In music , the ORGAN (from Greek ὄργανον organon, "organ,
instrument, tool") is a keyboard instrument of one or more pipe
divisions or other means for producing tones, each played with its own
keyboard, played either with the hands on a keyboard or with the feet
using pedals. The organ is a relatively old musical instrument ,
dating from the time of
* 1 Overview
* 2 Pipe organs
* 2.1 Church organs * 2.2 Chamber organs * 2.3 Theatre organs * 2.4 Other pipe organs
* 3 Reed organs * 4 Chord organs
* 5 Electronic organs
* 5.1 Hammond organs * 5.2 Allen organs * 5.3 Other electronic organs * 5.4 Digital organs
* 6 Steam organ
* 7 Organ music
* 7.4 Sporting organs
* 8 Historical instruments
* 8.1 Predecessors * 8.2 Early organs * 8.3 Medieval organs
* 9 Various instruments
* 9.1 Reed organs * 9.2 Squeezeboxes * 9.3 Mechanical organs * 9.4 Electric * 9.5 Electronic * 9.6 Sound art * 9.7 Mouth-played instruments
* 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
Interior of the
PIPE ORGANS use air moving through pipes to produce sounds. Since the 16th century, pipe organs have used various materials for pipes, which can vary widely in timbre and volume. The pipes are divided into ranks and controlled by the use of hand stops and combination pistons . Although the keyboard is not expressive as on a piano and does not affect dynamics (it is binary; pressing a key only turns the sound on or off), some divisions may be enclosed in a swell box , allowing the dynamics to be controlled by shutters. Some organs are totally enclosed, meaning that all the divisions can be controlled by one set of shutters. Some special registers with free reed pipes are expressive. These instruments vary greatly in size, ranging from a cubic yard to a height reaching five floors, and are built in churches, synagogues, concert halls, and homes. Small organs are called "positive " (easily placed in different locations) or "portative " (small enough to carry while playing). Increasingly hybrid organs are appearing in which pipes are augmented with electronic additions. Great economies of space and cost are possible especially when the lowest (and largest) of the pipes can be replaced.
NON-PIPED ORGANS include the reed organ or harmonium , which like the accordion and harmonica (or "mouth organ") use air to excite free reeds .
ELECTRONIC ORGANS or DIGITAL ORGANS, notably the
MECHANICAL ORGANS include the barrel organ , water organ , and
Orchestrion . These are controlled by mechanical means such as pinned
barrels or book music . Little barrel organs dispense with the hands
of an organist and bigger organs are powered in most cases by an organ
grinder or today by other means such as an electric motor . South
corp in the
Duomo di Milano
The pipe organ is the grandest musical instrument in size and scope.
It has existed in its current form since the 14th century, though
similar designs were common in the
Eastern Mediterranean from the
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Most organs in Europe, the Americas, and Australasia can be found in Christian churches. The introduction of church organs is traditionally attributed to Pope Vitalian in the 7th century. Due to its simultaneous ability to provide a musical foundation below the vocal register, support in the vocal register, and increased brightness above the vocal register, the organ is ideally suited to accompany human voices , whether a congregation, a choir , or a cantor or soloist. Most services also include solo organ repertoire for independent performance rather than by way of accompaniment, often as a prelude at the beginning the service and a postlude at the conclusion of the service.
Today this organ may be a pipe organ (see above), a digital or electronic organ that generates the sound with digital signal processing (DSP) chips, or a combination of pipes and electronics. It may be called a church organ or classical organ to differentiate it from the theater organ , which is a different style of instrument. However, as classical organ repertoire was developed for the pipe organ and in turn influenced its development, the line between a church and a concert organ became harder to draw.
Organs are also used to give recital concerts, called organ recitals . In the early 20th century, symphonic organs flourished in secular venues in the United States and the United Kingdom, designed to replace symphony orchestras by playing transcriptions of orchestral pieces. Symphonic and orchestral organs largely fell out of favor as the orgelbewegung (organ reform movement) took hold in the middle of the 20th century, and organ builders began to look to historical models for inspiration in constructing new instruments. Today, modern builders construct organs in a variety of styles for both secular and sacred applications.
Chamber organ by Pascoal Caetano Oldovini (1762).
A chamber organ is a small pipe organ, often with only one manual, and sometimes without separate pedal pipes that is placed in a small room, that this diminutive organ can fill with sound. It is often confined to chamber organ repertoire, as often the organs have too few voice capabilities to rival the grand pipe organs in the performance of the classics. The sound and touch are unique to the instrument, sounding nothing like a large organ with few stops drawn out, but rather much more intimate. They are usually tracker instruments, although the modern builders are often building electropneumatic chamber organs.
Pre-Beethoven keyboard music may usually be as easily played on a chamber organ as on a piano or harpsichord, and a chamber organ is sometimes preferable to a harpsichord for continuo playing as it is more suitable for producing a sustained tone.
Main article: theatre organ
The theatre organ or cinema organ was designed to accompany silent movies . Like a symphonic organ, it is made to replace an orchestra. However, it includes many more gadgets, such as percussion and special effects, to provide a more complete array of options to the theatre organist. Theatre organs tend not to take nearly as much space as standard organs, relying on extension and higher wind pressures to produce a greater variety of tone and larger volume of sound from fewer pipes. Marimba in the solo chamber at Ann Arbor's Michigan Theatre (3/13 Barton )
This extension is called "unification", meaning that instead of one pipe for each key at all pitches, the higher octaves of pitch (and in some cases, lower octaves) are achieved by merely adding 12 pipes (one octave) to the top and/or bottom of a given division. Assuming there are sixty-one keys on an organ manual (a common number in concert organs and in North America), a classical organ has—for diapason stops at 8', 4' and 2' pitch—183 pipes (61 plus 61 plus 61). The same chorus of diapasons on a theatre organ has only 85 pipes (61 plus 12 plus 12). Some ranks, such as the Tibia Clausa , with up to 97 pipes, allow the organist to draw stops at 16', 8', 4', 2', and mutations from a single rank of pipes.
Unification gives a smaller instrument the capability of a much larger one, and works well for monophonic styles of playing (chordal, or chords with solo voice). The sound is, however, thicker and more homogeneous than a classically designed organ, and is very often reliant on the use of tremulant, which has a depth greater than that usually found on a classical organ. Unification also allows pipe ranks to be played from more than one manual and the pedals.
OTHER PIPE ORGANS
The bamboo organ called Bambuso sonoro is an experimental custom-made instrument designed by Hans van Koolwijk. The instrument has 100 flutes made of bamboo. A harmonium . Operation of the two large pedals at the bottom of the case supplies wind to the reeds. A chord organ with array of chord buttons on left side.
The pump organ, or harmonium, was the other main type of organ before the development of electronic organs. It generated its sounds using reeds similar to those of a piano accordion . Smaller, cheaper and more portable than the corresponding pipe instrument, these were widely used in smaller churches and in private homes, but their volume and tonal range was extremely limited, and they were generally limited to one or two manuals, pedalboards being extremely rare.
The chord organ was invented by Laurens Hammond in 1950. It provided chord buttons for the left hand, similar to an accordion. Other reed organ manufacturers have also produced chord organs, most notably Magnus from 1958 to the late 1970s.
Main article: Electric organ
Since the 1930s, pipeless electric instruments have been available to produce similar sounds and perform similar roles to pipe organs. Many of these have been bought both by houses of worship and other potential pipe organ customers, and also by many musicians both professional and amateur for whom a pipe organ would not be a possibility. Far smaller and cheaper to buy than a corresponding pipe instrument, and in many cases portable, they have taken organ music into private homes and into dance bands and other new environments, and have almost completely replaced the reed organ.
In addition to these console models, Hammond also produced spinet models, which differed from the consoles in the size of keyboard (44 keys per keyboard versus 61 for the consoles, and 12 or 13 pedals instead of 25) and the absence of foldback and scaling in the keyboards making them cheaper to manufacture. Other features of the console organs such as vibrato or percussion were included in the spinets; all the spinet models featured a built in amplifier and speaker; when used with the external amplified speaker (e.g.: Leslie) they sound similar to the console models. These smaller all-in-one organs were intended primarily for use in homes or very small churches.
Though originally produced to replace organs in the church, the
Hammond organ, especially the model B-3, became popular in jazz ,
particularly soul jazz , and in gospel music . Since these were the
roots of rock and roll , the
Main article: Allen organ
In contrast to Hammond's electro-mechanical design, Allen Organ Company introduced the first totally electronic organ in 1938, based on the stable oscillator designed and patented by the Company's founder, Jerome Markowitz. Allen continued to advance analog tone generation through the 1960s with additional patents . In 1971, in collaboration with North American Rockwell, Allen introduced the world's first commercially-available digital musical instrument. The first Allen Digital Organ is now in the Smithsonian Institution.
OTHER ELECTRONIC ORGANS
Frequency divider organs used oscillators instead of mechanical parts to make sound. These were even cheaper and more portable than the Hammond. They featured an ability to bend pitches.
In the 1940s until the 1970s, small organs were sold that simplified traditional organ stops. These instruments can be considered the predecessor to modern portable keyboards , as they included one-touch chords, rhythm and accompaniment devices, and other electronically assisted gadgets. Lowrey was the leading manufacturer of this type of organs in the smaller (spinet) instruments.
In the '60s and '70s, a type of simple, portable electronic organ
called the combo organ was popular, especially with pop,
Conn-Selmer and Rodgers , dominant in the market for larger instruments, also made electronic organs that used separate oscillators for each note rather than frequency dividers, giving them a richer sound, closer to a pipe organ, due to the slight imperfections in tuning.
Hybrids , starting in the early 20th century, incorporate a few
ranks of pipes to produce some sounds, and use electronic circuits or
digital samples for other sounds and to resolve borrowing collisions .
Major manufacturers include Allen , Walker, Compton , Wicks, Marshall
max-width:224px"> A typical Virtual Pipe Organ system. (
The development of the integrated circuit enabled another revolution in electronic keyboard instruments. Digital organs sold since the 1970s utilize additive synthesis , then sampling technology (1980s) and physical modelling synthesis (1990s) are also utilized to produce the sound.
Virtual pipe organs use
The wind can also be created by using pressurized steam instead of air. The steam organ, or calliope , was invented in the United States in the 19th century. Calliopes usually have very loud and clean sound. Calliopes are used as outdoors instruments, and many have been built on wheeled platforms.
Main article: organ repertoire
The organ has had an important place in classical music ,
particularly since 1500. Spain's
Antonio de Cabezón
During this time, the French Classical school also flourished.
After Bach's death in 1750, the organ's prominence gradually shrank,
as the instrument itself increasingly lost ground to the piano .
Very late in the 19th century, Germany's
Max Reger began devoting a
great deal of his compositional time to the organ (notwithstanding his
own lack of virtuoso ability at the instrument). Reger's output for
the instrument owes much to the harmonic daring of
Some composers incorporated the instrument in symphonic works for its
dramatic effect, notably Mahler , Holst , Elgar , Scriabin , Respighi
Because the organ has both manuals and pedals, organ music has come to be notated on three staves . The music played on the manuals is laid out like music for other keyboard instruments on the top two staves, and the music for the pedals is notated on the third stave or sometimes, to save space, added to the bottom of the second stave as was the early practice. To aid the eye in reading three staves at once, the bar lines are broken between the lowest two staves; the brace surrounds only the upper two staves. Because music racks are often built quite low to preserve sightlines over the console, organ music is usually published in oblong or landscape format.
From their creation on radio in the 1930s to the times of television in the early 1970s, soap operas were perhaps the biggest users of organ music. Day in and day out, the melodramatic serials utilized the instrument in the background of scenes and in their opening and closing theme songs. Some of the best-known soap organists included Charles Paul , John Gart , and Paul Barranco . In the early 1970s, the organ was phased out in favor of more dramatic, full-blown orchestras , which in turn were replaced with more modern pop -style compositions.
A modern digital
Church-style pipe organs are occasionally used in rock music . In
some cases, groups have sought out the sound of the pipe organ, such
Even more recently, he has recorded an entire album of organ pieces
On the other hand, electronic organs and electromechanical organs
such as the
The American Theater Organ Society (ATOS) has been instrumental in programs to preserve the instruments originally installed in theatres for accompaniment of silent movies. In addition to local chapter events they hold an annual convention each year, highlighting performers and instruments in a specific locale. These instruments feature the Tibia pipe family as their foundation stops and regular use of tremulants. They were usually equipped with mechanical percussion accessories, pianos, and other imitative sounds useful in creating movie sound accompaniments such as auto horns, doorbells, and bird whistles.
In the United States and Canada, organ music is commonly associated with several sports, most notably baseball , basketball , and ice hockey .
The baseball organ has been referred to as "an accessory to the
overall auditory experience of the ballpark." The first team to
introduce an organ during breaks of play (before and after games, in
between innings, and during longer stoppages) was the
Over the years, many ballparks caught on to the trend, and many
organists became well-known and associated with their parks or
Eddie Layton playing at Yankee Stadium for over 50
Jane Jarvis greeting the
New York Mets
Some organists include:
* Gil Imber,
The electric organ, especially the Hammond B-3, has occupied a
significant role in jazz ever since Jimmy Smith made it popular in the
1950s. It can function as a replacement for both piano and bass in the
standard jazz combo. The
(after the 16th century)
* 3rd century BC - the
* Regal , a small portable late-medieval instrument with reed pipes and two bellows. 16th century - useless resonance pipes were removed, and regal became a beating-reed organ. It may be seen as the ancestor of the harmonium and reed organs , and the varieties of 'squeezebox '
A harmonium Main article:
* Harmonium or parlor organ are a reed instrument, usually with many
stops and two foot-operated bellows.
American reed organ
Main article: Squeezebox
* Squeezeboxes —such as the accordion , concertina ,
Main article: Mechanical organ
* Novelty instruments or various types that operate on the same principles: Orchestrion , fairground organ (or band organ in the USA), dutch street organ and Dance organ —these pipe organs use a piano roll player or other mechanical means instead of a keyboard to play a prepared song.
* Mouth organs such as:
* Recorder , a kind of fipple flute that uses the same mechanism for
sound production as the pipe organ .
Organ in Driever (Westoverledingen) , 1885
* ^ Organon, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English
Lexicon, at Perseus project
* ^ The organ developed from older musical instruments like the
panpipe, therefore is not the oldest musical instrument.
* ^ A B Douglas Bush and Richard Kassel eds., "The Organ, an
Encyclopedia." Routledge. 2006. p. 327.
* ^ The