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The Ordovician
Ordovician
( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/) is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era. The Ordovician spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian
Silurian
Period 443.8 Mya.[8] The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices, was defined by Charles Lapworth
Charles Lapworth
in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick
Adam Sedgwick
and Roderick Murchison, who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian systems, respectively.[9] Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian
Silurian
systems, and placed them in a system of their own. The Ordovician
Ordovician
received international approval in 1960 (forty years after Lapworth's death), when it was adopted as an official period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era by the International Geological Congress. Life continued to flourish during the Ordovician
Ordovician
as it did in the earlier Cambrian
Cambrian
period, although the end of the period was marked by the Ordovician– Silurian
Silurian
extinction event. Invertebrates, namely molluscs and arthropods, dominated the oceans. The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event considerably increased the diversity of life. Fish, the world's first true vertebrates, continued to evolve, and those with jaws may have first appeared late in the period. Life had yet to diversify on land. About 100 times as many meteorites struck the Earth per year during the Ordovician
Ordovician
compared with today.[10]

Contents

1 Dating: extinction events 2 Subdivisions

2.1 British stages

3 Paleogeography

3.1 Ordovician
Ordovician
meteor event

4 Geochemistry 5 Climate and sea level 6 Life

6.1 Fauna 6.2 Flora

7 End of the period 8 References 9 External links

Dating: extinction events[edit]

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The Ordovician
Ordovician
Period began with a major extinction called the Cambrian– Ordovician
Ordovician
extinction event, about 485.4 Mya (million years ago). It lasted for about 42 million years and ended with the Ordovician– Silurian
Silurian
extinction event, about 443.8 Mya (ICS, 2004) which wiped out 60% of marine genera. The dates given are recent radiometric dates and vary slightly from those found in other sources. This second period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era created abundant fossils that became major petroleum and gas reservoirs. The boundary chosen for the beginning of both the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period and the Tremadocian stage is highly significant. It correlates well with the occurrence of widespread graptolite, conodont, and trilobite species. The base (start) of the Tremadocian allows scientists to relate these species not only to each other, but also to species that occur with them in other areas. This makes it easier to place many more species in time relative to the beginning of the Ordovician Period. Subdivisions[edit] A number of regional terms have been used to subdivide the Ordovician Period. In 2008, the ICS erected a formal international system of subdivisions, illustrated to the right.[11] There exist Baltoscandic, British, Siberian, North American, Australian, Chinese Mediterranean&North-Gondwanan regional stratigraphic schemes.[12]

Ordoviciani regional stages

Epoch Stage British epoch British stage North American epoch North American stage Australian epoch Australian stage Chinese epoch Chinese stage

Late Ordovician Hirnantian
Hirnantian
stage Ashgill stage Hirnant stage Cincinnati series Gamach stage Late Ordovician Bolinda stage Late Ordovician Hirnant stage

Katy stage Rawthey stage Richmond stage Chientangkiang stage

Cautley stage Maysville stage Easton stage Neichiashan stage

Pusgill stage Eden stage

Caradoc series Strefford stage Mohawk stage Chatfield stage

Cheney stage

Sandby stage Burrell stage Turin stage Gisborne stage

Aureluc stage Whiterock stage Chazy stage

Middle Ordovician Darriwil stage Llanvirn series Llandeil stage Middle Ordovician Darriwil stage Middle Ordovician Darriwil stage

Abereiddy stage Not defined

Daping stage Arenig
Arenig
series Fenn stage Early Ordovician Yapeen stage Daping stage

Whitland stage Ranger stage Castlemaine stage

Ibex series Black Hills stage Chewton stage

Bendigo stage

Early Ordovician Flo stage Moridun stage Tule stage Lancefield stage Early Ordovician Flo stage

Tremadoc stage Tremadoc series Migneint stage Stairs stage Tremadoc stage

Cressage stage Skullrock stage

The Ordovician
Ordovician
Period in Britain was traditionally broken into Early ( Tremadocian and Arenig), Middle (Llanvirn (subdivided into Abereiddian and Llandeilian) and Llandeilo) and Late (Caradoc and Ashgill) epochs. The corresponding rocks of the Ordovician
Ordovician
System are referred to as coming from the Lower, Middle, or Upper part of the column. The faunal stages (subdivisions of epochs) from youngest to oldest are: Late Ordovician

Hirnantian/Gamach (Ashgill) Rawtheyan/Richmond (Ashgill) Cautleyan/Richmond (Ashgill) Pusgillian/Maysville/Richmond (Ashgill)

Middle Ordovician

Trenton (Caradoc) Onnian/Maysville/Eden (Caradoc) Actonian/Eden (Caradoc) Marshbrookian/Sherman (Caradoc) Longvillian/Sherman (Caradoc) Soudleyan/Kirkfield (Caradoc) Harnagian/Rockland (Caradoc) Costonian/Black River (Caradoc) Chazy (Llandeilo) Llandeilo (Llandeilo) Whiterock (Llanvirn) Llanvirn (Llanvirn)

Early Ordovician

Cassinian (Arenig) Arenig/Jefferson/Castleman (Arenig) Tremadoc/Deming/Gaconadian (Tremadoc)

British stages[edit] The Tremadoc corresponds to the (modern) Tremadocian. The Floian corresponds to the lower Arenig; the Arenig
Arenig
continues until the early Darriwilian, subsuming the Dapingian. The Llanvirn occupies the rest of the Darriwilian, and terminates with it at the base of the Late Ordovician. The Sandbian represents the first half of the Caradoc; the Caradoc ends in the mid-Katian, and the Ashgill represents the last half of the Katian, plus the Hirnantian.[13][This would be clearer as a diagram.] Paleogeography[edit] During the Ordovician, the southern continents were collected into Gondwana. Gondwana
Gondwana
started the period in equatorial latitudes and, as the period progressed, drifted toward the South Pole. Early in the Ordovician, the continents of Laurentia
Laurentia
(in present-day North America), Siberia, and Baltica
Baltica
(present-day northern Europe) were still independent continents (since the break-up of the supercontinent Pannotia
Pannotia
earlier), but Baltica
Baltica
began to move towards Laurentia
Laurentia
later in the period, causing the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
between them to shrink. The small continent Avalonia
Avalonia
separated from Gondwana
Gondwana
and began to move north towards Baltica
Baltica
and Laurentia, opening the Rheic Ocean between Gondwana
Gondwana
and Avalonia. The Taconic orogeny, a major mountain-building episode, was well under way in Cambrian
Cambrian
times. In the early and middle Ordovician, temperatures were mild, but at the beginning of the Late Ordovician, from 460 to 450 Ma, volcanoes along the margin of the Iapetus Ocean spewed massive amounts of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere, turning the planet into a hothouse. Initially, sea levels were high, but as Gondwana
Gondwana
moved south, ice accumulated into glaciers and sea levels dropped. At first, low-lying sea beds increased diversity, but later glaciation led to mass extinctions as the seas drained and continental shelves became dry land. During the Ordovician, in fact during the Tremadocian, marine transgressions worldwide were the greatest for which evidence is preserved. These volcanic island arcs eventually collided with proto North America to form the Appalachian mountains. By the end of the Late Ordovician
Ordovician
the volcanic emissions had stopped. Gondwana
Gondwana
had by that time neared the south pole and was largely glaciated. Ordovician
Ordovician
meteor event[edit] The Ordovician meteor event
Ordovician meteor event
is a proposed shower of meteors that occurred during the Middle Ordovician
Middle Ordovician
period, roughly 470 million years ago. It is not associated with any major extinction event.[14][15][16] Geochemistry[edit]

External mold of Ordovician
Ordovician
bivalve showing that the original aragonite shell dissolved on the sea floor, leaving a cemented mold for biological encrustation ( Waynesville Formation
Waynesville Formation
of Franklin County, Indiana).

The Ordovician
Ordovician
was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. Carbonate hardgrounds
Carbonate hardgrounds
were thus very common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, and invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons. Biogenic aragonite, like that composing the shells of most mollusks, dissolved rapidly on the sea floor after death.[17][18] Unlike Cambrian
Cambrian
times, when calcite production was dominated by microbial and non-biological processes, animals (and macroalgae) became a dominant source of calcareous material in Ordovician deposits.[19] Climate and sea level[edit] The Ordovician
Ordovician
saw the highest sea levels of the Paleozoic, and the low relief of the continents led to many shelf deposits being formed under hundreds of metres of water.[19] The sea level rose more or less continuously throughout the Early Ordovician, leveling off somewhat during the middle of the period.[19] Locally, some regressions occurred, but sea level rise continued in the beginning of the Late Ordovician. Sea levels fell steadily in accord with the cooling temperatures for ~30 million years leading up to the Hirnantian glaciation. During this icy stage, sea level seems to have risen and dropped somewhat, but despite much study the details remain unresolved.[19] At the beginning of the period, around 485.4 million years ago, the climate was very hot due to high concentration of CO2 (4200 ppm) in the atmosphere, which gave a strong greenhouse effect. By contrast, today the concentration is just above 400 ppm. Marine water temperatures are assumed to have averaged 45 °C (113 °F), which restricted the diversification of complex multi-cellular organisms. But over time, the climate became cooler, and around 460 million years ago, the ocean temperatures became comparable to those of present-day equatorial waters.[20] As with North America
North America
and Europe, Gondwana
Gondwana
was largely covered with shallow seas during the Ordovician. Shallow clear waters over continental shelves encouraged the growth of organisms that deposit calcium carbonates in their shells and hard parts. The Panthalassic Ocean covered much of the northern hemisphere, and other minor oceans included Proto-Tethys, Paleo-Tethys, Khanty Ocean, which was closed off by the Late Ordovician, Iapetus Ocean, and the new Rheic Ocean. As the Ordovician
Ordovician
progressed, we see evidence of glaciers on the land we now know as Africa
Africa
and South America, which were near the South Pole at the time, and covered by ice caps. Life[edit]

A diorama depicting Ordovician
Ordovician
flora and fauna.

For most of the Late Ordovician
Late Ordovician
life continued to flourish, but at and near the end of the period there were mass-extinction events that seriously affected planktonic forms like conodonts and graptolites. The trilobites Agnostida
Agnostida
and Ptychopariida
Ptychopariida
completely died out, and the Asaphida
Asaphida
were much reduced. Brachiopods
Brachiopods
bryozoans and echinoderms were also heavily affected, and the endocerid cephalopods died out completely, except for possible rare Silurian
Silurian
forms. The Ordovician– Silurian
Silurian
Extinction Events may have been caused by an ice age that occurred at the end of the Ordovician
Ordovician
period, due to the expansion of the first terrestrial plants,[21] as the end of the Late Ordovician
Ordovician
was one of the coldest times in the last 600 million years of earth history. Fauna[edit]

Nautiloids like Orthoceras
Orthoceras
were among the largest predators in the Ordovician.

Fossiliferous limestone slab from the Liberty Formation (Upper Ordovician) of Caesar Creek State Park near Waynesville, Ohio.

On the whole, the fauna that emerged in the Ordovician
Ordovician
were the template for the remainder of the Palaeozoic.[19] The fauna was dominated by tiered communities of suspension feeders, mainly with short food chains. The ecological system reached a new grade of complexity far beyond that of the Cambrian
Cambrian
fauna,[19] which has persisted until the present day.[19] Though less famous than the Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion, the Ordovician radiation was no less remarkable; marine faunal genera increased fourfold, resulting in 12% of all known Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
marine fauna.[22] Another change in the fauna was the strong increase in filter-feeding organisms.[23] The trilobite, inarticulate brachiopod, archaeocyathid, and eocrinoid faunas of the Cambrian
Cambrian
were succeeded by those that dominated the rest of the Paleozoic, such as articulate brachiopods, cephalopods, and crinoids. Articulate brachiopods, in particular, largely replaced trilobites in shelf communities.[24] Their success epitomizes the greatly increased diversity of carbonate shell-secreting organisms in the Ordovician
Ordovician
compared to the Cambrian.[24] In North America
North America
and Europe, the Ordovician
Ordovician
was a time of shallow continental seas rich in life. Trilobites and brachiopods in particular were rich and diverse. Although solitary corals date back to at least the Cambrian, reef-forming corals appeared in the early Ordovician, corresponding to an increase in the stability of carbonate and thus a new abundance of calcifying animals.[19] Molluscs, which appeared during the Cambrian
Cambrian
or even the Ediacaran, became common and varied, especially bivalves, gastropods, and nautiloid cephalopods. Now-extinct marine animals called graptolites thrived in the oceans. Some new cystoids and crinoids appeared. It was long thought that the first true vertebrates (fish — Ostracoderms) appeared in the Ordovician, but recent discoveries in China
China
reveal that they probably originated in the Early Cambrian.[citation needed] The very first gnathostome (jawed fish) appeared in the Late Ordovician
Late Ordovician
epoch. During the Middle Ordovician
Middle Ordovician
there was a large increase in the intensity and diversity of bioeroding organisms. This is known as the Ordovician
Ordovician
Bioerosion
Bioerosion
Revolution.[25] It is marked by a sudden abundance of hard substrate trace fossils such as Trypanites, Palaeosabella, Petroxestes
Petroxestes
and Osprioneides. Several groups of endobiotic symbionts appeared in the Ordovician.[26][27] In the Early Ordovician, trilobites were joined by many new types of organisms, including tabulate corals, strophomenid, rhynchonellid, and many new orthid brachiopods, bryozoans, planktonic graptolites and conodonts, and many types of molluscs and echinoderms, including the ophiuroids ("brittle stars") and the first sea stars. Nevertheless, the trilobites remained abundant, all the Late Cambrian
Cambrian
orders continued, and were joined by the new group Phacopida. The first evidence of land plants also appeared; see Evolutionary history of life. In the Middle Ordovician, the trilobite-dominated Early Ordovician communities were replaced by generally more mixed ecosystems, in which brachiopods, bryozoans, molluscs, cornulitids, tentaculitids and echinoderms all flourished, tabulate corals diversified and the first rugose corals appeared; trilobites were no longer predominant. The planktonic graptolites remained diverse, with the Diplograptina making their appearance. Bioerosion
Bioerosion
became an important process, particularly in the thick calcitic skeletons of corals, bryozoans and brachiopods, and on the extensive carbonate hardgrounds that appear in abundance at this time. One of the earliest known armoured agnathan ("ostracoderm") vertebrate, Arandaspis, dates from the Middle Ordovician. Trilobites in the Ordovician
Ordovician
were very different from their predecessors in the Cambrian. Many trilobites developed bizarre spines and nodules to defend against predators such as primitive eurypterids and nautiloids while other trilobites such as Aeglina prisca evolved to become swimming forms. Some trilobites even developed shovel-like snouts for ploughing through muddy sea bottoms. Another unusual clade of trilobites known as the trinucleids developed a broad pitted margin around their head shields.[28] Some trilobites such as Asaphus kowalewski evolved long eyestalks to assist in detecting predators whereas other trilobite eyes in contrast disappeared completely.[29] Molecular clock analyses suggest that early arachnids started living on land by the end of the Ordovician.[30] The earliest known octocorals date from the Ordovician.[31]

The Upper Ordovician
Ordovician
edrioasteroid Cystaster stellatus on a cobble from the Kope Formation in northern Kentucky. In the background is the cyclostome bryozoan Corynotrypa.

Fossil
Fossil
Mountain, west-central Utah; Middle Ordovician
Middle Ordovician
fossiliferous shales and limestones in the lower half.

Outcrop of Upper Ordovician
Ordovician
rubbly limestone and shale, southern Indiana; College of Wooster
College of Wooster
students.

Outcrop of Upper Ordovician
Ordovician
limestone and minor shale, central Tennessee; College of Wooster
College of Wooster
students.

Trypanites
Trypanites
borings in an Ordovician
Ordovician
hardground, southeastern Indiana.[32]

Petroxestes
Petroxestes
borings in an Ordovician
Ordovician
hardground, southern Ohio.[25]

Outcrop of Ordovician
Ordovician
kukersite oil shale, northern Estonia.

Bryozoan
Bryozoan
fossils in Ordovician
Ordovician
kukersite oil shale, northern Estonia.

Brachiopods
Brachiopods
and bryozoans in an Ordovician
Ordovician
limestone, southern Minnesota.

Vinlandostrophia ponderosa, Maysvillian (Upper Ordovician) near Madison, Indiana. Scale bar is 5.0 mm.

The Ordovician
Ordovician
cystoid Echinosphaerites
Echinosphaerites
(an extinct echinoderm) from northeastern Estonia; approximately 5 cm in diameter.

Prasopora, a trepostome bryozoan from the Ordovician
Ordovician
of Iowa.

An Ordovician
Ordovician
strophomenid brachiopod with encrusting inarticulate brachiopods and a bryozoan.

The heliolitid coral Protaraea richmondensis encrusting a gastropod; Cincinnatian (Upper Ordovician) of southeastern Indiana.

Zygospira modesta, atrypid brachiopods, preserved in their original positions on a trepostome bryozoan; Cincinnatian (Upper Ordovician) of southeastern Indiana.

Graptolites (Amplexograptus) from the Ordovician
Ordovician
near Caney Springs, Tennessee.

Flora[edit] Green algae
Green algae
were common in the Late Cambrian
Cambrian
(perhaps earlier) and in the Ordovician. Terrestrial plants probably evolved from green algae, first appearing as tiny non-vascular forms resembling liverworts. Fossil
Fossil
spores from land plants have been identified in uppermost Ordovician
Ordovician
sediments.

Colonization of land would have been limited to shorelines

Among the first land fungi may have been arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (Glomerales), playing a crucial role in facilitating the colonization of land by plants through mycorrhizal symbiosis, which makes mineral nutrients available to plant cells; such fossilized fungal hyphae and spores from the Ordovician
Ordovician
of Wisconsin have been found with an age of about 460 million years ago, a time when the land flora most likely only consisted of plants similar to non-vascular bryophytes.[33] End of the period[edit] Main article: Ordovician– Silurian
Silurian
extinction events The Ordovician
Ordovician
came to a close in a series of extinction events that, taken together, comprise the second largest of the five major extinction events in Earth's history in terms of percentage of genera that became extinct. The only larger one was the Permian-Triassic extinction event. The extinctions occurred approximately 447–444 million years ago and mark the boundary between the Ordovician
Ordovician
and the following Silurian Period. At that time all complex multicellular organisms lived in the sea, and about 49% of genera of fauna disappeared forever; brachiopods and bryozoans were greatly reduced, along with many trilobite, conodont and graptolite families. The most commonly accepted theory is that these events were triggered by the onset of cold conditions in the late Katian, followed by an ice age, in the Hirnantian
Hirnantian
faunal stage, that ended the long, stable greenhouse conditions typical of the Ordovician. The ice age was possibly not long-lasting. Oxygen
Oxygen
isotopes in fossil brachiopods show its duration may have been only 0.5 to 1.5 million years.[18] Other researchers (Page et al.) estimate more temperate conditions did not return until the late Silurian. The late Ordovician
Ordovician
glaciation event was preceded by a fall in atmospheric carbon dioxide (from 7000 ppm to 4400 ppm).[34][35] The dip was triggered by a burst of volcanic activity that deposited new silicate rocks, which draw CO2 out of the air as they erode.[35] This selectively affected the shallow seas where most organisms lived. As the southern supercontinent Gondwana
Gondwana
drifted over the South Pole, ice caps formed on it, which have been detected in Upper Ordovician
Ordovician
rock strata of North Africa
Africa
and then-adjacent northeastern South America, which were south-polar locations at the time. As glaciers grew, the sea level dropped, and the vast shallow intra-continental Ordovician
Ordovician
seas withdrew, which eliminated many ecological niches. When they returned, they carried diminished founder populations that lacked many whole families of organisms. They then withdrew again with the next pulse of glaciation, eliminating biological diversity with each change.[36] Species limited to a single epicontinental sea on a given landmass were severely affected.[18] Tropical lifeforms were hit particularly hard in the first wave of extinction, while cool-water species were hit worst in the second pulse.[18] Those species able to adapt to the changing conditions survived to fill the ecological niches left by the extinctions. At the end of the second event, melting glaciers caused the sea level to rise and stabilise once more. The rebound of life's diversity with the permanent re-flooding of continental shelves at the onset of the Silurian
Silurian
saw increased biodiversity within the surviving Orders. An alternate extinction hypothesis suggested that a ten-second gamma-ray burst could have destroyed the ozone layer and exposed terrestrial and marine surface-dwelling life to deadly ultraviolet radiation and initiated global cooling.[37] References[edit]

^ Image:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg ^ File:OxygenLevel-1000ma.svg ^ Image: Phanerozoic
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Carbon Dioxide.png ^ Image:All palaeotemps.png ^ Haq, B. U.; Schutter, SR (2008). "A Chronology of Paleozoic Sea-Level Changes". Science. 322 (5898): 64–68. Bibcode:2008Sci...322...64H. doi:10.1126/science.1161648. PMID 18832639.  ^ Wellman, C.H.; Gray, J. (2000). "The microfossil record of early land plants". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 355 (1398): 717–732. doi:10.1098/rstb.2000.0612. PMC 1692785 . PMID 10905606.  ^ Gradstein, F. M., ed. (2012). The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Elsevier Science Ltd. p. 504. ISBN 978-0444594259.  ^ "International Chronostratigraphic Chart v.2015/01" (PDF). International Commission on Stratigraphy. January 2015.  ^ Charles Lapworth
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(1879) "On the Tripartite Classification of the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks," Geological Magazine, new series, 6 : 1-15. From pp. 13-14: "North Wales itself — at all events the whole of the great Bala district where Sedgwick first worked out the physical succession among the rocks of the intermediate or so-called Upper Cambrian
Cambrian
or Lower Silurian
Silurian
system; and in all probability much of the Shelve and the Caradoc area, whence Murchison first published its distinctive fossils — lay within the territory of the Ordovices; … Here, then, have we the hint for the appropriate title for the central system of the Lower Palaeozoics. It should be called the Ordovician
Ordovician
System, after this old British tribe." ^ "New type of meteorite linked to ancient asteroid collision". Science Daily. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.  ^ Details on the Dapingian
Dapingian
are available at Wang, X.; Stouge, S.; Chen, X.; Li, Z.; Wang, C. (2009). " Dapingian
Dapingian
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Ordovician
stratigraphy ^ Ogg, Ogg & Gradstein, eds. (2008). The Concise Geological Timescale. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Heck, Philipp R.; Schmitz, Birger; Baur, Heinrich; Halliday, Alex N.; Wieler, Rainer (2004). "Fast delivery of meteorites to Earth after a major asteroid collision". Nature. 430 (6997): 323–5. Bibcode:2004Natur.430..323H. doi:10.1038/nature02736. PMID 15254530.  ^ Haack, Henning; Farinella, Paolo; Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus (1996). "Meteoritic, Asteroidal, and Theoretical Constraints on the 500 MA Disruption of the L Chondrite Parent Body". Icarus. 119: 182–91. Bibcode:1996Icar..119..182H. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0010.  ^ Korochantseva, Ekaterina V.; Trieloff, Mario; Lorenz, Cyrill A.; Buykin, Alexey I.; Ivanova, Marina A.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Hopp, Jens; Jessberger, Elmar K. (2007). "L-chondrite asteroid breakup tied to Ordovician
Ordovician
meteorite shower by multiple isochron 40Ar-39Ar dating". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 42: 113–30. Bibcode:2007M&PS...42..113K. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2007.tb00221.x.  ^ Stanley, S.; Hardie, L. (1998). "Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reef-building and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 144: 3. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(98)00109-6.  ^ a b c d Stanley, S. M.; Hardie, L. A. (1999). "Hypercalcification; paleontology links plate tectonics and geochemistry to sedimentology". GSA Today. 9: 1–7.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Stanley1999" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ a b c d e f g h Munnecke, A.; Calner, M.; Harper, D. A. T.; Servais, T. (2010). " Ordovician
Ordovician
and Silurian
Silurian
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Period Archived 2007-12-21 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Cooper, John D.; Miller, Richard H.; Patterson, Jacqueline (1986). A Trip Through Time: Principles of Historical Geology. Columbus: Merrill Publishing Company. pp. 247, 255–259. ISBN 0-675-20140-3.  ^ a b Wilson, M. A.; Palmer, T. J. (2006). "Patterns and processes in the Ordovician
Ordovician
Bioerosion
Bioerosion
Revolution" (PDF). Ichnos. 13 (3): 109–112. doi:10.1080/10420940600850505. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-16.  Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "WilsonPalmer2006" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page). ^ Vinn, O.; Mõtus, M.-A. (2012). "Diverse early endobiotic coral symbiont assemblage from the Katian (Late Ordovician) of Baltica". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 321–322: 137–141. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2012.01.028. Retrieved 2014-06-11.  ^ Vinn, O., Wilson, M.A., Mõtus, M.-A. and Toom, U. (2014). "The earliest bryozoan parasite: Middle Ordovician
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(Darriwilian) of Osmussaar Island, Estonia". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 414: 129–132. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2014.08.021. Retrieved 2014-01-09. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Palaeos Paleozoic : Ordovician : The Ordovician
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Period". April 11, 2002. Archived from the original on December 21, 2007.  ^ A Guide to the Orders of Trilobites ^ Garwood, Russell J.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Dunlop, Jason A.; Giribet, Gonzalo (2014). "A Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Stem Group to Mite Harvestmen Revealed through Integration of Phylogenetics and Development". Current Biology. 24 (9): 1017–1023. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.03.039. PMID 24726154. Retrieved April 17, 2014.  ^ Bergström, Stig M.; Bergström, Jan; Kumpulainen, Risto; Ormö, Jens; Sturkell, Erik (2007). "Maurits Lindström – A renaissance geoscientist". GFF. 129 (2): 65–70. doi:10.1080/11035890701292065.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Wilson, M. A.; Palmer, T. J. (2001). "Domiciles, not predatory borings: a simpler explanation of the holes in Ordovician
Ordovician
shells analyzed by Kaplan and Baumiller, 2000". PALAIOS. 16 (5): 524–525. doi:10.1669/0883-1351(2001)016<0524:DNPBAS>2.0.CO;2.  ^ Redecker, D.; Kodner, R.; Graham, L. E. (2000). "Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician". Science. 289 (5486): 1920–1921. Bibcode:2000Sci...289.1920R. doi:10.1126/science.289.5486.1920. PMID 10988069.  ^ Young, Seth A.; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Ausich, William I.; Desrochers, André; Kaljo, Dimitri (2010). "Did changes in atmospheric CO2 coincide with latest Ordovician
Ordovician
glacial–interglacial cycles?". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 296 (3–4): 376–388. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2010.02.033.  ^ a b Jeff Hecht, High-carbon ice age mystery solved, New Scientist, 8 March 2010 (retrieved 30 June 2014) ^ Emiliani, Cesare. (1992). Planet Earth : Cosmology, Geology, & the Evolution of Life & the Environment (Cambridge University Press) p. 491 ^ Melott, Adrian; et al. (2004). "Did a gamma-ray burst initiate the late Ordovician
Ordovician
mass extinction?". International Journal of Astrobiology. 3: 55–61. arXiv:astro-ph/0309415 . Bibcode:2004IJAsB...3...55M. doi:10.1017/S1473550404001910. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource has original works on the topic: Paleozoic#Ordovician

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ordovician.

Ogg, Jim (June 2004). "Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's)". Archived from the original on 2006-04-23. Retrieved 2006-04-30.  Mehrtens, Charlotte. "Chazy Reef at Isle La Motte".  An Ordovician
Ordovician
reef in Vermont. Ordovician
Ordovician
fossils of the famous Cincinnatian Group The Dry Dredgers, an active group of amateur paleontologists in the Cincinnati area

v t e

Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.

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