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In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is

* a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines).

Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes.

What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order. Some taxa are accepted almost universally, while others are recognised only rarely.

For some groups of organisms, consistent suffixes are used to denote that the rank is an order. The Latin suffix -(i)formes meaning "having the form of" is used for the scientific name of orders of birds and fishes , but not for those of mammals and invertebrates . The suffix -ales is for the name of orders of plants, fungi, and algae.

CONTENTS

* 1 Hierarchy of ranks

* 1.1 Zoology * 1.2 Botany

* 2 History of the concept

* 2.1 Botany * 2.2 Zoology

* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References

HIERARCHY OF RANKS

ZOOLOGY

For some clades covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , a number of additional classifications are sometimes used, although not all of these are officially recognised.

NAME MEANING OF PREFIX EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2

Magnorder magnus: large, great, important Boreoeutheria
Boreoeutheria

Superorder super: above Euarchontoglires Parareptilia

Grandorder grand: large Euarchonta

Mirorder mirus: wonderful, strange Primatomorpha

Order

Primates
Primates
Procolophonomorpha

Suborder sub: under Haplorrhini Procolophonia
Procolophonia

Infraorder infra: below Simiiformes Hallucicrania

Parvorder parvus: small, unimportant Catarrhini

In their 1997 classification of mammals, McKenna and Bell used two extra levels between superorder and order: "grandorder" and "mirorder". Michael Novacek (1986) inserted them at the same position. Michael Benton (2005) inserted them between superorder and magnorder instead. This position was adopted by Systema Naturae 2000 and others.

BOTANY

In botany, the ranks of subclass and suborder are secondary ranks pre-defined as respectively above and below the rank of order. Any number of further ranks can be used as long as they are clearly defined.

The superorder rank is commonly used, with the ending -anae that was initiated by Armen Takhtajan
Armen Takhtajan
's publications from 1966 onwards.

HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT

The order as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name (and not just called a higher genus (genus summum)) was first introduced by the German botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus in his classification of plants that appeared in a series of treatises in the 1690s. Carl Linnaeus was the first to apply it consistently to the division of all three kingdoms of nature (minerals , plants , and animals ) in his Systema Naturae (1735, 1st. Ed.).

BOTANY

Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ.

For plants, Linnaeus' orders in the Systema Naturae and the Species Plantarum were strictly artificial, introduced to subdivide the artificial classes into more comprehensible smaller groups. When the word ordo was first consistently used for natural units of plants, in 19th century works such as the Prodromus of de Candolle and the Genera Plantarum of Bentham ">

SEE ALSO

* Biology portal

* Biological classification * Cladistics
Cladistics
* Phylogenetics * Rank (botany)
Rank (botany)
* Rank (zoology) * Systematics
Systematics
* Taxonomy * Virus classification

NOTES

* ^ Tobin, Allan J.; Dusheck, Jennie (2005). Asking About Life. Boston: Cengage Learning. pp. 403–408. ISBN 978-0-030-27044-4 . * ^ (McNeill et al. 2012 & Article 17.1 ) * ^ McKenna, M.C. & Bell, S.G. (1997), Classification of Mammals, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-11013-6 * ^ Benton, Michael J. (2005). Vertebrate Palaeontology (3rd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-63205-637-8 . * ^ A B (McNeill et al. 2012 & Article 4 ) * ^ Naik, V.N. (1984), Taxonomy of Angiosperms, Tata McGraw-Hill, p. 111, ISBN 9780074517888 CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. * ^ Briquet, J. (1912). Règles internationales de la nomenclature botanique adoptées par le congrès international de botanique de Vienne 1905, deuxième edition mise au point d\'après les décisions du congrès international de botanique de Bruxelles 1910; International rules of botanical nomenclature adopted by the International Botanical Congresses of Vienna 1905 and Brussels 1910; Internationale Regeln der botanischen Nomenclatur angenommen von den Internationalen Botanischen Kongressen zu Wien 1905 und Brüssel 1910. Jena: Gustav Fischer. Page 1.

REFERENCES

* McNeill, J.; Barrie, F.R.; Buck, W.R.; Demoulin, V.; Greuter, W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Herendeen, P.S.; Knapp, S.; Marhold, K.; Prado, J.; Prud'homme Van Reine, W.F.; Smith, G.F.; Wiersema, J.H.; Turland, N.J. (2012). International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code) adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG. ISBN 978-3-87429-425-6 .

* v * t * e

Taxonomic ranks

* DOMAIN/Superkingdom * KINGDOM * Subkingdom * Infrakingdom/Branch

* Superphylum/Superdivision * PHYLUM/DIVISION * Subphylum * Infraphylum * Microphylum

* Superclass * CLASS * Subclass * Infraclass * Parvclass

* Legion * Cohort

* Magnorder * Superorder * ORDER * Suborder * Infraorder * Parvorder

* Section (zoo.) * Superfamily * FAMILY * Subfamily

*