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ORIENTAL ORTHODOXY is a communion of Eastern Christian churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils – the First Council of Nicaea in 325, the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Council of Ephesus in 431. The Oriental Orthodox churches maintain their own ancient apostolic succession with miaphysite Christology , rejecting the definition of the two natures of Christ (human and divine), known as the Chalcedonian Definition
Chalcedonian Definition
, issued by the Council of Chalcedon in 451. Over the following two centuries, one by one, they discontinued their communion with the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity , and developed separate institutions that together did not participate in any of the later ecumenical councils.

The Oriental Orthodox communion is composed of six autocephalous churches: the Syriac Orthodox Church
Syriac Orthodox Church
of Antioch
Antioch
, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Alexandria
, the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church , the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church , and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church . In total, the Oriental Orthodox churches have more than 80 million adherents worldwide.

By 1054, the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
resulted in Chalcedonian Christianity splitting into bodies that are today known as the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church , based on other Christological differences. The Eastern Orthodox maintain numerous theological and ecclesiological similarities with the Oriental Orthodox, but continue to disagree over the Chalcedonian Definition. The Oriental Orthodox Churches are in full communion with each other, but not with the Eastern Orthodox Church. Slow dialogue towards restoring communion between the two Orthodox groups began in the mid-20th century, and dialogue is also underway between Oriental Orthodoxy and the Catholic Church and others. In 2017, the mutual recognition of baptism was restored between the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Overview of the Chalcedonian Schism
Schism

* 2 History

* 2.1 Post Council of Chalcedon (451 AD) * 2.2 20th century

* 3 Geographical distribution * 4 Oriental Orthodox communion

* 5 Internal disputes

* 5.1 Armenian Apostolic * 5.2 Ethiopia
Ethiopia
* 5.3 India
India

* 6 Occasional confusions * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links

OVERVIEW OF THE CHALCEDONIAN SCHISM

Main article: History of Oriental Orthodoxy
History of Oriental Orthodoxy
§ Schism
Schism

The schism between Oriental Orthodoxy and the adherents of Chalcedonian Christianity was based on differences in Christology . The First Council of Nicaea, in 325, declared that Jesus Christ is God , that is to say, "consubstantial " with the Father. Later, the third ecumenical council, the Council of Ephesus, declared that Jesus Christ, though divine as well as human, is only one being, or person (hypostasis ). Thus, the Council of Ephesus explicitly rejected Nestorianism , the Christological doctrine that Christ was two distinct beings, one divine (the Logos) and one human (Jesus), who happened to inhabit the same body. The Churches that later became Oriental Orthodoxy were firmly anti-Nestorian, and therefore strongly supported the decisions made at Ephesus.

Twenty years after Ephesus, the Council of Chalcedon reaffirmed the view that Jesus Christ was a single person, but at the same time declared that this one person existed "in two complete natures", one human and one divine. Those who opposed Chalcedon saw this as a concession to Nestorianism, or even as a conspiracy to convert the Church to Nestorianism by stealth. As a result, over the following decades, they gradually separated from communion with those who accepted the Council of Chalcedon, and formed the body that is today called Oriental Orthodoxy.

At times, Chalcedonian Christians have referred to the Oriental Orthodox as being Monophysites – that is to say, accusing them of following the teachings of Eutyches
Eutyches
(c. 380 – c. 456), who argued that Jesus Christ was not human at all, but only divine. Monophysitism was condemned as heretical alongside Nestorianism, and to accuse a church of being Monophysite
Monophysite
is to accuse it of falling into the opposite extreme from Nestorianism. However, the Oriental Orthodox themselves reject this description as inaccurate, having officially condemned the teachings of both Nestorius and Eutyches. They define themselves as Miaphysite
Miaphysite
instead, holding that Christ has one nature, but this nature is both human and divine.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Oriental Orthodoxy
History of Oriental Orthodoxy
Coptic icon of St. Anthony the Great

POST COUNCIL OF CHALCEDON (451 AD)

The schism between the Oriental Orthodox and the rest of Christendom occurred in the 5th century. The separation resulted in part from the refusal of Pope Dioscorus I of Alexandria and the other thirteen Egyptian Bishops to accept the Christological dogmas promulgated by the Council of Chalcedon, which held that Jesus is in two natures: one divine and one human. They would accept only "of or from two natures" but not "in two natures".

To the hierarchs who would lead the Oriental Orthodox, the latter phrase was tantamount to accepting Nestorianism , which expressed itself in a terminology incompatible with their understanding of Christology. Nestorianism was understood as seeing Christ in two separate natures, human and divine, each with different actions and experiences; in contrast Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Alexandria
advocated the formula "One Nature of God the Incarnate Logos" (or as others translate, "One Incarnate Nature of the Word"), stressing the unity of the incarnation over all other considerations. It is not entirely clear that Nestorius himself was a Nestorian.

The Oriental Orthodox churches were therefore often called "Monophysite", although they reject this label, as it is associated with Eutychian Monophysitism
Monophysitism
; they prefer the term "Miaphysite". Oriental Orthodox churches reject what they consider to be the heretical Monophysite
Monophysite
teachings of Apollinaris of Laodicea and Eutyches
Eutyches
, the Dyophysite definition of the Council of Chalcedon and the Antiochene christology of Theodore of Mopsuestia , Nestorius , Theodoret , and Ibas of Edessa .

Christology, although important, was not the only reason for the Alexandrian Church's refusal to accept the declarations of the Council of Chalcedon; political, ecclesiastical and imperial issues were hotly debated during that period.

In the years following Chalcedon the patriarchs of Constantinople intermittently remained in communion with the non-Chalcedonian Patriarchs of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch
Antioch
(see Henotikon ), while Rome remained out of communion with the latter and in unstable communion with Constantinople. It was not until 518 that the new Byzantine Emperor, Justin I
Justin I
(who accepted Chalcedon), demanded that the Church in the Roman Empire accept the Council's decisions.

Justin ordered the replacement of all non-Chalcedonian bishops, including the patriarchs of Antioch
Antioch
and Alexandria. The extent of the influence of the Bishop of Rome
Bishop of Rome
in this demand has been a matter of debate. Justinian I
Justinian I
also attempted to bring those monks who still rejected the decision of the Council of Chalcedon into communion with the greater church. The exact time of this event is unknown, but it is believed to have been between 535 and 548.

St Abraham of Farshut was summoned to Constantinople
Constantinople
and he chose to bring with him four monks. Upon arrival, Justinian summoned them and informed them that they would either accept the decision of the Council or lose their positions. Abraham refused to entertain the idea. Theodora tried to persuade Justinian to change his mind, seemingly to no avail. Abraham himself stated in a letter to his monks that he preferred to remain in exile rather than subscribe to a faith which he believed to be contrary to that of Athanasius of Alexandria
Athanasius of Alexandria
.

20TH CENTURY

By the 20th century the Chalcedonian schism was not seen with the same importance, and from several meetings between the authorities of the Holy See
Holy See
and the Oriental Orthodoxy, reconciling declarations emerged in the common statement of Syriac Patriarch Mar Ignatius Zakka I Iwas and the Roman Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
in 1984.

The confusions and schisms that occurred between their Churches in the later centuries, they realize today, in no way affect or touch the substance of their faith, since these arose only because of differences in terminology and culture and in the various formulae adopted by different theological schools to express the same matter. Accordingly, we find today no real basis for the sad divisions and schisms that subsequently arose between us concerning the doctrine of Incarnation. In words and life we confess the true doctrine concerning Christ our Lord, notwithstanding the differences in interpretation of such a doctrine which arose at the time of the Council of Chalcedon.

According to the canons of the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the four bishops of Rome
Rome
, Constantinople
Constantinople
, Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch
Antioch
were all given status as Patriarchs ; in other words, the ancient apostolic centres of Christianity, by the First Council of Nicaea (predating the schism)—each of the four patriarchs was responsible for those bishops and churches within his own area of the Universal Church. Thus, the Bishop of Rome
Bishop of Rome
has always been held by the others to be fully sovereign within his own area, as well as "First-Among-Equals", due to the traditional belief that the Apostles Saint Peter
Saint Peter
and Saint Paul were martyred in Rome.

The technical reason for the schism was that the bishops of Rome
Rome
and Constantinople
Constantinople
excommunicated the non-Chalcedonian bishops in 451 for refusing to accept the "in two natures" teaching, thus declaring them to be out of communion.

The highest office in Oriental Orthodoxy is that of Patriarch. There are Patriarchs within the local Oriental Orthodox communities of the Coptic, Armenian, Eritrean, Ethiopian, Syriac, and Indian (Malankara) Orthodox Churches. The title of Pope, as used by the leading bishop of the Coptic Church, has the meaning of "Father" and is not a jurisdictional title. However, the Coptic Pope holds the honor of being "first among equals", as the Ecumenical Patriarch does among the Eastern Orthodox, and as such he functions as the president of pan-jurisdictional gatherings of the Oriental Orthodox.

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

Further information: List of Christian denominations by number of members DISTRIBUTION OF ORIENTAL ORTHODOX CHRISTIANS IN THE WORLD BY COUNTRY: Main religion (more than 75%) Main religion (50–75%) Important minority religion (20–50%) Important minority religion (5–20%) Minority religion (1–5%) Tiny minority religion (below 1%), but has local autocephaly

According to the Encyclopedia of Religion, Oriental Orthodoxy is the Christian tradition "most important in terms of the number of faithful living in the Middle East", which, along with other Eastern Christian communions , represent an autochthonous Christian presence whose origins date further back than the birth and spread of Islam
Islam
in the Middle East. It is the dominant religion in Armenia
Armenia
(94%), the ethnically Armenian unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (95%) and in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(43%, the total Christian population being 62%), especially in two regions in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
: Amhara (82%) and Tigray (96%), as well as the capital city of Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
(75%). It is also one of two dominant religions in Eritrea
Eritrea
(50%).

It is a minority in Egypt
Egypt
(

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