other Side of the Wind' Officially Coming to Netflix". The Film Stage. Retrieved March 14, 2017.  ^ "Unfinished Orson Welles
Orson Welles
film found in Italy". Telegraph. Retrieved August 9, 2013.  ^ a b Ramón (1997),vol. 1, p. 59 ^ Welles, Orson, and Peter Bogdanovich, This is Orson Welles. HarperAudio, September 30, 1992. ISBN 1559946806 Audiotape 1A 13:07–14:46. ^ "See also the relevant entries for 'Moby Dick' in Kenneth Williams' autobiography ''Just Williams''". Str.org.uk. Retrieved March 20, 2012.  ^ French, Lawrence (August 30, 2009). "''Cinefantastique'' (August 30, 2009)". Cinefantastiqueonline.com. Retrieved March 20, 2012.  ^ Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
and Orson Welles, This is Orson Welles
This is Orson Welles
(New York, 1992, revised 1997 edition) pp.xxi-xxii ^ a b "Amateur Dramatic Groups to Compete for Trophy at Fair". Ruston Daily Leader (United Press, July 7, 1933). July 8, 1933.  ^ "'Jitters' Opening Now Due on May 2". The New York Times. April 8, 1938. Retrieved 2017-08-29.  ^ "1941 Awards". New York Film Critics Circle. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  ^ "Ten Best 1941". National Board of Review
National Board of Review
Magazine. Vol. XVII no. 1. National Board of Review. January 1942. p. 4. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  ^ "Ten Best 1941". National Board of Review
National Board of Review
Magazine. Vol. XVII no. 1. National Board of Review. January 1942. p. 6. Retrieved 2016-02-17.  ^ "Straus Given Trophy". Broadcasting, June 4, 1945, page 24. ^ "The awards of the Venice
Venice
Film Festival". La Biennale di Venezia. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  ^ Verswijver, Leo (2003). "Movies Were Always Magical": Interviews with 19 Actors, Directors, and Producers from the Hollywood
Hollywood
of the 1930s Through the 1950s. McFarland. p. 89. ISBN 0-7864-1129-5.  ^ "The AFI Life Achievement Awards". American Film Institute. Retrieved 2017-04-28.  ^ "Great American Documents". GRAMMY Search Database. Retrieved 2017-04-28.  ^ "4th Annual Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Film Critics Association Awards". Los Angeles Film Critics Association. Retrieved 2017-04-28.  ^ "Citizen Kane". WorldCat. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  ^ "Citizen Kane". GRAMMY Search Database. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  ^ "Past Award Recipients". Broadcasting Hall of Fame. National Association of Broadcasters. Retrieved 2017-04-28.  ^ "Donovan's Brain". WorldCat. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  ^ "Donovan's Brain". GRAMMY Search Database. Retrieved 2017-01-01.  ^ Larsen, Bill (November 1984). " The Academy of Magical Arts
The Academy of Magical Arts
17th Annual Awards Banquet and Show". Genii. Vol. 48 no. 11. p. 37. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Hall of Fame". The Academy of Magical Arts.  ^ "'1985 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved 2015-09-07.  ^ "Orson Welles". National Radio Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2017-04-28.  ^ "Rock to opera, a full list of nominees"; USA Today, January 8, 1993 ^ This is Orson Welles, HarperAudio (September 30, 1992) ISBN 1-55994-680-6 (audiocassette) ^ "AFI's 100 Years … 100 Stars". American Film Institute. 1999. Retrieved 2015-08-17.  ^ Hormiga, Gustavo (2002). "Orsonwelles, a new genus of giant linyphiid spiders (Araneae) from the Hawaiian Islands" (PDF). Invertebrate Systematics. 16: 369–448.  ^ Ivo Scepanovic (January 17, 2008). " Orson Welles
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becomes 'Citizen of Split'". SETimes. Archived from the original on October 6, 2014.  ^ " Orson Welles
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Stage dedicated at Woodstock Opera House". Wellesnet. February 10, 2013. Retrieved 2014-09-23.  ^ " Orson Welles
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Further reading[edit] Further information: Orson Welles
Orson Welles
bibliography Archival sources[edit]

Guide to the Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Materials, Lilly Library, Indiana University Finding Aid for the Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Oja Kodar Papers 1910–1998 (bulk 1965–1985), Special
Special
Collections Library, University of Michigan Finding Aid for the Richard Wilson – Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Papers 1930–2000 (bulk 1930–1991), Special
Special
Collections Library, University of Michigan Finding Aid for the Orson Welles
Orson Welles
– Chris Welles Feder Collection 1931–2009, Special
Special
Collections Library, University of Michigan Finding Aid for the Orson Welles
Orson Welles
– Alessandro Tasca di Cutò Papers 1947–1995, Special
Special
Collections Library, University of Michigan

External links[edit]

Find more aboutOrson Wellesat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Data from Wikidata

Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at Encyclopædia Britannica Orson Welles
Orson Welles
on IMDb Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at the Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at AllMovie Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at the TCM Movie Database Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at Rotten Tomatoes Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at Find a Grave Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at UbuWeb FBI Records: The Vault — George Orson Welles
Orson Welles
at vault.fbi.gov Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air "The Unseen Orson Welles". Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Retrieved July 1, 2010. CS1 maint: Unfit url (link) "Orson Welles," annotated bibliography at Oxford Bibliographies Online (Cinema and Media Studies) Orson Welles: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library Orson Welles
Orson Welles
on the Air, 1938–1946 at Indiana University
Indiana University
Bloomington

v t e

Orson Welles

Filmography Radio credits Theatre credits Discography Bibliography Awards and nominations

Feature films

Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
(1941) The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
(1942) The Stranger (1946) The Lady from Shanghai
The Lady from Shanghai
(1947) Macbeth
Macbeth
(1948) Othello
Othello
(1951) Mr. Arkadin
Mr. Arkadin
(1955) Touch of Evil
Touch of Evil
(1958) The Trial
The Trial
(1962) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) The Immortal Story
The Immortal Story
(1968) F for Fake
F for Fake
(1974) Filming Othello
Othello
(1979)

Shorts

Twelfth Night (1933) The Hearts of Age (1934) The Green Goddess (lost film) (1939) Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
trailer (1940) Around the World (lost film) (1946) The Miracle of St. Anne (lost film) (1950) Magic Trick (1953) The Dominici Affair (1955) Portrait of Gina (1958) An Evening with Orson Welles (1970) Orson's Bag (1968–69)

incorporating Vienna (1968) The Merchant of Venice
Venice
(1969) One Man Band, aka London (1968–71)

Moby Dick (1971) Orson Welles' Magic Show (1976–85) The Spirit of Charles Lindbergh (1984)

Unfinished films

Too Much Johnson
Too Much Johnson
(1938) It's All True (1942) Don Quixote
Don Quixote
(1957–69) The Heroine (lost film) (1967) The Deep (1967–70) The Other Side of the Wind
The Other Side of the Wind
(1970–76) Filming 'The Trial' (1981) The Dreamers (1980–82)

Television

Orson Welles' Sketch Book
Orson Welles' Sketch Book
(1955) Around the World with Orson Welles
Around the World with Orson Welles
(1955) Orson Welles and People (lost) (1956) The Fountain of Youth (1958) In the Land of Don Quixote
Don Quixote
(1964) The Orson Welles Show (1979)

Theatre

Marching Song (1932) Bright Lucifer Voodoo Macbeth
Voodoo Macbeth
(1936) Horse Eats Hat
Horse Eats Hat
(1936) Caesar (1937–38) Too Much Johnson
Too Much Johnson
(1938) Native Son
Native Son
(1941) The Mercury Wonder Show
The Mercury Wonder Show
(1943) Around the World (musical)
Around the World (musical)
(1946) Othello
Othello
(1951) The Lady in the Ice (ballet) (1953) Moby Dick—Rehearsed (1955) Rhinoceros (1960)

Radio

Les Misérables (1937) The Shadow
The Shadow
(1937–38) The Mercury Theatre
Mercury Theatre
on the Air (including "The War of the Worlds") (1938) The Campbell Playhouse (1938–40) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Show (1941–42) Ceiling Unlimited
Ceiling Unlimited
(1942–43) Hello Americans
Hello Americans
(1942–43) The Orson Welles Almanac
The Orson Welles Almanac
(1944) This Is My Best (1945) Orson Welles Commentaries
Orson Welles Commentaries
(1945–46) The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air
The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air
(1946) The Adventures of Harry Lime
Harry Lime
(1951–52) The Black Museum
The Black Museum
(1951–52)

Spoken-word recordings

The Happy Prince (1946) The Airborne Symphony (1966) The Begatting of the President (1970)

Books

This is Orson Welles
This is Orson Welles
(1992) Les Bravades
Les Bravades
(1996)

Related

Mercury Theatre Frozen Peas Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Paul Masson
Paul Masson
adverts It's All True: Based on an Unfinished Film by Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1993 documentary) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(crater) Magician: The Astonishing Life and Work of Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(2014 documentary)

Awards for Orson Welles

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Original Screenplay

1940–1960

Preston Sturges
Preston Sturges
(1940) Herman J. Mankiewicz
Herman J. Mankiewicz
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1941) Michael Kanin
Michael Kanin
and Ring Lardner Jr.
Ring Lardner Jr.
(1942) Norman Krasna (1943) Lamar Trotti (1944) Richard Schweizer (1945) Muriel Box and Sydney Box (1946) Sidney Sheldon (1947) No award (1948) Robert Pirosh (1949) Charles Brackett, D. M. Marshman Jr. and Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1950) Alan Jay Lerner
Alan Jay Lerner
(1951) T. E. B. Clarke (1952) Charles Brackett, Richard L. Breen and Walter Reisch (1953) Budd Schulberg
Budd Schulberg
(1954) Sonya Levien and William Ludwig (1955) Albert Lamorisse
Albert Lamorisse
(1956) George Wells (1957) Nathan E. Douglas and Harold Jacob Smith (1958) Clarence Greene, Maurice Richlin, Russell Rouse and Stanley Shapiro (1959) I. A. L. Diamond and Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1960)

1961–1980

William Inge
William Inge
(1961) Ennio de Concini, Pietro Germi, and Alfredo Giannetti (1962) James Webb (1963) Peter Stone and Frank Tarloff (1964) Frederic Raphael (1965) Claude Lelouch
Claude Lelouch
and Pierre Uytterhoeven (1966) William Rose (1967) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(1968) William Goldman
William Goldman
(1969) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
and Edmund H. North (1970) Paddy Chayefsky
Paddy Chayefsky
(1971) Jeremy Larner (1972) David S. Ward
David S. Ward
(1973) Robert Towne
Robert Towne
(1974) Frank Pierson
Frank Pierson
(1975) Paddy Chayefsky
Paddy Chayefsky
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
and Marshall Brickman (1977) Robert C. Jones, Waldo Salt, and Nancy Dowd (1978) Steve Tesich
Steve Tesich
(1979) Bo Goldman
Bo Goldman
(1980)

1981–2000

Colin Welland (1981) John Briley (1982) Horton Foote (1983) Robert Benton (1984) William Kelley, Pamela Wallace and Earl W. Wallace (1985) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1986) John Patrick Shanley
John Patrick Shanley
(1987) Ronald Bass and Barry Morrow (1988) Tom Schulman (1989) Bruce Joel Rubin (1990) Callie Khouri
Callie Khouri
(1991) Neil Jordan
Neil Jordan
(1992) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
and Roger Avary
Roger Avary
(1994) Christopher McQuarrie
Christopher McQuarrie
(1995) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (1996) Ben Affleck
Ben Affleck
and Matt Damon
Matt Damon
(1997) Marc Norman and Tom Stoppard
Tom Stoppard
(1998) Alan Ball (1999) Cameron Crowe
Cameron Crowe
(2000)

2001–present

Julian Fellowes
Julian Fellowes
(2001) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(2002) Sofia Coppola
Sofia Coppola
(2003) Pierre Bismuth, Michel Gondry
Michel Gondry
and Charlie Kaufman
Charlie Kaufman
(2004) Paul Haggis
Paul Haggis
and Bobby Moresco (2005) Michael Arndt
Michael Arndt
(2006) Diablo Cody
Diablo Cody
(2007) Dustin Lance Black
Dustin Lance Black
(2008) Mark Boal
Mark Boal
(2009) David Seidler (2010) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(2011) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2012) Spike Jonze
Spike Jonze
(2013) Alejandro G. Iñárritu, Nicolás Giacobone, Alexander Dinelaris Jr., and Armando Bo (2014) Tom McCarthy and Josh Singer (2015) Kenneth Lonergan
Kenneth Lonergan
(2016) Jordan Peele
Jordan Peele
(2017)

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

Cannes Film Festival Best Actor Award

1946-1975

Ray Milland
Ray Milland
(1946) Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1949) Michael Redgrave
Michael Redgrave
(1951) Marlon Brando
Marlon Brando
(1952) Charles Vanel
Charles Vanel
(1953) Spencer Tracy/cast of Bolshaya Semya (1955) John Kitzmiller
John Kitzmiller
(1957) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
(1958) Bradford Dillman/Dean Stockwell/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1959) Anthony Perkins
Anthony Perkins
(1961) Dean Stockwell/Jason Robards/Ralph Richardson/ Murray Melvin
Murray Melvin
(1962) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(1963) Antal Páger/ Saro Urzì
Saro Urzì
(1964) Terence Stamp
Terence Stamp
(1965) Per Oscarsson
Per Oscarsson
(1966) Oded Kotler
Oded Kotler
(1967) Jean-Louis Trintignant
Jean-Louis Trintignant
(1969) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1970) Riccardo Cucciolla
Riccardo Cucciolla
(1971) Jean Yanne (1972) Giancarlo Giannini
Giancarlo Giannini
(1973) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1974) Vittorio Gassman
Vittorio Gassman
(1975)

1976-2000

José Luis Gómez
José Luis Gómez
(1976) Fernando Rey
Fernando Rey
(1977) Jon Voight
Jon Voight
(1978) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1979) Michel Piccoli
Michel Piccoli
(1980) Ugo Tognazzi
Ugo Tognazzi
(1981) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1982) Gian Maria Volontè
Gian Maria Volontè
(1983) Alfredo Landa/ Francisco Rabal
Francisco Rabal
(1984) William Hurt
William Hurt
(1985) Michel Blanc/ Bob Hoskins
Bob Hoskins
(1986) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1987) Forest Whitaker
Forest Whitaker
(1988) James Spader
James Spader
(1989) Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
(1990) John Turturro
John Turturro
(1991) Tim Robbins
Tim Robbins
(1992) David Thewlis
David Thewlis
(1993) Ge You (1994) Jonathan Pryce
Jonathan Pryce
(1995) Pascal Duquenne/ Daniel Auteuil
Daniel Auteuil
(1996) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(1997) Peter Mullan
Peter Mullan
(1998) Emmanuel Schotte (1999) Tony Leung Chiu-wai
Tony Leung Chiu-wai
(2000)

2001-present

Benoît Magimel
Benoît Magimel
(2001) Olivier Gourmet
Olivier Gourmet
(2002) Muzaffer Ozdemir/Emin Toprak (2003) Yūya Yagira (2004) Tommy Lee Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
(2005) Jamel Debbouze/Samy Naceri/Roschdy Zem/Sami Bouajila/Bernard Blancan (2006) Konstantin Lavronenko (2007) Benicio del Toro
Benicio del Toro
(2008) Christoph Waltz
Christoph Waltz
(2009) Javier Bardem/ Elio Germano
Elio Germano
(2010) Jean Dujardin
Jean Dujardin
(2011) Mads Mikkelsen
Mads Mikkelsen
(2012) Bruce Dern
Bruce Dern
(2013) Timothy Spall
Timothy Spall
(2014) Vincent Lindon
Vincent Lindon
(2015) Shahab Hosseini
Shahab Hosseini
(2016) Joaquin Phoenix
Joaquin Phoenix
(2017)

v t e

AFI Life Achievement Award

John Ford
John Ford
(1973) James Cagney
James Cagney
(1974) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1975) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1976) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1977) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1978) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1979) James Stewart
James Stewart
(1980) Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
(1981) Frank Capra
Frank Capra
(1982) John Huston
John Huston
(1983) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
(1984) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1985) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1986) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1987) Jack Lemmon
Jack Lemmon
(1988) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1989) David Lean
David Lean
(1990) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1991) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(1992) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1993) Jack Nicholson
Jack Nicholson
(1994) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1996) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1997) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1998) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(1999) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2000) Barbra Streisand
Barbra Streisand
(2001) Tom Hanks
Tom Hanks
(2002) Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2004) George Lucas
George Lucas
(2005) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2006) Al Pacino
Al Pacino
(2007) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2008) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2009) Mike Nichols
Mike Nichols
(2010) Morgan Freeman
Morgan Freeman
(2011) Shirley MacLaine
Shirley MacLaine
(2012) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2013) Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
(2014) Steve Martin
Steve Martin
(2015) John Williams
John Williams
(2016) Diane Keaton
Diane Keaton
(2017) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2018)

v t e

Grammy Award
Grammy Award
for Best Spoken Word Album

1959−1980

Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
– The Best of the Stan Freberg
Stan Freberg
Shows (1959) Carl Sandburg
Carl Sandburg
Lincoln Portrait (1960) Robert Bialek (producer) – FDR Speaks (1961) Leonard Bernstein
Leonard Bernstein
– Humor in Music (1962) Charles Laughton
Charles Laughton
– The Story-Teller: A Session With Charles Laughton (1963) Edward Albee
Edward Albee
(playwright) – Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(1964) That Was the Week That Was
That Was the Week That Was
BBC
BBC
Tribute to John F. Kennedy (1965) Goddard Lieberson
Goddard Lieberson
(producer) – John F. Kennedy - As We Remember Him (1966) Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
Edward R. Murrow
- A Reporter Remembers, Vol. I The War Years (1967) Everett Dirksen
Everett Dirksen
– Gallant Men (1968) Rod McKuen
Rod McKuen
– Lonesome Cities (1969) Art Linkletter
Art Linkletter
& Diane Linkletter – We Love You Call Collect (1970) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
– Why I Oppose the War in Vietnam (1971) Les Crane
Les Crane
– Desiderata (1972) Bruce Botnick (producer) – Lenny performed by the original Broadway cast (1973) Richard Harris
Richard Harris
Jonathan Livingston Seagull (1974) Peter Cook
Peter Cook
and Dudley Moore
Dudley Moore
– Good Evening (1975) James Whitmore
James Whitmore
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
Give 'em Hell, Harry!
(1976) Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes, James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
and Orson Welles
Orson Welles
- Great American Documents (1977) Julie Harris – The Belle of Amherst
The Belle of Amherst
(1978) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Citizen Kane
Citizen Kane
Original Motion Picture Soundtrack (1979) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
– Ages of Man - Readings From Shakespeare
Shakespeare
(1980)

1981−2000

Pat Carroll – Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Stein
Gertrude Stein
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
Donovan's Brain
Donovan's Brain
(1982) Tom Voegeli (producer) – Raiders of the Lost Ark
Raiders of the Lost Ark
- The Movie on Record performed by Various Artists (1983) William Warfield
William Warfield
Lincoln Portrait (1984) Ben Kingsley
Ben Kingsley
– The Words of Gandhi (1985) Mike Berniker (producer) & the original Broadway cast – Ma Rainey's Black Bottom (1986) Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chips Moman, Ricky Nelson, Roy Orbison, Carl Perkins
Carl Perkins
and Sam Phillips
Sam Phillips
– Interviews From the Class of '55 Recording Sessions (1987) Garrison Keillor
Garrison Keillor
Lake Wobegon Days (1988) Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
– Speech by Rev. Jesse Jackson
Jesse Jackson
(1989) Gilda Radner
Gilda Radner
– It's Always Something (1990) George Burns
George Burns
– Gracie: A Love Story (1991) Ken Burns
Ken Burns
– The Civil War (1992) Earvin "Magic" Johnson and Robert O'Keefe – What You Can Do to Avoid AIDS (1993) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
On the Pulse of Morning
On the Pulse of Morning
(1994) Henry Rollins
Henry Rollins
– Get in the Van (1995) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
– Phenomenal Woman (1996) Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton
It Takes a Village (1997) Charles Kuralt
Charles Kuralt
– Charles Kuralt's Spring (1998) Christopher Reeve
Christopher Reeve
Still Me
Still Me
(1999) LeVar Burton
LeVar Burton
– The Autobiography of Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(2000)

2001−present

Sidney Poitier, Rick Harris & John Runnette (producers) – The Measure of a Man: A Spiritual Autobiography (2001) Quincy Jones, Jeffrey S. Thomas, Steven Strassman (engineers) and Elisa Shokoff (producer) – Q: The Autobiography of Quincy Jones (2002) Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
and Charles B. Potter (producer) – A Song Flung Up to Heaven / Robin Williams, Nathaniel Kunkel (engineer/mixer) and Peter Asher (producer) – Live 2002 (2003) Al Franken
Al Franken
and Paul Ruben (producer) – Lies and the Lying Liars Who Tell Them (2004) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
– My Life (2005) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Dreams from My Father
Dreams from My Father
(2006) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis / Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee
Ruby Dee
- With Ossie and Ruby (2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
and Jacob Bronstein (producer) – The Audacity of Hope (2008) Beau Bridges, Cynthia Nixon
Cynthia Nixon
and Blair Underwood
Blair Underwood
– An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore
Al Gore
(2009) Michael J. Fox
Michael J. Fox
– Always Looking Up (2010) Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
– The Daily Show with Jon Stewart
Jon Stewart
Presents Earth (The Audiobook) (2011) Betty White
Betty White
– If You Ask Me (And Of Course You Won't) (2012) Janis Ian
Janis Ian
– Society's Child (2013) Stephen Colbert
Stephen Colbert
– America Again: Re-becoming The Greatness We Never Weren't (2014) Joan Rivers
Joan Rivers
– Diary of a Mad Diva (2015) Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
– A Full Life: Reflections at 90 (2016) Carol Burnett
Carol Burnett
– In Such Good Company: Eleven Years of Laughter, Mayhem, and Fun in the Sandbox (2017) Carrie Fisher
Carrie Fisher
The Princess Diarist
The Princess Diarist
(2018)

v t e

Academy of Magical Arts
Academy of Magical Arts
Special
Special
Fellowship

1968: Carl Owen 1969: Goodliffe, Charlie Miller, Ed Sullivan
Ed Sullivan
(Honorary) 1970: Tenkai 1971: Faucett Ross 1972: Carl Ballantine, Marion Chavez, Dunninger 1973: Johnny Giordmaine 1977: Loring Campbell 1978: Lloyd E. Jones 1979: Burling Hull, Len Vintus 1980: Geraldine Larsen Jaffe, Jane Thurston Shepard 1981: Moi-Yo Miller 1982: Leon & Teddy Leon 1983: Robert Albo, Irving Desfor 1984: Marie Marshall, Shigeo Takagi, Orson Welles 1986: Stan Kramien, James Randi, Harry Stanley 1987: Bob Barker, Jim Ravel 1988: Tom Bradley, Homer Hudson 1989: John Fisher 1990: Charles Schulz 1991: Marshall Brodien 1992: Irene Larsen 1994: Ton Onosaka 1995: Lynette Chappell, Litzka Raymond Gibson, John Salisse 1996: Joe Stevens 1997: Roy Walton, Senor Wences 1998: Jules Lenier 1999: Martin Breese 2000: David Berglas, Diana Zimmerman 2001: John "Kaz" Kasnetsis 2002: Rick Heath, Louis St. Pierre Jr. 2003: Manfred Thumm 2004: Mark Nelson 2005: Rich Bloch, Dale Hindman, Lew Horwitz 2006: Leo Behnke 2007: The Amazing Jonathan 2008: Eric Eswin 2009: Steve Forte 2010: Jules Fisher 2012: EMC Producers (Luis de Matos, David Britland, Marco Tempest), Carl Williams 2013: Robert Neale, Joanie Spina 2014: Avner Eisenberg 2016: Dr. Edwin Dawes, Franz Harary

v t e

Presidents of the César Awards ceremonies

Jean Gabin
Jean Gabin
(1976) Lino Ventura
Lino Ventura
(1977) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1978) Charles Vanel
Charles Vanel
(1979) Jean Marais
Jean Marais
(1980) Yves Montand
Yves Montand
(1981) Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1982) Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(1983) Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
(1984) Simone Signoret
Simone Signoret
(1985) Madeleine Renaud
Madeleine Renaud
and Jean-Louis Barrault
Jean-Louis Barrault
(1986) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1987) Miloš Forman
Miloš Forman
(1988) Peter Ustinov
Peter Ustinov
(1989) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1990) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1991) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1992) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1993) Gérard Depardieu
Gérard Depardieu
(1994) Alain Delon
Alain Delon
(1995) Philippe Noiret
Philippe Noiret
(1996) Annie Girardot
Annie Girardot
(1997) Juliette Binoche
Juliette Binoche
(1998) Isabelle Huppert
Isabelle Huppert
(1999) Alain Delon
Alain Delon
(2000) Daniel Auteuil
Daniel Auteuil
(2001) Nathalie Baye
Nathalie Baye
(2002) — (2003) Fanny Ardant
Fanny Ardant
(2004) Isabelle Adjani
Isabelle Adjani
(2005) Carole Bouquet
Carole Bouquet
(2006) Claude Brasseur
Claude Brasseur
(2007) Jean Rochefort
Jean Rochefort
(2008) Charlotte Gainsbourg
Charlotte Gainsbourg
(2009) Marion Cotillard
Marion Cotillard
(2010) Jodie Foster
Jodie Foster
(2011) Guillaume Canet
Guillaume Canet
(2012) Jamel Debbouze
Jamel Debbouze
(2013) François Cluzet
François Cluzet
(2014) Dany Boon
Dany Boon
(2015) Claude Lelouch
Claude Lelouch
(2016) – (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 110467783 LCCN: n79018425 ISNI: 0000 0001 2096 8527 GND: 118630822 SELIBR: 274299 SUDOC: 027195082 BNF: cb11929051b (data) BIBSYS: 90161563 ULAN: 500274668 MusicBrainz: cc98a7f6-1c7f-436b-b7f8-60ef310edd52 NLA: 35599159 NDL: 00516911 NKC: jn19990009042 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV115961 BNE: XX4722742 RKD: 288508 SN

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