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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. During the next 12 years Japan, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand also joined the organisation. Yugoslavia had observer status in the organisation starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution as a country.[15]

The OECD created agencies such

The OECD created agencies such as the OECD Development Centre (1961), International Energy Agency (IEA, 1974), and Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering.

Unlike the organisations of the United Nations system, OECD uses the spelling "organisation" with an "s" in its name rather than "organization" (see -ise/-ize).

In 1989, after the Revolutions of 1989, the OECD started to assist countries in Central Europe (especially the Visegrád Group) to prepare market economy reforms. In 1990, the Centre for Co-operation with European Economies in Transition (now succeeded by the Centre for Cooperation with Non-Members) was established, and in 1991, the Programme "Partners in Transition" was launched for the benefit of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland.[15][16] This programme also included a membership option for these countries.[16] As a result of this, Poland,[17] Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia, as well as Mexico and South Korea[18] became members of the OECD between 1994 and 2000.

Reform and further enlargementIn the 1990s, a number of European countries, now members of the European Union, expressed their willingness to join the organisation. In 1995, Cyprus applied for membership, but, according to the Cypriot government, it was vetoed by Turkey.[19] In 1996, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania signed a Joint Declaration expressing willingness to become full members of the OECD.[20] Slovenia also applied for membership that same year.[21] In 2005, Malta applied to join the organisation.[22] The EU is lobbying for admission of all EU member states.[23] Romania reaffirmed in 2012 its intention to become a member of the organisation through the letter addressed by the Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta to OECD Secretary-General José Ángel Gurría.[24] In September 2012, the government of Bulgaria confirmed it will apply for full membership before the OECD Secretariat.[25]

The OECD established a working group headed by ambassador Seiichiro Noboru, to work out a plan for the enlargement with non-members. The working group defined four criteria which fullfilment is required: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Mini

The OECD established a working group headed by ambassador Seiichiro Noboru, to work out a plan for the enlargement with non-members. The working group defined four criteria which fullfilment is required: "like-mindedness", "significant player", "mutual benefit" and "global considerations". The working group's recommendations were presented at the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting on 13 May 2004.[15] On 16 May 2007, the OECD Ministerial Council decided to open accession discussions with Chile, Estonia, Israel, Russia and Slovenia and to strengthen co-operation with Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa through a process of enhanced engagement.[26] Chile, Slovenia, Israel and Estonia all became members in 2010.[27] In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks with Russia in response to its role in the 2014 Annexation of Crimea.[28][29]

In 2013, the OECD decided to open membership talks with Colombia and Latvia. In 2015, it opened talks with Costa Rica and Lithuania.[30] Latvia became a full member on 1 July 2016 and Lithuania on 5 July 2018.[31][32] Colombia signed the accession agreement on 30 May 2018 and became a full member on 28 April 2020.[33] On 15 May 2020, the OECD decided to extend a formal invitation for Costa Rica to join the OECD.

Other countries that have expressed interest in OECD membership are Argentina, Peru,[34] Malaysia,[35] Brazil,[36] and Croatia.[37]

The OECD publishes and updates a model tax convention that serves as a template for allocating taxation rights between countries. This model is accompanied by a set of commentaries that reflect OECD-level interpretation of the content of the model convention provisions. In general, this model allocates the primary right to tax to the country from which capital investment originates (i.e., the home, or resident country) rather than the country in which the investment is made (the host, or source country). As a result, it is most effective as between two countries with reciprocal investment flows (such as among the OECD member countries), but can be unbalanced when one of the signatory countries is economically weaker than the other (such as between OECD and non-OECD pairings). Additionally, the OECD has published and updated the Transfer Pricing Guidelines since 1995. The Transfer Pricing Guidelines serve as a template for profit allocation of intercompany transactions to countries. The latest version, of July 2017, incorporates the approved Actions developed under the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project initiated by the G20.

Multinational enterprise

The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are a set of legally nonbinding guidelines attached as an annex to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. They are recommendations providing principles and standards for responsible business conduct for multinational corporations operating in or from countries adhering to the Declaration.

Publishing

The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary.

The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisatio

The OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises are a set of legally nonbinding guidelines attached as an annex to the OECD Declaration on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises. They are recommendations providing principles and standards for responsible business conduct for multinational corporations operating in or from countries adhering to the Declaration.

Publishing

The OECD publishes books, reports, stat

The OECD publishes books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials. All titles and databases published since 1998 can be accessed via OECD iLibrary.

The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival m

The OECD Library & Archives collection dates from 1947, including records from the Committee for European Economic Co-operation (CEEC) and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), predecessors of today's OECD. External researchers can consult OECD publications and archival material on the OECD premises by appointment.

The OECD releases between 300 and 500 books each year. The publications are updated accordingly to the OECD iLibrary. Most books are published in English and French. The OECD flagship[vague] titles include:

  • The OECD Economic Outlook, published twice a year. It contains forecast and analysis of the economic situation of the OECD member countries. The OECD exceptionally published the

    All OECD books are available on the OECD iLibrary, the online bookshop or OECD Library & Archives.[n 1]

    Magazine

    OECD Observer, an award-winning magazine[n 2] launched in 1962.[39] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook, launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation.[40] The online and mobile[41] editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information.[42] An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.[43]

    Statistics

    The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD indicators.OECD Observer, an award-winning magazine[n 2] launched in 1962.[39] The magazine appeared six times a year until 2010, and became quarterly in 2011 with the introduction of the OECD Yearbook, launched for the 50th anniversary of the organisation.[40] The online and mobile[41] editions are updated regularly. News, analysis, reviews, commentaries and data on global economic, social and environmental challenges. Contains listing of the latest OECD books, plus ordering information.[42] An OECD Observer Crossword was introduced in Q2 2013.[43]

    Statistics

    The OECD is known as a statistical agency, as it publishes comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. In July 2014, the OECD publicly released its main statistical databases through the OECD Data Portal, an online platform that allows visitors to create custom charts based on official OECD indicators.[44][45]

    OECD statistics are available in several forms:

    • as interactive charts on the OECD Data Portal,
    • as interactive databases on iLibrary together with key comparative and country tables,
    • as static files or dynamic database views on the OECD Statistics portal,
    • as S

      OECD statistics are available in several forms:

      There are 15 working papers series published by the various directorates of the OECD Secretariat. They are available on iLibrary, as well as on many specialised portals.

      Reference works

      The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).

      It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—incl

      The OECD is responsible for the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, a continuously updated document that is a de facto standard (i.e., soft law).

      It has published the OECD Environmental Outlook to 2030, which shows that tackling the key environmental problems we face today—including climate change, biodiversity loss, climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, and the health impacts of pollution—is both achievable and affordable.

      The OECD's structure consists of three main elements:

      • The OECD member countries, each represented by a delegation led by an ambassador. Together, they form the OECD Council. Member countries act collectively through Council (and its Standing Committees) to provide direction and guidance to the work of Organisat

        Delegates from the member countries attend committees' and other meetings. Former Deputy Secretary-General Pierre Vinde [sv] estimated in 1997 that the cost borne by the member countries, such as sending their officials to OECD meetings and maintaining permanent delegations, is equivalent to the cost of running the secretariat.[46] This ratio is unique among inter-governmental organisations.[citation needed] In other words, the OECD is more a persistent forum or network of officials and experts than an administration.

        The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, member countries, and non-member countries.[47]

        Noteworthy meetings include:

        • The yearly Ministerial Council Meeting, with the Ministers of Economy of all member countries and the candidates for enhanced engagement among the countries.
        • The annual OECD Forum, which brings together leaders from business, government, labour, civil society and international organisations. Held every year since June 2000, the OECD Forum takes the form of conferences and discussions, is open to public participation and is held in conjunction with the MCM.
        • Thematic Ministerial Meetings, held among Ministers of a given domain (i.e., all Ministers of Labour, all Ministers of Environment, etc.).
        • The bi-annual World Forum on Statistics, Knowledge and Policies, which does not usually take place in the OECD. This series of meetings has the ambition to measure and foster progress in societies.
        • OECD Eurasia Week which includes several high-level policy dialogue discussions to share best practices and experiences in addressing common development and economic challenges in Eurasia.[48]

        Secretariat

        Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas.

        The secretariat is organised in Directorates:

        • Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities
        • Centre for Tax Policy

          The OECD regularly holds minister-level meetings and forums as platforms for a discussion on a broad spectrum of thematic issues relevant to the OECD charter, member countries, and non-member countries.[47]

          Noteworthy meetings include:

          Exchanges between OECD governments benefit from the information, analysis, and preparation of the OECD Secretariat. The secretariat collects data, monitors trends, and analyses and forecasts economic developments. Under the direction and guidance of member governments, it also researches social changes or evolving patterns in trade, environment, education, agriculture, technology, taxation, and other areas.

          The secretariat is organised in Directorates:

          • Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Regions and Cities
          • Centre for Tax Policy and Administration
          • Development Co-operation Directorate
          • Directorate for Education and Skills
          • Directorate for Employment, Labour, and Social Affairs
          • Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs
          • Directorate for Science, Technology, and Innovation
          • Economics Department
          • Environment Directorate
          • Public Governance Directorate
          • Statistics Directorate
          • Trade and Agriculture Directorate
          • General Secretariat
          • Executive Directorate
          • Public Affairs and Communication Directorate
          Secretary-General of the OEEC
          No. Secretary-General Time served Country of origin
          1 Robert Marjolin 1948 – 1955 France[54]

          Special bodies

          OECD has a number of specialized bodies:[55]

          Decision making process

          OECD decisions are made through voting, which requires unanimity among all of those voting. However, dissenting members which do not wish to block a decision but merely to signal their disapproval can abstain from voting.[56]

          Member countries

          Current members

          There are currently 37 members of the OECD.[1]

          Country Application Negotiations Invitation Membership[1] Geographic location Notes
           Australia 7 June 1971 Oceania
           Austria 29 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]
           Belgium 13 September 1961 Europe OEEC member.[6]
           Canada 10 April 1961 North America
           Chile November 2003[57][58] 16 May 2007[26] 15 December 2009[59] 7 May 2010 South America
           Colombia 24 January 2011[60]OECD has a number of specialized bodies:[55]

          • Africa Partnership Forum
          • Business and Industry Advisory Committee (BIAC)
          • Development Assistance Committee
          • OECD D

            OECD decisions are made through voting, which requires unanimity among all of those voting. However, dissenting members which do not wish to block a decision but merely to signal their disapproval can abstain from voting.[56]

            Member countries

            Current members

            There are currently 37 members of the OECD.[1]

            Country Application Negotiations Invitation Membership[1] Geographic location Notes
            [1]

            Country Application Negotiations Invitation Membership[1] Geographic location Notes
            European Commission participates in the work of the OECD alongside the EU member states.[82]

            Former members

            Free Territory of Trieste (Zone A) was member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity.[6]

            Countries invited to join

            In May 2013, the OECD declared its intention to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica in 2015.[30] On 9 April 2015, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Costa Rica.[83] On 15 May 2020, the OECD invited Costa Rica to join the OECD.[84]

            Countries whose accession talks are suspended

            In May 2007, the OECD decided to open accession negotiations with Russia.[26] In March 2014, the OECD halted membership talks in response to Russia's role in that year's Crimean Annexation.[28][29]

            Countries whose membership request is under consideration by the OECD Council

            Indicators

            Member states

            The following table shows various data for OECD member countries, including area, population, economic output, and income inequality, as well as various composite indices, including human development, viability of the state, rule of law, perception of corruption, economic freedom, state of peace, freedom of the press, and democratic level.

            Country Area[86]
            (km2)
            2017
            Population
            [86] 2017
            GDP (PPP)
            [86] (Intl. $)
            2017
            GDP (PPP)
            per capita
            [86]
            (Intl. $)
            2017
            Income
            inequality

            [86] 2008-
            2016
            (latest available)
            HDI[87]
            2018
            FSI[88]
            2019
            RLI[89]
            2020
            CPI[90]
            2019
            IEF[91]
            2020
            GPI[92]
            2019
            WPFI[93]
            2019
            DI[94]
            2019
             Australia 7,741,220 24,598,933 1,192,065,505,301 48,460 34.7 0.938 19.7 0.80 77 82.6 1.419 16.55 9.09
             Austria 83,879 8,809,212 461,582,926,400 52,398 30.5 0.914 25.0 0.82 77 73.3 1.291 15.33 8.29
             Belgium 30,530 11,372,068 544,041,974,958 47,840 27.7 0.919 28.6 0.79 75 68.9 1.533 12.07 7.64
             Canada 9,984,670 36,708,083 1,714,447,151,944 46,705 34.0 0.922 20.0 0.81 77 78.2 1.327 15.69 9.22
             Chile 756,096 18,054,726 444,777,637,169 24,635 44.4 0.847 38.9 0.67 67 76.8 1.634 25.65 8.08
             Colombia 1,141,748 48,901,066 709,420,539,907 14,507 49.7 0.761 75.7 0.50 37 69.2 2.661 42.82 7.13
             Czech Republic 78,870 10,591,323 384,753,663,283 36,327 25.9 0.891 37.6 0.73 56 74.8 1.383 24.89 7.69
             Denmark 42,922 5,769,603 296,350,723,354 51,364 28.2 0.930 19.5 0.90 87 78.3 1.316 9.87 9.22
             Estonia 45,230 1,315,480 41,756,008,089 31,742 32.7 0.882 40.8 0.81 74 77.7 1.727 12.27 7.90
             Finland 338,420 5,511,303 247,269,243,619 44,866 27.1 0.925 16.9 0.87 86 75.7 1.488 7.90 9.25
             France 549,087 67,118,648 2,876,059,993,399 42,850 32.7 0.891 32.0 0.73 69 66.0 1.892 22.21 8.12
             Germany 357,380 82,695,000 4,187,583,088,239 50,639 31.7 0.939 24.7 0.84 80 73.5 1.547 14.60 8.68
             Greece 131,960 10,760,421 297,008,117,389 27,602 36.0 0.872 53.9 0.61 48 59.9 1.933 29.08 7.43
             Hungary 93,030 9,781,127 274,926,859,412 28,108 30.4 0.845 49.6 0.53 44 66.4 1.540 30.44 6.63
             Iceland 103,000 341,284 18,140,165,689 53,153 27.8 0.938 19.8 N/A 78 77.1 1.072 14.71 9.58
             Ireland 70,280 4,813,608 364,140,938,830 75,648 31.8 0.942 20.6 N/A 74 80.9 1.390 15.00 9.24
             Israel 22,070 8,712,400 333,351,018,354 38,262 41.4 0.906 N/A N/A 60 74.0 2.735 30.80 7.86
             Italy 301,340 60,551,416 2,387,357,093,793 39,427 35.4 0.883 43.8 0.66 53 63.8 1.754 24.98 7.52
             Japan 377,962 126,785,797 5,487,161,155,332 43,279 32.1 0.915 34.3 0.78 73 73.3 1.369 29.36 7.99
             Korea, South 100,280 51,466,201 1,972,970,735,842 38,335 31.6 0.906 33.7 0.73 59 74.0 1.867 24.94 8.00
             Latvia 64,490 1,940,740 53,561,181,206 27,598 34.2 0.854 43.9 N/A 56 71.9 1.718 19.53 7.49
             Lithuania 65,286 2,827,721 90,748,628,812 32,092 37.4 0.869 38.1 N/A 60 76.7 1.779 22.06 7.50
             Luxembourg 2,590 599,449 62,189,692,542 103,745 33.8 0.909 20.4 N/A 80 75.8 N/A 15.66 8.81
             Mexico 1,964,380 129,163,276 2,358,275,520,126 18,258 43.4 0.767 69.7 0.44 29 66.0 2.600 46.78 6.09
             Netherlands 41,540 17,132,854 899,530,829,783 52,503 28.2 0.933 24.8 0.84 82 77.0 1.530 8.63 9.01
             New Zealand 267,710 4,793,900 197,072,471,931 41,109 N/A 0.921 20.1 0.83 87 84.1 1.221 10.75 9.26
             Norway 385,178 5,282,223 324,403,929,579 61,414 27.5 0.954 18.0 0.89 84 73.4 1.536 7.82 9.87
             Poland 312,680 Free Territory of Trieste (Zone A) was member of the OEEC until 1954, when it ceased to exist as an independent territorial entity.[6]

            Countries invited to join