Orchid Island
   HOME

TheInfoList



Orchid Island, also known by
other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon novel), a 1971 horror novel by Tom Tryon * The Other (short story ...
, is a
volcanic island Geologically, a high island or volcanic island is an island of volcano, volcanic origin. The term can be used to distinguish such islands from low islands, which are formed from sedimentation or the Tectonic uplift, uplifting of coral reefs (w ...
off the southeastern coast of
Taiwan Island , t2 = , s2 = , l2 = beautiful island , bpmf2 = ㄈㄨˊ ㄦˇ ㄇㄛˊ ㄕㄚ , w2 = Fu²-êr³-mo²-sha¹ , p2 = Fúĕrmóshā , tp2 = Fúĕrmósha , mps2 = Fúĕrmóshā , gr2 = Fwu'eelmosha , poj = Tâi-oân , tl = Tâi-uân , h = Thòi-và ...
. The island is part of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC). It is separated from the
Batanes Batanes ( ivv, Provinsiya nu Batanes; tl, Lalawigan ng Batanes, ) is an archipelagic province in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipina ...

Batanes
of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
by the
Bashi Channel Bashi is the northern channel of Luzon Strait The Bashi Channel is a waterway between Y'Ami Island of the Philippines and Orchid Island of Taiwan. It is a part of the Luzon Strait in the Pacific Ocean. It is characterized by windy storms during the ...
of the
Luzon Strait Old Japanese map of the Luzon Strait The Luzon Strait (Tagalog: ''Kipot ng Luzon'', ) is the strait A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel ...
. It is governed as of
Taitung County Taitung County (; Mandarin pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to te ...

Taitung County
,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
, which also includes the nearby .


Names

Orchid Island is known by the Tao people indigenous to the island as Pongso no Tao ("island of human beings"). It was also known by the Tao as Ma'ataw ("floating in the sea") or Irala ("facing the mountain"); the latter being contrasted with the Tao name for the Taiwanese mainland - "Ilaod" ("toward the sea"). In the 17th century, it appeared on Japanese maps as "Tabako", a name borrowed into
French
French
and English as "Tabaco". It is still known by
Filipinos Filipinos ( fil, Mga Pilipino) are the people who are citizens of or native to the Philippines. The majority of Filipinos today come from various Austronesian peoples, Austronesian ethnolinguistic groups and non-native Genetic admixture, admixed ...

Filipinos
as , a name also formerly used in English.. Lesser Orchid Island was similarly known as "Little Botel-Tobago". "Orchid Island" is a
calque In linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of linguistic analysis include ...

calque
of the
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
name, written in
traditional characters Traditional Chinese characters are one type of standard Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural lan ...
, although strictly the second character means an
islet An islet is a very small island. Most definitions are not precise, but some suggest that an islet has little or no vegetation, and cannot support human habitation. They may be made of rock, sand, and/or coral, may be permanent or tidal, and may ...

islet
rather than an
island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), sometimes known as a coral atoll, is ...

island
. The name honors the local ''
Phalaenopsis ''Phalaenopsis'' Blume (1825), commonly known as moth orchids, is a genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that unde ...

Phalaenopsis
'' orchids and was established by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
government on 24 November 1946. It is also sometimes known as Lanyu or , derived from
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign lan ...
of the name's
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
pronunciation. The island had previously been known to the Chinese as "Redhead Island" (Hung-t'ou Yü), referring to the island's northwestern mountain peaks, which resemble red human heads when illuminated by the setting sun. These characters were borrowed into
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan , image_flag = Flag of Japan.svg , alt_flag = Centered deep red circle on a white rectangle , image_coat = Imperial Seal of J ...

Japanese
as Kōtōsho during of Taiwan.


History


Prehistory

Based on genetic studies, Orchid Island was settled by the ancestors of the
Tao people The Tao people are an Austronesian peoples, Austronesian ethnic group native to the tiny outlying Orchid Island of Taiwan. They have a maritime culture, with great ritual and spiritual significance placed on boat-building and fishing. Their ways of ...
during the
Austronesian Expansion The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan (collectively known as Taiwanese indigenous peoples), Maritime Southeast Asia, Oceania and Madagascar that ...
(approximately 4000 BP) from the mainland of
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. They maintained close contact through trade and intermarriage with the
Ivatan people The Ivatans are a Filipino ethnolinguistic group predominant in the islands of Batanes of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * ...
of the neighboring Batanes Islands of the
Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republ ...

Philippines
until the beginning of the Colonial Era.


Qing Dynasty

The island first appears on surviving charts in the 17th century, when it was noted by Japanese people, Japanese sailors. The island was visited by a surveying party from in 1867. In the early 1870s, William Campbell (missionary), William Campbell saw the island from aboard the ''Daphne'', and wrote:


Imperial Japan

During imperial Japan, Japan's Japanese Taiwan, occupation of Taiwan, its government declared Kōtō Island an ethnology, ethnological research area off-limits to the general public.


Republic of China

After the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
Retrocession Day, regained Taiwan, the island was administered as the Hong-tou-yu "township (Taiwan), township" of
Taitung County Taitung County (; Mandarin pinyin ''Hanyu Pinyin'' (), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan (ROC), and Singapore. It is often used to te ...

Taitung County
after 19 January 1946 but the Japanese restrictions on visitors remained in effect. Because of these policies, the Tao continue to have the best-preserved traditions among the Taiwanese aborigines despite the end of the ban on settlement and tourism in 1967. Since 1967, schools have been built on the island and education in Taiwan, education in
Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration o ...
is compulsory. Lesser Orchid Island has been used for target practice drills by the Taiwanese Air Force, Republic of China Air Force. A High-level radioactive waste management, nuclear-waste storage facility was built in 1982 without prior consultation with the island's inhabitants. The plant receives nuclear waste from Taiwan's three nuclear power plants, all operated by the state utility Taiwan Power Company, Taipower. About 100,000 barrels of nuclear waste have been stored at the Lanyu complex. In 2002 and 2012, there were major protests from local residents, calling on Taipower to remove the waste from the island.


Geography

There are eight mountains over high. The tallest mountain is or Hongtoushan at . The rock on the island is List of volcanoes in Taiwan, volcanic tholeiite andesite and explosive fragments. The volcano last erupted in the Miocene period. It is part of the Luzon Volcanic Arc. Magma was formed from underthrusting oceanic crust under compression about deep. The andesite rock contains some visible crystals of pyroxene or amphibole. The geochemistry of the rock shows that it is enriched in sodium, magnesium, and nickel but depleted in iron, aluminum, potassium, titanium, and strontium. As the island is within the tropics, the island experiences a warm and rainy tropical climate throughout the year with humidity often reaching more than 90%. Rainfall, abundant throughout the year, cools the temperature significantly. The climate is classified as a monsoon-influenced Köppen's tropical rainforest climate (Af) with frequent cyclones therefore not equatorial, with annual temperatures averaging around on the mountains and on the coasts, one of the highest in Taiwan. Lesser Orchid Island is an uninhabited volcanic islet nearby. It is the southernmost point of Taitung County. It is home to a critically endangered endemic orchid, ''Phalaenopsis equestris f. aurea''. Forest Belle Rock is located south of Lesser Orchid Island.


Administrative divisions

There are seven neighborhood (Taiwan), neighborhoods (社) in Lanyu Township, four of which are also administrative village (Taiwan), villages (村):


Flora and fauna

Orchid Island hosts many tropical plants species, sharing many species with tropical Asia but also many endemism, endemics: there are 35 plant species found nowhere else. For example, ''Pinanga tashiroi'' is a species of palm tree found nowhere else than Orchid Island. Green sea turtles make nests on the island, which is surrounded by coral reefs. Four species of Hydrophiinae, sea snakes inhabit the waters around the island. Humpback whales were historically common in the area, and there were continuous sightings of them in the 2000s, which marked the first return of the species into Taiwanese waters since the cessation of whaling. Sightings are reported almost every year, although the whales do not stay for long, as they once did. They appear instead to be migratory visitors.


Demographics

Out of a total current population of 5036, approximately 4200 belong to the indigenous Yami people, Tao people and the remaining 800 are mainly Han Chinese.


Economy

The islanders are mostly farmers and fishermen relying on a large annual catch of flying fish and on taro, wet taro, Yam (vegetable), yams, and millet. On 19 September 2014, the first 7-Eleven store in the island was opened. During the opening ceremony, the township chief said that the store could provide conveniences to the local residents such as fee and tax collection.


Energy


Nuclear waste

The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Site, Lanyu High-level radioactive waste management, nuclear waste storage facility was built at the southern tip of Orchid Island in 1982. The plant receives nuclear waste from Taiwan's three nuclear power plants operated by state utility Taiwan Power Company (Taipower). Islanders did not have a say in the decision to locate the facility on the island. In 2002, almost 2000 protesters, including many residents and elementary and high school students from the island, staged a sit-in in front of the storage plant, calling on Taipower to remove nuclear waste from the island. The government had pledged and then failed to withdraw the 100,000 barrels of waste from their island by the end of 2002. Aboriginal politicians successfully obstructed legislative proceedings that year to show support for the protests. In a bid to allay safety concerns, Taipower has pledged to repackage the waste since many of the iron barrels used for storage have become rusty from the island's salty and humid air. Taipower has for years been exploring ways to ship the nuclear waste overseas for final storage, but plans to store the waste in an abandoned North Korean coal mine have met with strong protests from neighboring South Korea and Japan due to safety and environmental concerns, while storage in Russia or China is complicated by political factors. Taipower is "trying to convince the islanders to extend the storage arrangement for another nine years in exchange for payment of NT$200 million (about USD, $5.7 million)". Following years of protests by residents, more concerns arose about the facility after Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011. A report released in November 2011 said a radioactive leak had been detected outside the facility and this has added to residents’ concerns. In February 2012, hundreds of Tao living on Orchid Island held a protest outside the nuclear waste storage facility. Chang Hai-yu, a preacher at a local church, said "it was a tragedy that Tao children are being born into a radiation-filled environment". Lanyu mayor Chiang To-li "urged Taipower to remove nuclear waste from the island as soon as possible". In March 2012, about 2,000 people staged an anti-nuclear protest in Taiwan's capital Taipei. Scores of aboriginal protesters "demanded the removal of 100,000 barrels of nuclear waste stored on Orchid Island, off south-eastern Taiwan. Authorities have failed to find a substitute storage site amid increased awareness of nuclear danger over the past decade".


Power generation

The island houses its only power generation facility, the fuel-fired Lanyu Power Plant. Commissioned in 1982, the plant has a total installed capacity of 6.5 MW and is owned and operated by Taipower. Stipulated under Article 14 of the Offshore Islands Development Act, households on the island enjoy free electricity. The situation on the island resulted from the preferential policy given to the island residents due to the construction of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Site, Lanyu Storage Site on the island in 1982. Due to the free electricity, electricity consumption on the island is generally much higher than in other parts of Taiwan. In 2011, the average annual electricity consumption per household in Lanyu was 6,522 kWh, almost twice the 3,654 kWh Taiwan average. In 2002, Taipower provided an equivalent of NT$6.35 million worth of electricity to the island, and in 2011 the amount rose to NT$24.39 million. Due to this suspected abuse, members of Control Yuan called for an investigation into the electricity subsidy to Lanyu Island in 2012.


Tourist attractions

* Lanyu Flying Fish Cultural Museum * Lanyu Lighthouse * Lanyu Weather Station


Transport

The island is accessible by sea or air. Daily Air offers flights from Taitung Airport in Taitung City to Lanyu Airport on Orchid Island. The flight duration is half an hour and the daily frequency is dependent on weather conditions. Ferry trips to the island are available from Taitung City's Fugang Fishery Harbor year round. In the summer, there is a ferry from Houbihu port in Kenting.


Gallery

Langdao.JPG, Langdao beach Lanyu 8.JPG, Traditional canoe View from the Lovers Cave near Iranmeylek.jpg, Lovers' Cave near Iranmeylek Coastal landscape Lan Yu, Taiwan.jpg, Fields along the coast Steamed Bread Rock (257260399).jpeg, Mantou Rock The Discarded Anti-communist Slogan in Orchid Island 2010-9-15.jpg, Old anti-Chinese Communist Party, Communist slogan Traditional Tao Building 2010-9-14.jpg, Traditional Tao building Yami 1900 02.jpg, Tao fishermen in 1900


See also

* Green Island, Taiwan, Green Island – the other offshore township of Taitung County * List of islands of Taiwan * List of volcanoes in Taiwan


References


Citations


Bibliography

* .


Further reading

* * Badaiwan de Shenhua 《八代灣的神話》 (Myths from Ba-dai Bay). Taipei: Morning Star Publishing Co., 1992.—Syaman Rapongan's first book; a collection of myths and his personal reflections on contemporary Tao; divided into two parts, with the first on myths, and the second on personal reflections. * Lenghai Qing Shenhaiyang Chaosheng Zhe 《冷海情深—海洋朝聖者》(Deep Love for Cold Sea: The Oceanic Pilgrim). Taipei: Unitas Publishing Co., Ltd., 1997.—A collection of short stories about Syaman Rapongan's life on Lanyu; the book marks the writer's constant struggles with himself and his family because he voluntarily went unemployed and devoted himself solely to the ocean as a bare-hand diver in order to explore Tao civilization and find the meaning of life. The book also marks the writer's initial identity transition from a Sinicized man to a real Tao who embraces the value of physical labor and learns to cultivate the art of story-telling. The book was the Annual Reading for 1997 by United Daily News. * Heise de Chibang 《黑色的翅膀》 (Black Wings). Taipei: Morning Star Publishing Co., 1999.—Syaman Rapongan's first novel; it questions the future of Tao people through the characterization of four young men (Kaswal, Gigimit, Jyavehai and Ngalolog) Should they run rigorously after the tempting ‘white body’ on the land or wait patiently for the arrival of ‘black wings’ on the sea? Although this appears a rhetorical question, Syaman Rapongan reveals that the conflicts are severe and their impact profound. This novel won Wu Zhuo-liou Literary Award in 1999. * Hailang de Jiyi 《海浪的記憶》 (Memory of the Ocean Waves). Taipei: Unitas Publishing Co., Ltd., 2002.—Another collection of short stories; divided into two parts, with the first on the countless ties between Tao and the sea (six stories), and the second on Tao's staunch fights against foreign influences. Experimenting boldly with different genre and languages, the writer combines verses with prose and juxtaposes Tao and Chinese languages. As another Taiwanese writer and critic, Song Ze-lai, points out, Syaman Rapongan deliberately defamiliarizes his language and syntax in order to praise traditional Tao values and to guide his readers, especially Tao, back to the original way of living, far from influences of Chinese culture and modern civilization. * Hanghaijia de Lian 《航海家的臉》 (The Face of a Navigator). Taipei: INK Literary Publishing Co., 2007.—Also a collection of articles; it continues the oceanic theme but exposes more of Syaman Rapongan's personal battles with modernity or traditionality and his pursuit of prosperity or return to innocence. Calling him-self a nomadic soul, Syaman Rapongan knows there may be no end to his battle. His course is a romantic one, without any definite plan. Nor will his beloved sea offer any answer or guidance. Nevertheless, consolation can be found in sweet solitude and family understanding. Syaman Rapongan's first attempt at trans-Pacific navigation with a Japanese captain and five Indonesian crew members is also included here. * Lao Hairen 《老海人》 (Old Ama Divers). Taipei: INK Literary Publishing Co., Ltd., 2009.—Syaman Rapongan's second novel; highly praised and awarded (The Wu Lu-chin Prize for Essays, Chiu Ko Publishing Co. Annual Selection in 2006). Instead of following the previous semi-biographical direction, Syaman Rapongan focuses on three outcasts on his island, Ngalomirem, Tagangan and Zomagpit, whose pretty names fail to bring them pretty lives. Ngalomiren is regarded as a psychopath, Tagangan a miserable student though a brilliant octopus-catcher, and Zomagpit a hopeless drunkard. Through these figures, Syaman Rapongan portrays how Tao society stumbles between traditionality and modernity, and how broken the society has become in both material and mental terms as its humble and simple way becomes recognized again. In spite of a slight hope for reconciliation, this way back to the humble and simple Tao world is arduous, sometimes painful, and fully filled with regrets.


External links


Taiwan Aborigine Monograph Series 2



Cultural Survival on Orchid Island

Some information and pictures about the island




* [http://reading.udn.com/act/syaman/index-en.html Syaman Rapongan, Taiwan's Ocean Literature Writer]
BBC News: Taiwan's paradise island fights to save its identity


{{Authority control Islands of Taiwan Landforms of Taitung County Lands inhabited by indigenous peoples Miocene volcanoes Subduction volcanoes Volcanoes of Taiwan