The Info List - Ordnance Survey National Grid

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The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
National Grid reference
Grid reference
system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude. It is often called British National Grid (BNG).[1][2] The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers. Grid references are also commonly quoted in other publications and data sources, such as guide books and government planning documents. A number of different systems exist that can provide grid references for locations within the British Isles: this article describes the system created solely for Great Britain and its outlying islands (including the Isle of Man); the Irish grid reference system
Irish grid reference system
was a similar system created by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
of Ireland and the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
of Northern Ireland for the island of Ireland. The Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system
Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system
(UTM) is used to provide grid references for worldwide locations, and this is the system commonly used for the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
and Ireland (since 2001). European-wide agencies also use UTM when mapping locations, or may use the Military Grid Reference System
Military Grid Reference System
(MGRS) system, or variants of it.


1 General

1.1 Datum shift between OSGB 36 and WGS 84 1.2 Datum shift between OSGB 36 and ED 50

2 Grid letters 3 Grid digits 4 All-numeric grid references 5 Summary parameters of the coordinate system 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links


Grid square TF. The map shows The Wash
The Wash
and the North Sea, as well as places within the counties of Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire and Norfolk.

The grid is based on the OSGB36
datum ( Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Great Britain 1936,[citation needed] based on the Airy 1830 ellipsoid),[citation needed] and was introduced after the retriangulation of 1936–1962.[citation needed] It replaced the previously used Cassini Grid which,[citation needed] up to the end of World War Two, had been issued only to the military.[citation needed] The Airy ellipsoid is a regional best fit for Britain; more modern mapping tends to use the GRS80 ellipsoid used by the Global Positioning System (the Airy ellipsoid assumes the Earth to be about 1 km smaller in diameter than the GRS80 ellipsoid, and to be slightly less flattened). The British maps adopt a Transverse Mercator projection with an origin (the "true" origin) at 49° N, 2° W (an offshore point in the English Channel
English Channel
which lies between the island of Jersey
and the French port of St. Malo).[3] Over the Airy ellipsoid a straight line grid, the National Grid, is placed with a new false origin to eliminate negative numbers, creating a 700 km by 1300 km grid. This false origin is located south-west of the Isles of Scilly. The distortion created between the OS grid and the projection is countered by a scale factor in the longitude to create two lines of longitude with zero distortion rather than one. Grid north and true north are only aligned on the 400 km easting of the grid which is 2° W (OSGB36) and approx. 2° 0′ 5″ W (WGS 84). OSGB 36 was also used by Admiralty
nautical charts until 2000[citation needed] after which WGS 84 has been used. A geodetic transformation between OSGB 36 and other terrestrial reference systems (like ITRF2000, ETRS89, or WGS 84) can become quite tedious if attempted manually. The most common transformation is called the Helmert datum transformation, which results in a typical 7 m error from true. The definitive transformation from ETRS89 that is published by the OSGB is called the National Grid Transformation OSTN02.[4] This models the detailed distortions in the 1936–1962 retriangulation, and achieves backwards compatibility in grid coordinates to sub-metre accuracy. Datum shift between OSGB 36 and WGS 84[edit] The difference between the coordinates on different datums varies from place to place. The longitude and latitude positions on OSGB 36 are the same as for WGS 84 at a point in the Atlantic Ocean well to the west of Great Britain. In Cornwall, the WGS 84 longitude lines are about 70 metres east of their OSGB 36 equivalents, this value rising gradually to about 120 m east on the east coast of East Anglia. The WGS 84 latitude lines are about 70 m south of the OSGB 36 lines in South Cornwall, the difference diminishing to zero in the Scottish Borders, and then increasing to about 50 m north on the north coast of Scotland. (If the lines are further east, then the longitude value of any given point is further west. Similarly, if the lines are further south, the values will give the point a more northerly latitude.) The smallest datum shift is on the west coast of Scotland
and the greatest in Kent. Datum shift between OSGB 36 and ED 50[edit] These two datums are not both in general use in any one place, but for a point in the English Channel
English Channel
halfway between Dover
and Calais, the ED50
longitude lines are about 20 m east of the OSGB36 equivalents, and the ED50
latitude lines are about 150 m south of the OSGB36
ones.[citation needed]

Illustration of the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
National Grid coordinate system, with Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
as an example

Grid letters[edit]

For the first letter, the grid is divided into squares of size 500 km by 500 km, outlined in dark grey on the map to the right. There are four of these which contain significant land area within Great Britain: S, T, N and H. The O square contains a tiny area of North Yorkshire, almost all of which lies below mean high tide.[5] For the second letter, each 500 km square is subdivided into 25 squares of size 100 km by 100 km, each with a letter code from A to Z (omitting I) starting with A in the north-west corner to Z in the south-east corner. These squares are outlined in light grey on the map, with those containing land lettered. The central (2° W) meridian is shown in red. Grid digits[edit] Within each square, eastings and northings from the south west corner of the square are given numerically. For example, NH0325 means a 1 km square whose south-west corner is 3 km east and 25 km north from the south-west corner of square NH. A location can be indicated to varying resolutions numerically, usually from two digits in each coordinate (for a 1 km square) through to five (for a 1 m square); in each case the first half of the digits is for the first coordinate and the second half for the other. The most common usage is the six figure grid reference, employing three digits in each coordinate to determine a 100 m square. For example, the grid reference of the 100 m square containing the summit of Ben Nevis is NN 166 712. (Grid references may be written with or without spaces; e.g., also NN166712.) NN has an easting of 200 km and northing of 700 km, so the OSGB36
National Grid location for Ben Nevis is at 216600, 771200. All-numeric grid references[edit] Grid references may also be quoted as a pair of numbers: eastings then northings in metres, measured from the southwest corner of the SV square. Note that 14 digits may be required for locations in Orkney and further north. For example, the grid reference for Sullom Voe
Sullom Voe
oil terminal in the Shetland Islands may be given as HU396753 or 439668,1175316. Another, distinct, form of all-numeric grid reference is an abbreviated alphanumeric reference where the letters are simply omitted, e.g. 166712 for the summit of Ben Nevis. Unlike the numeric references described above, this abbreviated grid reference is incomplete; it gives the location relative to an OS 100×100 km square, but does not specify which square. It is often used informally when the context identifies the OS 2-letter square. For example, within the context of a location known to be on OS Landranger sheet 41 (which extends from NN000500 in the south-west to NN400900 in the north-east) the abbreviated grid reference 166712 is equivalent to NN166712. If working with more than one Landranger sheet, this may also be given as 41/166712. Alternatively, sometimes numbers instead of the two-letter combinations are used for the 100×100 km squares. The numbering follows a grid index where the tens denote the progress from West to East and the units from South to North. In the north of Scotland, the numbering is modified: the 100 km square to the north of 39 is numbered N30; the square to the north of 49 is N40, etc. Summary parameters of the coordinate system[edit]

Datum: OSGB36 Map projection: Transverse Mercator projection
Transverse Mercator projection
using Redfearn series True Origin: 49°N, 2°W False Origin: 400 km west, 100 km north of True Origin Scale Factor: 0.9996012717+[6] EPSG
Code: EPSG:27700

Ellipsoid: Airy 1830[7] Semi-major axis
Semi-major axis
a: 6377563.396 m Semi-minor axis
Semi-minor axis
b: 6356256.909 m Flattening
(derived constant): 1/299.3249646

See also[edit]

World Geodetic System Irish grid reference system United States National Grid Tetrad, Hectad, Myriad International Map of the World#Map Indexing System


^ "OSGB 1936 / British National Grid: EPSG
Projection -- Spatial Reference". spatialreference.org.  ^ "Coordinate systems and projections for beginners".  ^ OS Net, The true origin ^ "Surveying guidelines". Ordnance Survey.  ^ Standing, 2006 ^ Scale factor is defined by its base-10 logarithm of (0.9998268 − 1) exactly. ^ The defining Airy dimensions are a = 20923713 "feet", b = 20853810 "feet". In the Retriangulation the base-10 logarithm of the number of metres in a "foot" was set at (0.48401603 − 1) exactly and the Airy metric dimensions are calculated from that. The flattening is exactly 69903 divided by 20923713.


Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain: An introduction to mapping coordinate systems and the use of GPS datasets with Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
mapping; Version 2.2 December 2013 [accessed 13 February 2014]. Ordnance Survey's Grid script: a brief introduction to the National Grid Reference; Version November 2011 [accessed 13 February 2014]. Standing, Peter (2006) OV0000 a unique grid square at Beast Cliff, Geograph Project, UK, web article [accessed 11 June 2007] "The National Grid FAQs". Ordnance Survey. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 

External links[edit]

Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Guide to the National Grid Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Guide to coordinate systems Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
coordinate transformer Interactive Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
Mapping showing grid references FieldenMaps.info Co-ordinate Converter - Multiple-format co-ordinate transformer for Great Britain & Channel Islands Programs to convert Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
grid references Open Source Javascript Conversion Library GPL Java Conversion Library Perl Conversion Library The sole part of Great Britain that lies in the OV square JavaScript source code for OS coordinate transforms .Net library to convert between lat/lon in various coordinate systems and grid reference UK Grid Reference Finder. Web utility to find a