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ORGANISATION OF ISLAMIC COOPERATION (OIC; Arabic : منظمة التعاون الإسلامي‎‎; French : Organisation de la Coopération Islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states , with a collective population of over 1.6 billion as of 2008. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the Muslim world " and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony".

The OIC has permanent delegations to the United Nations
United Nations
and the European Union
European Union
. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Al-Aqsa * 1.2 Goals * 1.3 Refugees * 1.4 New name and emblem

* 2 Member states

* 2.1 Africa * 2.2 Asia * 2.3 Europe * 2.4 South America

* 3 Positions

* 3.1 Israeli–Palestinian conflict * 3.2 Cartoons of Muhammad

* 3.3 Human rights

* 3.3.1 LGBT rights

* 3.4 Science "> Islamic Summit Minar
Islamic Summit Minar
in Lahore, Pakistan.

AL-AQSA

Since the 19th century, some Muslims
Muslims
had aspired to ummah to serve their common political, economic, and social interests. The collapse of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and the Caliphate
Caliphate
after World War I
World War I
left a vacuum for a pan-Islamic institution. The al-Aqsa fire is regarded as one of the catalysts for the formation of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in 1972. Leaders of Muslim nations met in Rabat
Rabat
to establish the OIC on 25 September 1969.

GOALS

According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology.

The emblem of the OIC (shown above) contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the Kaaba
Kaaba
, the Globe, and the Crescent.

On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the Sharia
Sharia
, or Quranic Law.

In June 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, and good governance in all member states. The revisions also removed any mention of the Cairo
Cairo
Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and international law.

REFUGEES

According to the UNHCR , OIC countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since then OIC members have absorbed refugees from other conflicts, including the uprising in Syria
Syria
. In May 2012, the OIC addressed these concerns at the "Refugees in the Muslim World" conference in Ashgabat , Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
.

NEW NAME AND EMBLEM

On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM) in Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
the organisation changed its name from ORGANISATION OF THE ISLAMIC CONFERENCE (Arabic : منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي‎‎; French : Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) to its current name. The OIC also changed its logo at this time.

MEMBER STATES

Main article: Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation A clickable Euler diagram
Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational organisations within the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(note that Syria
Syria
is currently suspended from all organizations included in this diagram due to human rights abuses in the ongoing Syrian Civil War ).v • d • e

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
has 57 members, 56 of which are also member states of the United Nations
United Nations
. Some, especially in West Africa, are – though with large Muslim populations – not necessarily Muslim majority countries . A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as Russia
Russia
and Thailand
Thailand
, sit as Observer States, while others, such as India
India
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
, are not members.

The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.6 billion as of 2008.

AFRICA

* Algeria
Algeria
* Benin
Benin
* Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
* Cameroon
Cameroon
* Chad
Chad
* Comoros
Comoros
* Djibouti
Djibouti
* Egypt
Egypt
* Gabon
Gabon
* Gambia
Gambia
* Guinea-Bissau * Guinea
Guinea
* Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
* Libya
Libya
* Mali
Mali
* Mauritania
Mauritania
* Morocco
Morocco
* Mozambique
Mozambique
* Niger
Niger
* Nigeria
Nigeria
* Senegal
Senegal
* Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
* Somalia
Somalia
* Sudan
Sudan
* Togo
Togo
* Tunisia
Tunisia
* Uganda
Uganda

ASIA

* Afghanistan
Afghanistan
* Bahrain
Bahrain
* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Brunei
Brunei
* Indonesia
Indonesia
* Iran
Iran
* Iraq
Iraq
* Jordan
Jordan
* Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
* Kuwait
Kuwait
* Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
* Lebanon
Lebanon
* Malaysia
Malaysia
* Maldives
Maldives
* Oman
Oman
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Palestine * Qatar
Qatar
* Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
* Syria
Syria
(Suspended) * Tajikistan
Tajikistan
* Turkey
Turkey
* Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan
* United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
* Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
* Yemen
Yemen

EUROPE

* Albania
Albania
* Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan

SOUTH AMERICA

* Guyana
Guyana
* Suriname
Suriname

POSITIONS

The Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUOICM) was established in Iran
Iran
in 1999, and its head office is situated in Tehran . Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union.

On 27 June 2007, then- United States
United States
President George W. Bush announced that the United States
United States
would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values." As of June 2015 , Arsalan Suleman is acting special envoy. He was appointed on 13 February 2015. In an investigation of the accuracy of a series of chain emails, Snopes.com reported that during the October 2003 – April 2004 session of the General Assembly, 17 individual members of the OIC voted against the United States
United States
88% of the time.

The OIC, on 28 March 2008, joined the criticism of the film Fitna by Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders , which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with alleged verses from the Quran
Quran
.

In March 2015, the OIC announced its support for the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Yemen
against the Shia Houthis .

ISRAELI–PALESTINIAN CONFLICT

The OIC supports a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

The OIC has called for a boycott of Israeli products in effort to pressure Israel into ending the occupation of the Palestinian territories .

There was a meeting in Conakry in 2013. Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said that foreign ministers would discuss the possibility of cutting ties with any state that recognised Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the capital of Israel or that moves its embassy to its environs.

CARTOONS OF MUHAMMAD

Main article: Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy

Cartoons of Muhammad, published in a Danish newspaper in September 2005, were found offensive by a number of Muslims. Third Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference in December 2005 condemned publication of the cartoons, resulting in broader coverage of the issue by news media in Muslim countries. Subsequently, violent demonstrations throughout the Islamic world resulted in several deaths.

HUMAN RIGHTS

OIC created the Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam . While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the UDHR , but rather complementary to it, Article 24 states that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah" and Article 25 follows with "the Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." Attempts to have it adopted by the United Nations
United Nations
Human Rights Council have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups. Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is "manipulation and hypocrisy," "designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law" and attempts to "circumvent these principles ."

Human Rights Watch says that OIC has "fought doggedly" and successfully within the United Nations
United Nations
Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to criticism of Israel . For example, when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War , "state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss Hezbollah 's as well." OIC demands that the council "should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them." HRW responds that this works with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity.

The OIC has been criticised for failing to discuss the treatment of ethnic minorities within member countries, such as the oppression of the Kurds in Syria
Syria
, the Ahwaz in Iran
Iran
, the Hazaras in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
, the ' Al-Akhdam ' in Yemen
Yemen
, or the Berbers in Algeria
Algeria
.

Along with the revisions of the OIC's charter in 2008, the member states created the Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC). The IPHRC is an advisory body, independent from the OIC, composed of eighteen individuals from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds. The IPHRC has the power to monitor human rights within the member states and facilitates the integration of human rights into all OIC mandates. The IPHRC also aids in the promotion of political, civil, and economic rights in all member states.

LGBT Rights

Main article: LGBT rights at the United Nations
United Nations

In March 2012, the United Nations
United Nations
Human Rights Council held its first discussion of discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, following the 2011 passage of a resolution supporting LGBT rights proposed by the Republic of South Africa. Pakistan's representative addressed the session on behalf of the OIC, denouncing the discussion and questioning the concept of sexual orientation, which he said was being used to promote "licentious behaviour ... against the fundamental teachings of various religions, including Islam". He stated that the council should not discuss the topic again. Most Arab countries and some African ones later walked out of the session.

Nonetheless, OIC members Albania
Albania
, Gabon
Gabon
, Guinea-Bissau , and Sierra Leone have signed a UN Declaration supporting LGBT rights in the General Assembly .

In May 2016, 57 countries including Egypt
Egypt
, Iran
Iran
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation requested the removal of LGBT associations from 2016 High Level Meeting on Ending AIDS sparked protests by the United States
United States
, Canada , the European Union
European Union
and LGBT communities .

SCIENCE ">

Contradictions between OIC's and other UN members' understanding of terrorism has stymied efforts at the UN to produce a comprehensive convention on international terrorism.

During a meeting in Malaysia
Malaysia
in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, any description of the Palestinian fight with Israel as terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed intifada." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism " in their war with the Palestinian people.

At the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM), an OIC section, in May 2007, the foreign ministers termed Islamophobia "the worst form of terrorism".

DISPUTE WITH THAILAND

Thailand
Thailand
has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Muslim majority provinces of Pattani , Yala , and Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005, secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places". He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence.

On 18–19 April 2009, the exiled Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see Patani United Liberation Organisation ) was invited to the OIC to speak about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims
Muslims
living in the socioeconomically neglected south, that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand
Thailand
in 1902. Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included obtaining the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. He also suggested that Thailand
Thailand
give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand
Thailand
already have, citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand
Thailand
and that it is a matter of political will. He also criticised the Thai government’s escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens.

Thailand
Thailand
responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thai foreign minister , Kantathi Suphamongkhon , said: "We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace." The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC’s criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. "If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand, the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims
Muslims
and Thai Buddhists." HRW and Amnesty International have echoed the same concerns as OIC, rebuffing Thailand's attempts to dismiss the issue.

DISPUTE WITH INDIA

India
India
has pushed against the OIC for referring to disputed areas of Kashmir
Kashmir
as "occupied by India". Although 13.4% of India's population is Muslim, it has pushed for the OIC to make an exception to accept India
India
as a member, arguing that about 11% (roughly 172 million) of the Muslims
Muslims
live in India. Pakistan
Pakistan
opposes India's entry into the OIC.

The notion for Pakistan's refusal for India
India
to enter the Organization of Islamic Cooperation is due to the human rights issues and problems faced by the Kashmiri people in Indian-held Kashmir
Kashmir
(IHK). The Muslim world has always supported Pakistan
Pakistan
rather than India, however the role of the OIC concerning the Kashmir
Kashmir
issue is that India
India
has the largest Muslim minority and those people have shown desire to join the OIC. While the First Islamic Summit did not have the issue of the Kashmir
Kashmir
people, granting the 60 million Muslims
Muslims
living in India membership in the OIC was discussed. While General Yayha Khan of Pakistan
Pakistan
did agree, he showed his extreme displeasure at the fact that at induction of Muslim representative Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad , he took a seat, which caused major controversy. Meanwhile, there were Muslims killed in anti-Muslim riots in Ahmedabad. Pakistan
Pakistan
rejected this development and demanded the expulsion of India
India
from the summit.

The OIC noted that incidents of violence against the Muslim community were being committed by extremist Hindu groups and said it viewed such incidents “with grave concern”.

NOTABLE MEETINGS

A number of OIC meetings have attracted global attention.

NINTH MEETING OF PUOICM

The ninth meeting of Parliamentary Union of the OIC member states (PUOICM) was held on 15 and 16 February 2007 in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia
Malaysia
. The speaker of Malaysia's House of Representatives , Ramli bin Ngah Talib , delivered a speech at the beginning of the inaugural ceremony. OIC secretary-general Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said prior to the meeting that one main agenda item was stopping Israel from continuing its excavation at the Western Wall
Western Wall
near the Al-Aqsa Mosque , Islam's third holiest site. The OIC also discussed how it might send peacekeeping troops to Muslim states, as well as the possibility of a change in the name of the body and its charter. Additionally, return of the sovereignty right to the Iraqi people along with withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq
Iraq
was another one of the main issues on the agenda.

Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri told reporters on 14 February 2007 that the secretary general of OIC and foreign ministers of seven "like-minded Muslim countries" would meet in Islamabad
Islamabad
on 25 February 2007 following meetings of President Musharraf with heads of key Muslim countries to discuss "a new initiative" for the resolution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict . Kasuri said this would be a meeting of foreign ministers of key Muslim countries to discuss and prepare for a summit in Makkah Al Mukarramah to seek the resolution of the Arab–Israeli conflict
Arab–Israeli conflict
.

IPHRC TRIP TO WASHINGTON DC

In December 2012, the IPHRC met in Washington, DC for the first time. The IPHRC held meetings at the National Press Club, Capitol Hill and Freedom House discussing the issues of human rights defense in the OIC member states. During their roundtable discussion with Freedom House the IPHRC emphasised the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the rejection of the Cairo
Cairo
Declaration by the OIC.

OBSERVER STATUS DISPUTE

The September 2014's high-level Summit of the OIC, in New York, ended without adopting any resolutions or conclusions, for the first time in several years in the modern history of the organization, due to a dispute regarding the status of one of its Observer states. Egypt
Egypt
, Iran
Iran
and the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
have demanded that the OIC remove the term ‘Turkish Cypriot State’ in reference to the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) , which has observer status within the organization. Egypt’s president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi insisted that any reference to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus or Turkish Cypriot State" was unacceptable and was ultimately the reason for the OIC not adopting any resolutions or conclusions in the 2014 summit.

STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION

Further information: Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States

The OIC system consists of:

ISLAMIC SUMMIT

The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years.The Islamic Summit takes policy decisions and provide guidance on all issues pertaining to the realisation of the objectives as provided for in the Charter and consider other issues of concern to the Member States and the Ummah.

ISLAMIC CONFERENCE OF FOREIGN MINISTERS

Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.

SECRETARY GENERAL

The Secretary General is elected by the Council of Foreign Ministers for a period of five years, renewable once. The Secretary-General is elected from among nationals of the Member States in accordance with the principles of equitable geographical distribution, rotation and equal opportunity for all Member States with due consideration to competence, integrity and experience.

PERMANENT SECRETARIAT

The Permanent Secretariat is the executive organ of the Organisation, entrusted with the implementation of the decisions of the two preceding bodies, and is located in Jeddah
Jeddah
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. The Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is Dr. Yousef A. Al-Othaimeen.

He received his office on, Tuesday, 29 November 2016

SUBSIDIARY ORGANISATIONS

The Islamic University of Technology was set up by the OIC in Bangladesh
Bangladesh

* The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries , in Ankara
Ankara
, Turkey. * The Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), located in Istanbul
Istanbul
, Turkey. * The Islamic University of Technology , located in Gazipur, Dhaka
Dhaka
, Bangladesh. * The Islamic Centre for the Development of Trade , located in Casablanca
Casablanca
, Morocco. * The Islamic Fiqh Academy , located in Jeddah
Jeddah
, Saudi Arabia. * The Islamsate Islamic network, located at Riyadh
Riyadh
, Saudi Arabia and Pakistan
Pakistan
. * The Executive Bureau of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and its Waqf , located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * The Islamic University in Niger
Niger
, located in Say, Niger
Niger
. * The Islamic University in Uganda
Uganda
, located in Mbale , Uganda
Uganda
. * The Tabriz Islamic Arts University , located in Tabriz
Tabriz
, Iran
Iran
.

SPECIALISED INSTITUTIONS

* The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO), located in Rabat
Rabat
, Morocco
Morocco
. * The Islamic States Broadcasting Organisation (ISBO) and the International Islamic News Agency (IINA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

AFFILIATED INSTITUTIONS

* Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ICCI), located in Karachi
Karachi
, Pakistan. * World Islamic Economic Forum (WIEF), located in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
, Malaysia. * Organisation of Islamic Capitals and Cities (OICC), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * Sports Federation of Islamic Solidarity Games , located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. * Islamic Committee of the International Crescent (ICIC), located in Benghazi
Benghazi
, Libya
Libya
. * Islamic Shipowners Association (ISA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * World Federation of International Arab-Islamic Schools , located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * International Association of Islamic Banks (IAIB), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation (ICYF-DC), located in Istanbul, Turkey. * General Council for Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions (CIBAFI), located in Manama
Manama
, Bahrain. * Standards and Metrology Institute for Islamic Countries (SMIIC), located in Istanbul, Turkey.

SECRETARIES-GENERAL

Secretaries-General of the Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation NO. NAME COUNTRY OF ORIGIN TOOK OFFICE LEFT OFFICE

1 Tunku Abdul Rahman Malaysia
Malaysia
1970 1974

2 Hassan Al-Touhami Egypt
Egypt
1974 1975

3 Amadou Karim Gaye Senegal
Senegal
1975 1979

4 Habib Chatty Tunisia
Tunisia
1979 1984

5 Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada Pakistan
Pakistan
1984 1988

6 Hamid Algabid Niger
Niger
1988 1996

7 Azeddine Laraki Morocco
Morocco
1996 2000

8 Abdelouahed Belkeziz Morocco
Morocco
2000 2004

9 Ekmeleddin İhsanoğlu Turkey
Turkey
2004 2014

10 Iyad bin Amin Madani Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
2014 2016

11 Yousef Al-Othaimeen Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
2016 current

ISLAMIC SUMMITS

NUMBER DATE COUNTRY PLACE

1st 22–25 September 1969 Morocco
Morocco
Rabat
Rabat

2nd 22–24 February 1974 Pakistan
Pakistan
Lahore
Lahore

3rd 25–29 January 1981 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Mecca
Mecca
and Ta’if

4th 16–19 January 1984 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

5th 26–29 January 1987 Kuwait
Kuwait
Kuwait
Kuwait
City

6th 9–11 December 1991 Senegal
Senegal
Dakar
Dakar

7th 13–15 December 1994 Morocco
Morocco
Casablanca
Casablanca

1st Extraordinary 23–24 March 1997 Pakistan
Pakistan
Islamabad
Islamabad

8th 9–11 December 1997 Iran
Iran
Tehran
Tehran

9th 12–13 November 2000 Qatar
Qatar
Doha
Doha

2nd Extraordinary 4–5 March 2003 Qatar
Qatar
Doha
Doha

10th 16–17 October 2003 Malaysia
Malaysia
Putrajaya

3rd Extraordinary 7–8 December 2005 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Mecca
Mecca

11th 13–14 March 2008 Senegal
Senegal
Dakar
Dakar

4th Extraordinary 14–15 August 2012 Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Mecca
Mecca

12th 6–7 February 2013 Egypt
Egypt
Cairo
Cairo

5th Extraordinary 6–7 March 2016 Indonesia
Indonesia
Jakarta
Jakarta

13th 14–15 April 2016 Turkey
Turkey
Istanbul
Istanbul

14th 7–11 September 2017 Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
Astana
Astana

SEE ALSO

* Islam portal

* Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam * List of largest cities in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries * List of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
member states by population * Developing 8 Countries * Pakistan-OIC relations * Islamic University of Technology * Flag of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation * Islamic Reporting Initiative * Islamic Military Alliance

REFERENCES

* ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2001.html * ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2001.html * ^ A B C About OIC. Oic-oci.org. Retrieved on 2014-11-07. * ^ Esposito, 1998, p.164. * ^ A B " Cairo
Cairo
Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, 5 August 1990, U.N. GAOR, World Conf. on Hum. Rts., 4th Sess., Agenda Item 5, U.N. Doc. A/CONF.157/PC/62/Add.18 (1993) ". University of Minnesota. 5 August 1990. Retrieved 25 March 2011. * ^ "OIC Charter". Ch 1, Art 1, Sect 7. Retrieved 8 December 2015. * ^ "OIC to hold conference on refugees in Muslim world in Turkmenistan". Zaman . 24 April 2012. * ^ OIC changes name, emblem Archived 23 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine . Pakistan
Pakistan
Observer * ^ "وب سایتهای ایرنا - Irna". Retrieved 23 March 2011. * ^ Feller, Ben (2 June 2007). "Bush to Name Envoy to Islamic Conference". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2007. * ^ "Arsalan Suleman". US Department of State. Retrieved 3 July 2015. * ^ "United Condemnations". Snopes. 3 December 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2012. * ^ " Muslims
Muslims
condemn Dutch lawmaker\'s film". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2010. * ^ "OIC supports military action in Yemen". Arab News. 27 March 2015. * ^ "OIC calls for ban on Israeli products". * ^ "islamic office for the boycott of israel" (PDF). * ^ "OIC proposes severing ties with countries that recognise Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel\'s capital". Middle East Monitor. 10 February 2014. * ^ Howden, Daniel; Hardaker, David; Castle, Stephen (10 February 2006). "How a meeting of leaders in Mecca
Mecca
set off the cartoon wars around the world". The Independent. London. Retrieved 14 July 2012. * ^ "Human Rights Brief" United Nations
United Nations
Update Accessed 10 March 2009. * ^ Fatema Mernissi: Islam and Democracy, Cambridge 2002, Perseus Books, p. 67. * ^ Ann Mayer, "An Assessment of Human Rights Schemes," in Islam and Human Rights, p. 175. Westview 1999, Westview Press. * ^ Robert Carle: "Revealing and Concealing: Islamist Discourse on Human Rights," Human rights review, vol:6, No 3 April–June 2005. * ^ How to Put U.N. Rights Council Back on Track Human Rights Watch, 2 November 2006. * ^ The UN Human Rights Council Human Rights Watch Testimony Delivered to the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 25 July 2007. * ^ Kymlicka, Will (2007). Multicultural Odysseys: Navigating the New International Politics of Diversity. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 308. ISBN 978-0-19-928040-7 . Retrieved 25 March 2011. * ^ CISMAS, I. (2011). Statute of the OIC independent permanent human rights commission, introductory note. International Legal Materials, 50(6), pp. 1148-1160. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5305/intelegamate.50.6.1148 * ^ List of Panel Discussions to take place during 19th session http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session19/PanelDiscussionsHRC19.pdf * ^ Evans, Robert (8 March 2012). "Islamic states, Africans walk out on UN gay panel". Reuters. Retrieved 18 July 2012. * ^ Solash, Richard (7 March 2012). "Historic UN Session On Gay Rights Marked By Arab Walkout". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty . Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 18 July 2012. * ^ South Africa leads United Nations
United Nations
on gay rights News National Mail ">(PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2014. * ^ Over 80 Nations Support Statement at Human Rights Council on LGBT Rights » US Mission Geneva. Geneva.usmission.gov. Retrieved on 2013-09-27. * ^ James Rothwell (18 May 2016). "Muslim countries ban gay and transgender reps from United Nations
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FURTHER READING

* Ankerl, Guy Coexisting Contemporary Civilisations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INUPress, 2000, ISBN 2-88155-004-5 . * Al-Huda, Qamar. "Organisation of the Islamic Conference." Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1 p. 394, 20 April 2008.

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