ODISHA ( /əˈdɪsə/ ( listen ) ) (formerly ORISSA) (/ɒˈrɪsə,
ɔː-, oʊ-/ ; is one of the 29 states of
India , located in the
eastern coast. It is surrounded by the states of
West Bengal to the
Jharkhand to the north,
Chhattisgarh to the west and
Andhra Pradesh to the south.
Odisha has 485 kilometres
(301 mi) of coastline along the
Bay of Bengal on its east, from
Malkangiri . It is the 9th largest state by area , and
the 11th largest by population . It is also the 3rd most populous
India in terms of tribal population. Odia (formerly known as
Oriya) is the official and most widely spoken language, spoken by
33.2 million according to the 2001 Census.
The ancient kingdom of Kalinga , which was invaded by the Mauryan
Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the
Kalinga War , coincides
with the borders of modern-day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was
established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British
India , and
consisted predominantly of Odia-speaking regions. April 1 is
Odisha Day . The region is also known as UTKALA and is
mentioned in India's national anthem, "
Jana Gana Mana
Jana Gana Mana ".
made the capital of the region by
Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135,
after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through
the British era until 1948. Thereafter,
Bhubaneswar became the capital
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Climate
* 3.2 Biodiversity
* 4 Government and politics
* 4.1 Legislative assembly
* 4.2 Administrative units
* 5 Economy
* 5.1 Macro-economic trend
* 5.2 Industrial development
* 6 Transportation
* 6.1 Air
* 6.2 Seaports
* 6.3 Railways
* 7 Demographics
* 7.1 Religion
* 8 Education
* 10 Culture
* 10.1 Cuisine
* 10.2 Dance
* 11 Tourism
* 12 See also
* 13 References
* 14 External links
History of Odisha § Historical names of
The term "Odisha" is derived from the ancient
Prakrit word "Odda
Visaya" (also "Udra Bibhasha" or "Odra Bibhasha") as in the Tirumalai
Rajendra Chola I , which is dated to 1025. Sarala Das
, who translated the
Mahabharata into the
Odia language in the 15th
century, calls the region Odra Rashtra and Odisha. The inscriptions of
Kapilendra Deva of the
Gajapati Kingdom (1435–67) on the walls of
Puri call the region
The name of the state was changed from Orissa to Odisha, and the name
of its language from Oriya to Odia, in 2011, by the passage of the
Orissa (Alteration of Name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution (113th
Amendment) Bill, 2010 in the Parliament . After a brief debate, the
Lok Sabha , passed the bill and amendment on 9 November
2010. On 24 March 2011,
Rajya Sabha , the upper house of Parliament,
also passed the bill and the amendment.
History of Odisha and
Historic sites in Odisha
Lingaraja Temple built by the Somavanshi king Jajati Keshari
Acheulian tools dating to
Lower Paleolithic era have been
discovered in various places in the region, implying an early
settlement by humans. Kalinga has been mentioned in ancient texts
Vayu Purana and Mahagovinda Suttanta. The Sabar
Odisha have also been mentioned in the Mahabharata.
Baudhayana mentions Kalinga as not yet being influenced by Vedic
traditions, implying it followed mostly tribal traditions.
Hathigumpha on the Udayagiri Hills built in c. 150 BCE Shanti
Dhauli built by
Ashoka of the
Mauryan dynasty conquered Kalinga in the bloody Kalinga
War in 261 BCE, which was the eighth year of his reign. According to
his own edicts , in that war about 100,000 people were killed, 150,000
were captured and several more were affected. The resulting bloodshed
and suffering of the war is said to have deeply affected Ashoka. He
turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism.
By c. 150 CE, emperor
Kharavela , who was possibly a contemporary of
Demetrius I of Bactria , conquered a major part of the Indian
Kharavela was a
Jain ruler. He also built the monastery
atop the Udayagiri hill. Subsequently, the region was ruled by
monarchs, such as
Shashanka . It was also a part
Harsha 's empire.
Later, the kings of the Somavamsi dynasty began to unite the region.
By the reign of Yayati II, c. 1025 CE, they had integrated the region
into a single kingdom. Yayati II is supposed to have built the
Lingaraj temple at
Bhubaneswar . They were replaced by the Eastern
Ganga dynasty . Notable rulers of the dynasty were Anantavarman
Chodaganga , who began construction on the present-day Jagannath
Puri (c. 1135), and
Narasimhadeva I , who constructed the
Konark temple (c. 1250).
The Eastern Ganga Dynasty was followed by the
Gajapati Kingdom . The
region resisted integration into the
Mughal empire until 1568, when it
was conquered by
Sultanate of Bengal . Mukunda Deva, who is
considered the last independent king of Kalinga, was defeated and was
killed in battle by a rebel Ramachandra Bhanja. Ramachandra Bhanja
himself was killed by
Bayazid Khan Karrani . In 1591,
Man Singh I ,
then governor of
Bihar , led an army to take
Odisha from the Karranis
of Bengal . They agreed to treaty because their leader Qutlu Khan
Lohani had recently died. But, they then broke the treaty by attacking
the temple town of
Puri . Man Singh returned in 1592 and pacified the
region. Territory ruled by the
Nawab of Bengal , including
Bihar and Orissa
Orissa was the first subah (imperial top-level province) added to
Akbar's fifteen by
Shah Jahan . It had
Cuttack as seat and bordered
Bihar, Bengal and Golconda subahs as well as the remaining independent
and tributary chiefs. From 1717, the Orissa and Bijar governos were
reduced to deputies of the Nawab (later Nizam) of the
In 1751, the
Nawab of Bengal
Alivardi Khan ceded the region to the
Maratha Empire .
The British had occupied the
Northern Circars , comprising the
southern coast of Odisha, as a result of the 2nd
Carnatic War by 1760,
and incorporated them into the
Madras Presidency gradually. In 1803,
the British ousted the Marathas from the Puri-
Cuttack region of Odisha
Second Anglo-Maratha War . The northern and western
Odisha were incorporated into the
Bengal Presidency .
Orissa famine of 1866 caused an estimated 1 million deaths.
Following this, large-scale irrigation projects were undertaken. In
Utkal Sammilani organisation was founded to demand the
unification of Odia-speaking regions into one state. On 1 April 1912,
Orissa Province was formed. On 1 April 1936,
Orissa were split into separate provinces. The new province of Orissa
came into existence on a linguistic basis during the British rule in
India, with Sir John Austen Hubback as the first governor. Following
India\'s independence , on 15 August 1947, 27 princely states signed
the document to join Orissa.
Geography of Odisha
Mahanadi river near
Odisha lies between the latitudes 17.780N and 22.730N, and between
longitudes 81.37E and 87.53E. The state has an area of 155,707 km2,
which is 4.87% of total area of India, and a coastline of 450 km. In
the eastern part of the state lies the coastal plain. It extends from
Subarnarekha River in the north to the
Rushikulya river in the
south. The lake
Chilika is part of the coastal plains. The plains are
rich in fertile silt deposited by the six major rivers flowing into
Bay of Bengal : Subarnarekha ,
Baitarani , Brahmani
Rushikulya . The Central Rice Research Institute
Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization -recognised rice gene bank
and research institute, is situated on the banks of
Cuttack . Satellite view of the
Mahanadi river delta
Three-quarters of the state is covered in mountain ranges. Deep and
broad valleys have been made in them by rivers. These valleys have
fertile soil and are densely populated.
Odisha also has plateaus and
rolling uplands , which have lower elevation than the plateaus. The
highest point in the state is Deomali at 1672 metres. The other high
peaks are: Sinkaram (1620 m), Golikoda (1617 m), and Yendrika (1582
The state experiences four meteorological seasons : winter (January
to February), pre-monsoon season (March to May), south-west monsoon
season (June to September) and north east monsoon season
(October–December). However, locally the year is divided into six
traditional seasons (or rutus ): Basanta (spring), Grishma (summer),
Barsha (rainy season), Sharad (autumn), Hemant (winter), and Shishir
MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION OF SELECTED WEATHER STATIONS
Flora and fauna of Odisha White tiger in the
Irrawaddy dolphins can be found in
Vanda tessellata , one of the orchids found in
Chilika Lake Crocodile in
Bhitarkanika National Park
According to a Forest Survey of
India report released in 2012, Odisha
has 48,903 km2 of forests which cover 31.41% of the state's total
area. The forests are classified into: dense forest (7,060 km2),
medium dense forest (21,366 km2), open forest (forest without closed
canopy ; 20,477 km2) and scrub forest (4,734 km2). The state also has
bamboo forests (10,518 km2) and mangroves (221 km2). The state is
losing its forests to timber smuggling , mining , industrialisation
and grazing . There have been attempts at conservation and
Due to the climate and good rainfall, Odisha's evergreen and moist
forests are suitable habitats for wild orchids . Around 130 species
have been reported from the state. 97 of them are found in Mayurbhanj
district alone. The
Orchid House of Nandakanan Biological Park hosts
some of these species.
Simlipal National Park is a protected wildlife area and tiger reserve
spread over 2750 km2 of the northern part of
Mayurbhanj district . It
has 1078 species of plants, including 94 orchids. The sal tree is the
primary tree species there. The park has 55 mammals, including barking
Bengal tiger , common langur , four-horned antelope , Indian
Indian elephant ,
Indian giant squirrel ,
Indian leopard ,
jungle cat , sambar deer , and wild boar . There are 304 species of
birds in the park, such as the common hill myna , grey hornbill ,
Indian pied hornbill and
Malabar pied hornbill . It also has 60
species of reptiles, notable among which are the king cobra and
tricarinate hill turtle . There is also a mugger crocodile breeding
program in nearby Ramtirtha. The
Chandaka Elephant Sanctuary is a 190
km2 protected area near the capital city, Bhubaneswar. However, urban
expansion and over-grazing have reduced the forests and are driving
herds of elephants to migration. In 2002, there were about 80
elephants. But by 2012, their numbers had been reduced to 20. Many of
the animals have migrated toward the Barbara reserve forest, Chilika,
Nayagarh district , and
Athagad . Some elephants have died in
conflicts with villagers, while some have died during migration from
being electrocuted by power lines or hit by trains. Outside the
protected area, they are killed by poachers . Besides elephants, the
sanctuary also has Indian leopards , jungle cats and chitals .
Bhitarkanika National Park in
Kendrapara District covers 650 km2,
of which 150 km2 are mangroves. The Gahiramatha beach in Bhitarkanika
is the world's largest nesting site for olive ridley sea turtles .
Other major nesting grounds for the turtle in the state are Rushikulya
Ganjam district , and the mouth of the
Devi river . The
Bhitarkanika sanctuary is also noted for its large population of
salt-water crocodiles . In winter, the sanctuary is also visited by
migratory birds. Among the species of birds spotted in the sanctuary
are the black-crowned night heron , darter , grey heron , Indian
Oriental white ibis , purple heron , and sarus crane .
The possibly endangered horseshoe crab is also found in this region.
Chilika Lake is a brackish water lagoon on the east coast of Odisha
with an area of 1105 km2. It is connected to the
Bay of Bengal by a
35-km-long narrow channel and is a part of the
Mahanadi delta. In the
dry season, the tides bring in salt water. In the rainy season, the
rivers falling into the lagoon decrease its salinity. Birds from
places like the
Caspian Sea ,
Lake Baikal , other parts of
Central Asia ,
South-East Asia ,
Ladakh and the
Himalayas migrate to
the lagoon in winter. Among the birds spotted there are Eurasian
wigeon , pintail , bar-headed goose , greylag goose , flamingo ,
Goliath heron . The lagoon also has a small population
of the endangered
Irrawaddy dolphins . The state's coastal region has
also had sightings of finless porpoise , bottlenose dolphin , humpback
dolphin and spinner dolphin in its waters.
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
Odisha State Secretariat building in
Government of Odisha
All states in
India are governed by a parliamentary system of
government based on universal adult franchise . India's parliament is
bicameral . The lower house is called the
Lok Sabha . Odisha
contributes 21 members to Lok Sabha. They are directly elected by the
electorates. The upper house is called the
Rajya Sabha . Odisha
contributes 10 members to Rajya Sabha. They are elected by the state's
The main parties active in the politics of
Odisha are the Biju Janata
Dal , the
Indian National Congress and
Bhartiya Janata Party , CPI(M).
Odisha State Assembly Election in 2014 , the Naveen
Biju Janata Dal stayed in power for the fourth
Odisha Legislative Assembly
Odisha Legislative Assembly and
Odisha state has a unicameral legislature. The Odisha
Legislative Assembly consists of 147 elected members, and special
office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected
by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker ,
or by the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. Executive
authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief
Minister , although the titular head of government is the Governor of
Odisha . The Governor is appointed by the President of
India . The
leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative
Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the
Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of
the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the
Legislative Assembly. The 147 elected representatives are called
Members of the Legislative Assembly , or MLAs. One MLA may be
nominated from the
Anglo-Indian community by the Governor. The term
of the office is for 5 years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior
to the completion of the term.
List of districts of Odisha
There are 30 districts in
Cuttack , Deogarh , Dhenkanal , Gajapati ,
Kendrapara , Keonjhar ,
These 30 districts have been placed under three different revenue
divisions to streamline their governance. The divisions are North,
South and Central, with their headquarters at
Sambalpur , Berhampur
Cuttack respectively. Each division consists of 10 districts, and
has as its administrative head a Revenue Divisional Commissioner
(RDC). The position of the RDC in the administrative hierarchy is
that between that of the district administration and the state
secretariat. The RDCs report to the Board of Revenue, which is headed
by a senior officer of the
Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service . Map
of districts of
Division-wise list of districts
Each district is governed by a
District Collector , who is appointed
Indian Administrative Service
Indian Administrative Service . The Collector is
responsible for collecting the revenue and maintaining law and order
in the district. Each district is separated into sub-divisions, each
governed by a sub-divisional collectors and sub-divisional
magistrates. The sub-divisions are further divided into revenue blocks
called tehsils . The tehshils are headed by Tehsildars.
Odisha has 58
Sub-Divisions and 317 Tehsils. Blocks consists of
councils) and town municipalities.
The capital and largest city of the state is
Bhubaneswar . The other
major cities are
Rourkela , and
Municipal Corporations in
Other municipalities of
Chhatrapur , Deogarh , Dhenkanal ,
Rayagada , Sonepur ,
Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats , for which local body
elections are regularly held, govern local affairs.
The judiciary is composed of the
Odisha High Court , located at
Cuttack, and a system of lower courts.
Economy of Odisha
Odisha is experiencing steady economic growth. The impressive growth
in gross domestic product of the state has been reported by the
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth
rate is above the national average. The central Government's Urban
Development Ministry has recently announced the names of 20 cities
selected to be developed as smart cities. The state capital
Bhubaneswar is the first city in the list of smart Cities released in
January 2016, a pet project of Prime Minister
Narendra Modi . The
announcement also marked with sanction of Rs 50,802 crore over the
five years for development.
Odisha has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha
has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors
with investment proposals. It contains a fifth of India's coal, a
quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of
the chromite .
Rourkela Steel Plant was the first integrated steel
plant in the public sector in India, built with collaboration of
Rourkela Steel Plant
Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega
steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk
Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in
Bandhabahal is a major area of open cast coal mines in
Odisha. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment
in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information
technology as well. In power generation,
Reliance Power (Anil Ambani
Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an
investment of US $13 billion at Hirma in
Jharsuguda district .
In the year 2009
Odisha was the second top domestic investment
Gujarat first and
Andhra Pradesh in third place
according to an analysis of
ASSOCHAM Investment Meter (AIM) study on
corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total
investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth ₹.
2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the
sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state. Flood and
cyclone are the major hurdles in Odisha's development as the important
districts are situated near to the Bay of Bengal. In the five-year
period between 2004 and 2005 and 2008–09, Odisha's GDP has grown by
a stunning 8.74% way beyond the definition of 7% growth. It should be
noted that the all-
India growth during this period was 8.49%. In this
Odisha was the fourth fastest growing state, just behind
Malatipatpur Bus Stand,
Odisha has a network of roads, railways, airports and seaports.
Bhubaneswar is well connected by air, rail and road with the rest of
India. Some highways are getting expanded to four lanes. Plans for
metro rail connecting Bhubaneshwar and Cuttack, a journey of 30 km,
have also started.
Biju Patnaik International Airport ,
Odisha has a total of 17 airstrips and 16 helipads. The Government
Odisha have announced to develop an airport at Jharsuguda, making
it a full-fledged domestic airport. Five greenfield airports were also
to be upgraded at
Paradip and Rayagada
in an effort to boost intra-State and inter-State civil aviation.
Existing aerodromes at
Barbil , Gopalpur ,
Jharsuguda and Rourkela
were also to be upgraded.
Air Odisha , is Odisha's sole air charter
company based in
Savitri Jindal Airport
Biju Patnaik International Airport
* Brahmapur -
Charbatia Air Base
There are many sea ports in the long seacoast of odisha. some of them
Port of Dhamara
* Port of Gopalpur
* Port of
* Port of Subarnarekha
* Port of Astarang
* Port of Chandipur
East Coast Railway headquarters,
Major cities of
Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of
India by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway
Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast
Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at
Bhubaneswar and some parts under
South Eastern Railway and
South East Central Railway .
According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of Odisha
is 41,947,358, of which 21,201,678 (50.54%) are male and 20,745,680
(49.46%) are female, or 978 females per 1000 males. This represents a
13.97% increase over the population in 2001. The population density is
269 per km2.
The dominant ethnic group is the
Odia people , and Odia is the
official language; it is spoken as a native language by 81.8% of the
population. Linguistic minorities in the state are Bengali , Hindi ,
Urdu , Telugu , Ho , Santali . Some of the important tribes are Ho ,
Santhal , Bonda , Munda ,
Oraon , Kandha ,
Mahali and Kora.
The literacy rate is 73%, with 82% of males and 64% of females being
literate, according to the 2011 census.
The proportion of people living below the poverty line in 1999–2000
was 47.15% which is nearly double the Indian average of 26.10%.
Data of 1996–2001 showed the life expectancy in the state was 61.64
years, higher than the national value of years. The state has a birth
rate of 23.2 per 1,000 people per year, a death rate of 9.1 per 1,000
people per year, an infant mortality rate of 65 per 1000 live birth
and a maternal mortality rate of 358 per 1,000,000 live births. Odisha
Human Development Index
Human Development Index of 0.442 as of 2011.
2001–2011 SEX RATIO
0–6 years Child
ratio LITERACY RATE
Sikhism (1.05%) Buddhism
The majority (over 94% ) of people in the state of
Odisha are Hindu
and there is also a rich cultural heritage in the state. For example,
Odisha is home to several Hindu figures. Sant
Bhima Bhoi was a leader
of the Mahima sect movement .
Sarala Das , a Hindu
Khandayat , was the
translator of the epic
Mahabharata in Odia. Chaitanya Das was a
Buddhistic-Vaishnava and writer of the Nirguna Mahatmya.
the author of the
Gita Govinda .
Odisha Temple Authorisation Act of 1948 empowered the Government
Odisha to have Hindu temples open for all Hindus including the
Perhaps the oldest scripture of
Odisha is the Madala Panji from the
Puri Temple believed from 1042 AD. Famous Hindu Odia scripture
includes the 16th-century Bhagabata of Jagannatha Dasa. In the modern
times Madhusudan Rao was a major Odia writer, who was a Brahmo
Samajist and shaped modern
Odia literature at the start of the 20th
Odisha account for about 2.8% of the population while
Odia Muslims account for 2.2% as per census figures of 2001. The Sikh
Jain communities together account for 0.1% of the
population Large sections of the indigenous tribes follow
their indigenous natural religion.
Education in Odisha Panoramic View of Ravenshaw
Cuttack Educational Institutions
National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER) at
India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) at Bhubaneswar
* Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) at Bhubaneswar
* National Institute of Technology
Rourkela (NIT) at Rourkela
* Indian Institute of Management (IIM-SB) at Sambalpur
* Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) at
* Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology (VSSUT) at Burla
* National Law University at Cuttack
* International Institute of Information Technology (IIIT) at
Berhampur University at Brahmapur
Biju Patnaik University of Technology at Rourkela
Buxi Jagabandhu Bidyadhar College at Bhubaneswar
* Central University of Orissa at Koraput
* College of Agriculture,
* College of Engineering and Technology at Bhubaneswar
* Dharanidhar College at Keonjhar
Fakir Mohan University at Balasore
Gangadhar Meher University at Sambalpur
* Government College of Engineering,
Kalahandi at Bhawanipatna
* Hi-Tech Medical College "> The
Rath Yatra in Jagannath Temple,
Lingaraja Temple at
Bhubaneswar has a 150-foot (46 m) high deula
while the Jagannath Temple,
Puri is about 200 feet (61 m) high and
dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the
Konark Sun Temple , the
largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle" exists today, and
it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in
Sarala Temple , regarded as one of the most
spiritually elevated expressions of Shaktism is in Jagatsinghpur
district . It is also one of the holiest places in
* Geography portal
* Asia portal
* South Asia portal
* Bibliography of
Cinema of Odisha
Cinema of Odisha
Culture of Odisha
Index of India-related articles
List of Odia writers
Odisha Government Schemes List
* Outline of
India – book
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