Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering
plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly
known as the orchid family.
Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of
flowering plants. The
Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted
species, distributed in about 763 genera. The determination of
which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on
the members of such enormous families are continually in flux.
Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of
bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and
about four times the number of mammal species. The family also
encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants. The largest genera
Bulbophyllum (2,000 species),
Epidendrum (1,500 species),
Dendrobium (1,400 species) and
Pleurothallis (1,000 species).
The family also includes
Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant),
Orchis (type genus), and many commonly cultivated plants such as
Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of
tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists
have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.
1.1 Stem and roots
1.5 Asexual reproduction
1.6 Fruits and seeds
5.3 Use as food
5.4 Traditional medicinal uses
6 Cultural symbolism
7 See also
11 External links
High resolution image of orchid
Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some
very evident, shared derived characteristics, or "apomorphies". Among
these are: bilateral symmetry of the flower (zygomorphism), many
resupinate flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal (labellum),
fused stamens and carpels, and extremely small seeds.
Stem and roots
Germinating seeds of the temperate orchid
Anacamptis coriophora. The
protocorm is the first organ that will develop into true roots and
All orchids are perennial herbs that lack any permanent woody
structure. They can grow according to two patterns:
Monopodial: The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from
the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly. The stem of
orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length,
Vanda and Vanilla.
Sympodial orchids have a front (the newest growth) and a
back (the oldest growth). The plant produces a series of adjacent
shoots which grow to a certain size, bloom and then stop growing and
Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically,
following the surface of their support. The growth continues by
development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting
from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya. While a
new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a
so-called 'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching. Sympodial
orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps
along the top or just beneath the soil.
Anacamptis lactea showing the two tubers
Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers. The
root caps of terrestrial orchids are smooth and white.
Some sympodial terrestrial orchids, such as
Orchis and Ophrys, have
two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for
wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one,
from which visible growth develops.
In warm and constantly humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not
Epiphytic orchids, those that grow upon a support, have modified
aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older
parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis, called velamen, has
the function to absorb humidity. It is made of dead cells and can have
a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the
velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells,
The cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of
the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support. Nutrients
for epiphytic orchids mainly come from mineral dust, organic detritus,
animal droppings and other substances collecting among on their
The pseudobulb of Prosthechea fragrans
The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species
essentially the entire stem, may be thickened to form a pseudobulb
that contains nutrients and water for drier periods.
The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves, and can
have different shapes, often conical or oblong. Its size is very
variable; in some small species of Bulbophyllum, it is no longer than
two millimeters, while in the largest orchid in the world,
Grammatophyllum speciosum (giant orchid), it can reach three meters.
Dendrobium species have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short,
rounded leaves over the whole length; some other orchids have hidden
or extremely small pseudobulbs, completely included inside the leaves.
With ageing, the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes dormant. At
this stage, it is often called a backbulb. Backbulbs still hold
nutrition for the plant, but then a pseudobulb usually takes over,
exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which
eventually dies off, too. A pseudobulb typically lives for about five
years. Orchids without noticeable pseudobulbs are also said to have
growths, an individual component of a sympodial plant.
Like most monocots, orchids generally have simple leaves with parallel
veins, although some
Vanilloideae have reticulate venation. Leaves may
be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and very variable in size on the
individual plant. Their characteristics are often diagnostic. They are
normally alternate on the stem, often folded lengthwise along the
centre ("plicate"), and have no stipules. Orchid leaves often have
siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths (not
present in the Orchidoideae) and are fibrous.
The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the
Species that typically bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which
can be occasionally very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the
laminae are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water
supply. Shade-loving species, on the other hand, have long, thin
The leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is, they live for
several years, while others, especially those with plicate leaves as
in Catasetum, shed them annually and develop new leaves together with
The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental. The leaves of
Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or rock-hugging
("lithophyte") orchid, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a
light green background. The cordate leaves of Psychopsis limminghei
are light brownish-green with maroon-puce markings, created by flower
pigments. The attractive mottle of the leaves of lady's slippers from
tropical and subtropical
Asia (Paphiopedilum), is caused by uneven
distribution of chlorophyll. Also,
Phalaenopsis schilleriana is a
pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dark green and light green. The
jewel orchid (
Ludisia discolor) is grown more for its colorful leaves
than its white flowers.
Some orchids, as
Dendrophylax lindenii (ghost orchid), Aphyllorchis
Taeniophyllum depend on their green roots for photosynthesis and
lack normally developed leaves, as do all of the heterotrophic
Orchids of the genus
Corallorhiza (coralroot orchids) lack leaves
altogether and instead wrap their roots around the roots of mature
trees and use specialized fungi to harvest sugars.
Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in
Some orchids have single flowers, but most have a racemose
inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers. The flowering
stem can be basal, that is, produced from the base of the tuber, like
in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem,
like in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.
As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively
zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera like
Mormodes, Ludisia, and Macodes, this kind of symmetry may be difficult
Orchidoideae for reference
The orchid flower, like most flowers of monocots, has two whorls of
sterile elements. The outer whorl has three sepals and the inner whorl
has three petals. The sepals are usually very similar to the petals
(thus called tepals, 1), but may be completely distinct.
The medial petal, called the labellum or lip (6), which is always
modified and enlarged, is actually the upper medial petal; however, as
the flower develops, the inferior ovary (7) or the pedicel usually
rotates 180°, so that the labellum arrives at the lower part of the
flower, thus becoming suitable to form a platform for pollinators.
This characteristic, called resupination, occurs primitively in the
family and is considered apomorphic, a derived characteristic all
Orchidaceae share. The torsion of the ovary is very evident from the
longitudinal section shown (below right). Some orchids have
secondarily lost this resupination, e.g.
Longitudinal section of a flower of
The normal form of the sepals can be found in Cattleya, where they
form a triangle. In
Paphiopedilum (Venus slippers), the lower two
sepals are fused into a synsepal, while the lip has taken the form of
a slipper. In Masdevallia, all the sepals are fused.
Orchid flowers with abnormal numbers of petals or lips are called
Peloria is a genetic trait, but its expression is
environmentally influenced and may appear random.
Laeliocattleya cultivar shows the normal form of petals.
Orchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is
now limited to the genus Neuwiedia. Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae
have two stamens, the central one being sterile and reduced to a
staminode. All of the other orchids, the clade called Monandria,
retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes
(4). The filaments of the stamens are always adnate (fused) to the
style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column
(2). In the primitive Apostasioideae, this fusion is only partial; in
the Vanilloideae, it is more deep; in
Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae,
it is total. The stigma (9) is very asymmetrical, as all of its lobes
are bent towards the centre of the flower and lie on the bottom of the
Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the
Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, and Vanilloideae. In the other
subfamilies, which comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther
(3) carries two pollinia.
A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the
glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic strands and
mucopolysaccharides. Each pollinium is connected to a filament which
can take the form of a caudicle, as in
Dactylorhiza or Habenaria, or a
stipe, as in Vanda. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the
viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of
At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front
of the anther cap, is the rostellum (5), a slender extension involved
in the complex pollination mechanism.
As mentioned, the ovary is always inferior (located behind the
flower). It is three-carpelate and one or, more rarely,
three-partitioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the
Bulbophyllum nocturnum was discovered to flower
The complex mechanisms which orchids have evolved to achieve
cross-pollination were investigated by
Charles Darwin and described in
Fertilisation of Orchids
Fertilisation of Orchids (1862). Orchids have developed highly
specialized pollination systems, thus the chances of being pollinated
are often scarce, so orchid flowers usually remain receptive for very
long periods, rendering unpollinated flowers long-lasting in
cultivation. Most orchids deliver pollen in a single mass. Each time
pollination succeeds, thousands of ovules can be fertilized.
Pollinators are often visually attracted by the shape and colours of
the labellum. However, some
Bulbophyllum species attract male fruit
Bactrocera spp.) solely via a floral chemical which
simultaneously acts as a floral reward (e.g. methyl eugenol, raspberry
ketone, or zingerone) to perform pollination. The flowers may
produce attractive odours. Although absent in most species, nectar may
be produced in a spur of the labellum (8 in the illustration above),
or on the point of the sepals, or in the septa of the ovary, the most
typical position amongst the Asparagales.
In orchids that produce pollinia, pollination happens as some variant
of the following sequence: when the pollinator enters into the flower,
it touches a viscidium, which promptly sticks to its body, generally
on the head or abdomen. While leaving the flower, it pulls the
pollinium out of the anther, as it is connected to the viscidium by
the caudicle or stipe. The caudicle then bends and the pollinium is
moved forwards and downwards. When the pollinator enters another
flower of the same species, the pollinium has taken such position that
it will stick to the stigma of the second flower, just below the
rostellum, pollinating it. The possessors of orchids may be able to
reproduce the process with a pencil, small paintbrush, or other
Ophrys apifera is about to self-pollinate
Some orchids mainly or totally rely on self-pollination, especially in
colder regions where pollinators are particularly rare. The caudicles
may dry up if the flower has not been visited by any pollinator, and
the pollinia then fall directly on the stigma. Otherwise, the anther
may rotate and then enter the stigma cavity of the flower (as in
The slipper orchid
Paphiopedilum parishii reproduces by
self-fertilization. This occurs when the anther changes from a solid
to a liquid state and directly contacts the stigma surface without the
aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly.
The labellum of the
Cypripedioideae is poke bonnet-shaped, and has the
function of trapping visiting insects. The only exit leads to the
anthers that deposit pollen on the visitor.
In some extremely specialized orchids, such as the Eurasian genus
Ophrys, the labellum is adapted to have a colour, shape, and odour
which attracts male insects via mimicry of a receptive female.
Pollination happens as the insect attempts to mate with flowers.
Many neotropical orchids are pollinated by male orchid bees, which
visit the flowers to gather volatile chemicals they require to
synthesize pheromonal attractants. Males of such species as Euglossa
Eulaema meriana have been observed to leave their
territories periodically to forage for aromatic compounds, such as
cineole, to synthesize pheromone for attracting and mating with
females. Each type of orchid places the pollinia on a
different body part of a different species of bee, so as to enforce
A rare achlorophyllous saprophytic orchid growing entirely underground
in Australia, Rhizanthella slateri, is never exposed to light, and
depends on ants and other terrestrial insects to pollinate it.
Catasetum, a genus discussed briefly by Darwin, actually launches its
viscid pollinia with explosive force when an insect touches a seta,
knocking the pollinator off the flower.
After pollination, the sepals and petals fade and wilt, but they
usually remain attached to the ovary.
Some species, such as Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, and Vanda, produce
offshoots or plantlets formed from one of the nodes along the stem,
through the accumulation of growth hormones at that point. These
shoots are known as keiki.
Fruits and seeds
Cross-sections of orchid capsules showing the longitudinal slits
The ovary typically develops into a capsule that is dehiscent by three
or six longitudinal slits, while remaining closed at both ends.
The seeds are generally almost microscopic and very numerous, in some
species over a million per capsule. After ripening, they blow off like
dust particles or spores. They lack endosperm and must enter symbiotic
relationships with various mycorrhizal basidiomyceteous fungi that
provide them the necessary nutrients to germinate, so all orchid
species are mycoheterotrophic during germination and reliant upon
fungi to complete their lifecycles.
Closeup of a
As the chance for a seed to meet a suitable fungus is very small, only
a minute fraction of all the seeds released grow into adult plants. In
cultivation, germination typically takes weeks.
Horticultural techniques have been devised for germinating orchid
seeds on an artificial nutrient medium, eliminating the requirement of
the fungus for germination and greatly aiding the propagation of
ornamental orchids. The usual medium for the sowing of orchids in
artificial conditions is agar agar gel combined with a carbohydrate
energy source. The carbohydrate source can be combinations of discrete
sugars or can be derived from other sources such as banana, pineapple,
peach, or even tomato puree or coconut water. After the preparation of
the agar agar medium, it is poured into test tubes or jars which are
then autoclaved (or cooked in a pressure cooker) to sterilize the
medium. After cooking, the medium begins to gel as it cools.
Main article: Taxonomy of the Orchid family
The taxonomy of this family is in constant flux, as new studies
continue to clarify the relationships between species and groups of
species, allowing more taxa at several ranks to be recognized. The
Orchidaceae is currently placed in the order
Asparagales by the APG
III system of 2009.
Five subfamilies are recognised. The cladogram below was made
according to the
APG system of 1998. It represents the view that most
botanists had held up to that time. It was supported by morphological
studies, but never received strong support in molecular phylogenetic
Apostasioideae: 2 genera and 16 species, south-western Asia
Cypripedioideae: 5 genera and 130 species, from the temperate regions
of the world, as well as tropical America and tropical Asia
Vanilloideae: 15 genera and 180 species, humid tropical and
subtropical regions, eastern North America
Epidendroideae: more than 500 genera and more or less 20,000 species,
Orchidoideae: 208 genera and 3,630 species, cosmopolitan
In 2015, a phylogenetic study showed strong statistical support
for the following topology of the orchid tree, using 9 kb of plastid
DNA from 7 genes, a topology that was confirmed by a
phylogenomic study in the same year.
A study in the scientific journal Nature has hypothesised that the
origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected.
An extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was found
Miocene amber from about 15-20 million years ago. The bee
was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, Meliorchis
caribea, on its wings. This find is the first evidence of fossilised
orchids to date and shows insects were active pollinators of
orchids then. This extinct orchid, M. caribea, has been placed within
the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe
Orchidoideae). An even older orchid species, Succinanthera baltica,
was described from the
Baltic amber by Poinar & Rasmussen
Genetic sequencing indicates orchids may have arisen earlier, 76 to 84
million years ago during the Late Cretaceous. According to Mark W.
Chase et al. (2001), the overall biogeography and phylogenetic
Orchidaceae show they are even older and may go back
roughly 100 million years.
Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age
of the major branches of the orchid family. This also confirmed that
Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the
monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution
of the family. Since this subfamily occurs worldwide in tropical and
subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New
Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100
million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred
after this split (since the age of
Vanilla is estimated at 60 to 70
Genome duplication occurred prior to the divergence of this taxon.
Main article: List of natural
The following are amongst the most notable genera of the orchid
The type genus (i.e. the genus after which the family is named) is
Orchis. The genus name comes from the
Ancient Greek ὄρχις
(órkhis), literally meaning "testicle", because of the shape of the
twin tubers in some species of Orchis. The term "orchid" was
introduced in 1845 by
John Lindley in School Botany, as a
shortened form of Orchidaceae.
In Middle English, the name bollockwort was used for some orchids,
based on "bollock" meaning testicle and "wort" meaning plant.
Orchidaceae are cosmopolitan, occurring in almost every habitat apart
from glaciers. The world's richest diversity of orchid genera and
species is found in the tropics, but they are also found above the
Arctic Circle, in southern Patagonia, and two species of Nematoceras
Macquarie Island at 54° south.
The following list gives a rough overview of their
Oceania: 50 to 70 genera
North America: 20 to 26 genera
tropical America: 212 to 250 genera
tropical Asia: 260 to 300 genera
tropical Africa: 230 to 270 genera
Europe and temperate Asia: 40 to 60 genera
A majority of orchids are perennial epiphytes, which grow anchored to
trees or shrubs in the tropics and subtropics.
Species such as
Angraecum sororium are lithophytes, growing on rocks or very rocky
soil. Other orchids (including the majority of temperate Orchidaceae)
are terrestrial and can be found in habitat areas such as grasslands
Some orchids, such as
Neottia and Corallorhiza, lack chlorophyll, so
are unable to photosynthesise. Instead, these species obtain energy
and nutrients by parasitising soil fungi through the formation of
orchid mycorrhizas. The fungi involved include those that form
ectomycorrhizas with trees and other woody plants, parasites such as
Armillaria, and saprotrophs. These orchids are known as
myco-heterotrophs, but were formerly (incorrectly) described as
saprophytes as it was believed they gained their nutrition by breaking
down organic matter. While only a few species are achlorophyllous
holoparasites, all orchids are myco-heterotrophic during germination
and seedling growth, and even photosynthetic adult plants may continue
to obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi.
As decoration in a flowerpot
A flower of a Blc. Paradise Jewel 'Flame' hybrid orchid plant. Blooms
Cattleya alliance are often used in ladies' corsages.
The scent of orchids is frequently analysed by perfumers (using
headspace technology and gas-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry)
to identify potential fragrance chemicals.
The other important use of orchids is their cultivation for the
enjoyment of the flowers. Most cultivated orchids are tropical or
subtropical, but quite a few which grow in colder climates can be
found on the market.
Temperate species available at nurseries include
Ophrys apifera (bee orchid),
Gymnadenia conopsea (fragrant orchid),
Anacamptis pyramidalis (pyramidal orchid) and
(common spotted orchid).
Orchids of all types have also often been sought by collectors of both
species and hybrids. Many hundreds of societies and clubs worldwide
have been established. These can be small, local clubs, or larger,
national organisations such as the American Orchid Society. Both serve
to encourage cultivation and collection of orchids, but some go
further by concentrating on conservation or research.
The term "botanical orchid" loosely denotes those small-flowered,
tropical orchids belonging to several genera that do not fit into the
"florist" orchid category. A few of these genera contain enormous
numbers of species. Some, such as
Pleurothallis and Bulbophyllum,
contain approximately 1700 and 2000 species, respectively, and are
often extremely vegetatively diverse. The primary use of the term is
among orchid hobbyists wishing to describe unusual species they grow,
though it is also used to distinguish naturally occurring orchid
species from horticulturally created hybrids.
New orchids are registered with the International Orchid Register,
maintained by the Royal
Use as food
Further information: Vanilla
Vanilla fruits drying
The dried seed pods of one orchid genus,
Vanilla (especially Vanilla
planifolia), are commercially important as a flavouring in baking, for
perfume manufacture and aromatherapy.
The underground tubers of terrestrial orchids [mainly
(early purple orchid)] are ground to a powder and used for cooking,
such as in the hot beverage salep or in the Turkish frozen treat
dondurma. The name salep has been claimed to come from the Arabic
expression ḥasyu al-tha`lab, "fox testicles", but it appears more
likely the name comes directly from the
Arabic name saḥlab. The
similarity in appearance to testes naturally accounts for salep being
considered an aphrodisiac.
The dried leaves of Jumellea fragrans are used to flavour rum on
Some saprophytic orchid species of the group
potato-like tubers and were consumed as food by native peoples in
Australia and can be successfully cultivated, notably Gastrodia
sesamoides. Wild stands of these plants can still be found in the same
areas as early aboriginal settlements, such as Ku-ring-gai Chase
National Park in Australia. Aboriginal peoples located the plants in
habitat by observing where bandicoots had scratched in search of the
tubers after detecting the plants underground by scent.[Note 1]
Traditional medicinal uses
Orchids have been used in traditional medicine in an effort to treat
many diseases and ailments. They have been used as a source of herbal
remedies in China since 2800 BC.
Gastrodia elata is one of the three
orchids listed in the earliest known Chinese Materia Medica (Shennon
bencaojing) (c. 100 AD).
Theophrastus mentions orchids in his Enquiry
into Plants (372–286 BC).
Orchids have many associations with symbolic values. For example, the
orchid is the City
Flower of Shaoxing, China.
Cattleya mossiae is the
national Venezuelan flower, while
Cattleya trianae is the national
flower of Colombia.
Vanda 'Miss Joaquim' is the national flower of
Guarianthe skinneri is the national flower of Costa Rica
Rhyncholaelia digbyana is the national flower of Honduras.
Prosthechea cochleata is the national flower of Belize, where it is
known as the black orchid.
Lycaste skinneri has a white variety
(alba) which is the national flower of Guatemala, commonly known as
Monja Blanca (White Nun). Panama's national flower is the Holy Ghost
orchid (Peristeria elata), or 'the flor del Espiritu Santo'.
Orchids native to the Mediterranean are depicted on the
Ara Pacis in
Rome, until now the only known instance of orchids in ancient art, and
the earliest in European art.[Note 2]
Cattleya Mrs. Mahler 'Mem. Fred Tompkins'
Cattleya Queen Sirikhit 'Diamond Crown'
Cattleya Hawaiian Wedding Song 'Virgin'
Rhyncholaeliocattleya Chia Lin
Cattleya Hawaiian Variable 'Prasan'
Cattlianthe Barbara Belle
Cattleya Beaumesnil 'Parme'
Cattlianthe Chocolate Drop x
Cattleya Pão de Açúcar
Cattleya mossiae'Empress Frederick'
Cattleya Little Angel
Cattleya Marjorie Hausermann 'York'
'Miva Breeze Alize'
Rhyncholaeliocattleya 'Nobile's carnival'
Cattleya Pernel George Barnett 'Yankee Clipper'
Adaptation (film), based on The Orchid Thief
Distribution of orchid species
Italian Group for
Research on Wild Orchid
Lantingji Xu, introduction to the Orchid Pavilion Collection from
Fourth Century China
Moyobamba, known as the "City of Orchids", which has some 3,500
species of orchid native to the area
Orchids of the Philippines
Orchids of Western Australia
Nero Wolfe, a fictional detective and orchidophile
Orchid Pavilion Gathering
Orchidelirium, the Victorian era of flower madness in which collecting
and discovering orchids reached extraordinary levels
Orchid Conservation Coalition
^ Early western district (Vic.) settler gives account of local
Aboriginal people gathering potato orchid tubers, digging where
bandicoots had scratched.
^ The symbolic (or even religious) meaning of the
Ara Pacis orchids is
not yet known.
^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm
Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of
flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean
Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x.
Retrieved 26 June 2013.
^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of
known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa.
Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217.
^ "WCSP". World Checklist of Selected
Plant Families. Retrieved 2
April 2010. (See External links below).
^ Yohan Pillon &
Mark W. Chase (2007). "Taxonomic exaggeration and
its effects on orchid conservation". Conservation Biology. 21 (1):
^ Nash, N., and Frownie, S. (2008). Complete guide to orchids.
(Meredith Publishing Group) p. 12.
^ Jenny King. "The coralroot orchid". Orchids in Northern Washington
State. Silvercrown Mountain Outdoor School. Retrieved 10 June
^ Tom Lawrie (23 November 2010). "World's first night-flowering orchid
discovered". Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 30
November 2011. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
^ Tan K.H.; Nishida R. (2000). "Mutual reproductive benefits between a
Bulbophyllum patens, and
Bactrocera fruit flies via a
floral synomone". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 26: 533–546.
doi:10.1023/A:1005477926244. , 28:1161-1172 and 31(3): 509-519.
^ Chen LJ, Liu KW, Xiao XJ, Tsai WC, Hsiao YY, Huang J, Liu ZJ (2012).
"The anther steps onto the stigma for self-fertilization in a slipper
orchid". PLoS ONE. 7 (5): e37478. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037478.
PMC 3359306 . PMID 22649529.
^ Kimsey Lynn Siri (1980). "The behaviour of male orchid bees (Apidae,
Hymenoptera, Insecta) and the question of leks". Animal Behaviour. 28
(4): 996–1004. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(80)80088-1.
^ Zimmermann, Yvonne; Roubik, David W.; Eltz, Thomas (2006-07-19).
"Species-specific attraction to pheromonal analogues in orchid bees".
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 60 (6): 833–843.
doi:10.1007/s00265-006-0227-8. ISSN 0340-5443.
^ Guillaume Chomicki; Luc P.R. Bidel; Feng Ming; Mario Coiro; Xuan
Zhang; Yaofeng Wang; Yves Baissac; Christian Jay-Allemand &
Susanne S. Renner (2015). "The velamen protects photosynthetic orchid
roots against UV‐B damage, and a large dated phylogeny implies
multiple gains and losses of this function during the Cenozoic". New
Phytologist. 205 (3): 1330–1341. doi:10.1111/nph.13106.
^ Thomas J. Givnish, Daniel Spalink, Mercedes Ames, Stephanie P. Lyon,
Steven J. Hunter, Alejandro Zuluaga, William J.D. Iles, Mark A.
Clements, Mary T.K. Arroyo, James Leebens-Mack, Lorena Endara, Ricardo
Kriebel, Kurt M. Neubig, W. Mark Whitten, Norris H. Williams, and
Kenneth M. Cameron. 2015. "Orchid phylogenomics and multiple drivers
of their extraordinary diversification". Proceedings of the Royal
Society, series B (biological sciences) 282(1814):pages??.
doi:10.1098/rspb.2015.1553.[full citation needed]
^ a b Santiago R. Ramírez; Barbara Gravendeel; Rodrigo B. Singer;
Charles R. Marshall; Naomi E. Pierce (30 August 2007). "Dating the
origin of the
Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator".
Nature. 448 (7157): 1042–1042. doi:10.1038/nature06039.
^ George Poinar, Jr.; Finn N. Rasmussen (2017). "Orchids from the
past, with a new species in Baltic amber". Botanical Journal of the
Linnean Society. 183 (3): 327–333.
^ "An overview of the
Phalaenopsis orchid genome by BAC sequence
analysis" (pdf format).
Mark W. Chase (2001). "The origin and biogeography of Orchidaceae".
In A. M. Pridgeon; P. J. Cribb; M. W. Chase; F. Rasmussen.
Orchidoideae (Part 1). Genera Orchidacearum. 2. Oxford University
Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 978-0-19-850710-9.
^ Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Liu, Ke-Wei; Li, Zhen; Lohaus, Rolf; Hsiao,
Yu-Yun; Niu, Shan-Ce; Wang, Jie-Yu; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Xu, Qing; Chen,
Li-Jun; Yoshida, Kouki; Fujiwara, Sumire; Wang, Zhi-Wen; Zhang,
Yong-Qiang; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Wang, Meina; Liu, Guo-Hui; Pecoraro,
Lorenzo; Huang, Hui-Xia; Xiao, Xin-Ju; Lin, Min; Wu, Xin-Yi; Wu,
Wan-Lin; Chen, You-Yi; Chang, Song-Bin; Sakamoto, Shingo; Ohme-Takagi,
Masaru; Yagi, Masafumi; Zeng, Si-Jin; et al. (2017). "The Apostasia
genome and the evolution of orchids" (PDF). Nature.
^ Joan Corominas (1980). Breve Diccionario Etimológico de la Lengua
Castellana. Ed. Gredos. p. 328. ISBN 84-249-1332-9.
^ Hyam, R. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1995). Plants and their names :
a concise dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
^ Online Etymology Dictionary, "orchid".
^ Grigson, G. (1973). A Dictionary of English
Plant Names. London:
Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-0442-9.
^ "bollock, n. and adj". Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved
2018-01-19. (Subscription required (help)).
^ Melissa Whitman; Michael Medler; Jean Jacques Randriamanindry;
Elisabeth Rabakonandrianina (2011). "Conservation of Madagascar's
granite outcrop orchids: influence of fire and moisture" (PDF).
Lankesteriana. 11 (1): 55–67. doi:10.15517/lank.v11i1.18315.
^ Jonathan R. Leake (2005). "Plants parasitic on fungi: unearthing the
fungi in myco-heterotrophs and debunking the 'saprophytic' plant
myth". Mycologist. 19 (3): 113–122.
^ Gross, K; Sun, M; Schiestl, F. P. (2016). "Why Do Floral Perfumes
Become Different? Region-Specific Selection on Floral
Scent in a
Terrestrial Orchid". PLoS ONE. 11 (2): e0147975.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0147975. PMC 4757410 .
^ RHS 2016.
^ Zola, Nellie; Gott, Beth (1992). Koorie Plants, Koorie People:
Traditional Aboriginal Food, Fibre and Healing Plants of Victoria.
Koorie Heritage Trust Incorporated. p. 38.
^ "Simbolos Patrios" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-06-22.
^ "National Symbols". Government of Belize. Archived from the original
on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
^ Jarrett A. Lobelli (2012). "The Emperor's orchids". Archaeology. 66
(1): 16. Archived from the original on 13 December 2012.
RHS (2016). "Search The International Orchid Register". Royal
Horticultural Society. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Orchidaceae.
Wikispecies has information related to Orchidaceae
Wikinews has related news: American botanist Lou Jost discovers
world's smallest orchid
Orchidaceae at The
Orchidaceae at The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA)
Orchidaceae at the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
Orchidaceae at the online Flora of North America
Orchidaceae at the online Flora of China
Orchidaceae at the online Guide to the Flora of Mongolia
Orchidaceae at the online Flora of Zimbabwe
Orchidaceae at the online Flora of the Western Australian
Orchidaceae at the online Flora of New Zealand
Orchidaceae at Chileflora
EPIDENDRA The Global Orchid Information Network
Tree of Life at the Florida Museum of Natural History
World Orchid Iconography at the Swiss Orchid Foundation
Dr. C.E. Bracker Orchid Photographs at Ball State University.
Orchid Conservation Coalition
Orchid Conservation Coalition A grassroots movement towards orchid
Orchids of Indonesia Photos of Indonesia native orchids
Orchidology Milestones: Famous Orchidologists and Notable
orchid.org.uk, The North of England Orchid Society
European Orchid Council
Orchids of Honduras
Orkidelerimiz – Orchids of Turkey A Systematic approach on Anatolian
Orchids by Nejdet BOZKURT
Addition information about Orchids from "Oxford Junior Encyclopedia"
Orchidaceae At: monocots At: List Genera within a Family At: Vascular
Plant Families and Genera At: About the Checklist At: World Checklist
Plant Families At:
Plant Names At: Data Sources At: ePIC
At: Databases At: Resources and databases At: Scientific research and
data At: Science and conservation At: Kew Gardens
Watson & Dallwitz: orchidac