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Opole
Opole
Voivodeship, or Opole
Opole
Province[1] (Polish: województwo opolskie [vɔjɛˈvutstfɔ ɔˈpɔlskʲɛ], German: Woiwodschaft Oppeln), is the smallest and least populated voivodeship (province) of Poland. The province's name derives from that of the region's capital and largest city, Opole. It is part of Upper Silesia. A relatively large German minority lives in the voivodeship, with representatives in the Sejm. Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is bordered by Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
to the west, Greater Poland
Poland
and Łódź Voivodeships to the north, Silesian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
to the east, and the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
to the south. Opole
Opole
Province's geographic location, economic potential, and its population's level of education make it an attractive business partner for other Polish regions (especially Lower Silesian and Silesian Voivodeships) and for foreign investors. Formed in 1997, the Praděd/Pradziad Euroregion has facilitated economic, cultural and tourist exchanges between the border areas of Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Protected areas 2.2 Climate

3 Administrative division 4 Cities and towns 5 Demographics 6 Economy

6.1 Tourism 6.2 International tourism

7 Transportation 8 Universities 9 Surnames 10 Former Opole
Opole
voivodeships

10.1 Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(1950–1975)

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

History[edit]

Voivodeships between 1975-1998 superseded with the present borders of the Opole
Opole
Voivodeship

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
and parts of Częstochowa Voivodeship, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms
Polish local government reforms
adopted in 1998. Originally, the government, advised by prominent historians, had wanted to disestablish Opolskie and partition its territory between the more historically Polish regions of Lower Silesia
Silesia
and Silesian Voivodeship (eastern Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
and western Malopolska. The plan was that Brzeg and Namysłów, as the Western part of the region, were to be transferred to Lower Silesia, while the rest was to become, along with a part of the Częstochowa Voivodeship, an integral part of the new 'Silesian' region. However, the plans resulted in an outcry from the German minority population of Opole
Opole
Voivodeship, who feared that should their region be abolished, they would lose all hope of regional representation (in the proposed Silesian Region, they would have formed a very small minority among a great number of ethnic Poles). To the surprise of many of the ethnic Germans
Germans
in Opole
Opole
however, the local Polish Silesian population and groups of ethnic Poles also rose up to oppose the planned reforms; this came about as a result of an overwhelming feeling of attachment to the voivodeships that were scheduled to be 'redrawn', as well as a fear of 'alienation' should one find themselves residing in a new, unfamiliar region. The solution came in late 1999, when Olesno
Olesno
was, after 24 years apart, finally reunited with the Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
to form the new legally defined region. A historic moment came in 2006 when the town of Radłów changed its local laws to make German, alongside Polish, the district's second official language; thus becoming the first town in the region to achieve such a feat. Geography[edit] The voivodeship lies in southwestern Poland, the major part on the Silesian Lowland
Silesian Lowland
(Nizina Śląska). To the east, the region touches upon the Silesian Upland
Silesian Upland
(Silesian Uplands, Wyżyna Śląska) with the famous Saint Anne Mountain; the Sudetes
Sudetes
range, the Opawskie Mountains, lies to the southwest. The Oder River
Oder River
cuts across the middle of the voivodeship. The northern part of the voivodeship, along the Mała Panew River, is densely forested, while the southern part consists of arable land. The region has the warmest climate in the country. Protected areas[edit] Protected areas in Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
include the following three areas designated as Landscape Parks:

Opawskie Mountains
Opawskie Mountains
Landscape Park Góra Świętej Anny
Góra Świętej Anny
Landscape Park Stobrawa Landscape Park

Climate[edit]

Climate
Climate
data for Opole

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 2 (36) 3 (37) 8 (46) 15 (59) 20 (68) 22 (72) 25 (77) 25 (77) 20 (68) 15 (59) 8 (46) 3 (37) 13.8 (56.8)

Average low °C (°F) −3 (27) −3 (27) 0 (32) 4 (39) 8 (46) 11 (52) 14 (57) 14 (57) 10 (50) 5 (41) 1 (34) −2 (28) 4.9 (40.8)

Source: MeteoBlue

Administrative division[edit] Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is divided into 12 counties (powiats): 1 city county and 11 land counties. These are further divided into 71 gminas. The counties are listed in the following table (ordering is by decreasing population).

Opole, the voivodeship's capital

Nysa, the third-largest town by population in the south-west

Brzeg, a popular tourist attraction for its Renaissance
Renaissance
Town Hall and Castle

Prudnik, with its preserved medieval town centre

Kluczbork
Kluczbork
serves as a key rail line junction in the north-east of the region

English and Polish names Area (km²) Population (2006) Seat Other towns Total gminas

City counties

Opole 96 128,034

1

Land counties

Nysa County powiat nyski 1,224 145,640 Nysa Głuchołazy, Paczków, Otmuchów, Korfantów 9

Opole
Opole
County powiat opolski 1,587 134,874 Opole
Opole
* Ozimek, Niemodlin, Prószków 13

Kędzierzyn-Koźle
Kędzierzyn-Koźle
County powiat kędzierzyńsko-kozielski 625 102,118 Kędzierzyn-Koźle

6

Brzeg
Brzeg
County powiat brzeski 877 92,361 Brzeg Grodków, Lewin Brzeski 6

Strzelce County powiat strzelecki 744 80,828 Strzelce Opolskie Zawadzkie, Kolonowskie, Leśnica, Ujazd 7

Kluczbork
Kluczbork
County powiat kluczborski 852 70,082 Kluczbork Wołczyn, Byczyna 4

Olesno
Olesno
County powiat oleski 974 68,269 Olesno Praszka, Dobrodzień, Gorzów Śląski 7

Krapkowice
Krapkowice
County powiat krapkowicki 442 67,926 Krapkowice Zdzieszowice, Gogolin 5

Prudnik
Prudnik
County powiat prudnicki 571 59,931 Prudnik Głogówek, Biała Prudnicka 4

Głubczyce
Głubczyce
County powiat głubczycki 673 50,326 Głubczyce Kietrz, Baborów 4

Namysłów
Namysłów
County powiat namysłowski 748 43,957 Namysłów

5

* seat not part of the county

Cities and towns[edit] The voivodeship contains 35 cities and towns. These are listed below in descending order of population (according to official figures for 2006[2]):

Opole
Opole
(128,034) Kędzierzyn-Koźle
Kędzierzyn-Koźle
(65,572) Nysa (47,283) Brzeg
Brzeg
(38,303) Kluczbork
Kluczbork
(25,910) Prudnik
Prudnik
(23,133) Strzelce Opolskie (20,059) Krapkowice
Krapkowice
(18,112) Namysłów
Namysłów
(16,557) Głuchołazy
Głuchołazy
(14,887) Głubczyce
Głubczyce
(13,333) Zdzieszowice
Zdzieszowice
(13,329) Olesno
Olesno
(10,106) Ozimek
Ozimek
(9,944) Grodków
Grodków
(8,771) Zawadzkie
Zawadzkie
(8,331) Praszka
Praszka
(8,230) Paczków
Paczków
(8,147) Niemodlin
Niemodlin
(6,849) Kietrz
Kietrz
(6,365) Wołczyn
Wołczyn
(6,139) Gogolin
Gogolin
(6,077) Lewin Brzeski
Lewin Brzeski
(5,826) Głogówek
Głogówek
/ Oberglogau (5,816) Otmuchów
Otmuchów
(5,261) Dobrodzień
Dobrodzień
/ Guttentag (4,168) Byczyna
Byczyna
(3,677) Kolonowskie
Kolonowskie
/ Colonnowska (3,432) Baborów
Baborów
(3,175) Leśnica
Leśnica
/ Leschnitz (2,945) Prószków
Prószków
/ Proskau (2,713) Biała Prudnicka
Biała Prudnicka
/ Zülz (2,653) Gorzów Śląski
Gorzów Śląski
(2,606) Korfantów
Korfantów
(1,883) Ujazd
Ujazd
/ Ujest (1,652)

Demographics[edit] The Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is the smallest region in the administrative makeup of the country in terms of both area and population. About 15% of the one million inhabitants of this voivodeship are ethnic Germans, which constitutes 90% of all ethnic Germans
Germans
in Poland. As a result, many areas are officially bilingual in Opolskie, and the German language
German language
and culture play a significant role in education in the region. Further information: Germans
Germans
of Poland Economy[edit]

Opole
Opole
Główne railway station is a major transportation hub through which much of the region's trade is channelled

The Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is an industrial as well as an agricultural region. With respect to mineral resources, of major importance are deposits of raw materials for building: limestone (Strzelce Opolskie), marl (near Opole), marble, and basalt. The favourable climate, fertile soils, and high farming culture contribute to the development of agriculture, which is among the most productive in the country. A total of nineteen industries are represented in the voivodeship. The most important are cement and lime, furniture, food, car manufacturing, and chemical industries. In 1997, the biggest production growth in the area was in companies producing wood and wood products, electrical equipment, machinery and appliances, as well as cellulose and paper products. In 1997, the top company in the region was Zakłady Azotowe S.A. in Kędzierzyn-Koźle, whose income was over PLN 860 million. The voivodship's economy consists of more than 53,000 businesses, mostly small and medium-sized, employing over 332,000 people. Manufacturing companies employ over 89,000 people; 95.7% of all the region's business operate in the private sector. Tourism[edit]

Moszna Castle, near Opole

The Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is a green region with three large lakes: Turawskie, Nyskie, and Otmuchów
Otmuchów
(the latter two are connected). The Opawskie Mountains
Opawskie Mountains
are extremely popular. The region also includes the castle in Brzeg, built during the reign of the Piast dynasty—pearl of the Silesian Renaissance, the Franciscan monastery on top of Saint Anne Mountain, as well as the medieval defence fortifications in Paczków
Paczków
(referred to as the Upper Silesian Carcassonne). International tourism[edit] According to the Central Statistical Office of Poland, Opole Voivodeship
Voivodeship
is most frequently visited by international tourists from countries located in Europe
Europe
(94.6%). The rank was followed by tourists from Asia, compromising 2.4% of the total international tourist figure, followed by that of North America
North America
at 1.8%. The general composition of international tourists visiting the Opole
Opole
Voivodeship remains unchanged, with 46.2% of tourists heading from Germany. International tourists visiting Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
with an overnight stay according to country of permanent residence:[3]

Overnight international tourists in Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(2015)

Country International tourists (change from 2010)

Austria

600(+33.3%)

Belgium

450(+6.6%)

Czech Republic

2,200(+41.9%)

Denmark

370(+2.7%)

France

1,400(+33.3%)

Hungary

375(+7.1%)

Italy

910(+13.7%)

Netherlands

1,220(-43.4%)

Norway

450(+33.3%)

Romania

450(+44.4%)

Russia

320(-46.0%)

Slovakia

1,000(+40.0%)

Spain

520(+28.9%)

Sweden

320(-12.5%)

United Kingdom

950(-24.2%)

United States of America

600(+25.0%)

Overnight international tourists in Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(2015)

Country International tourists (change from 2010)

Germany

18,100(+8.5%)

Ukraine

5,200(+26.9%)

In 2015, a total of c. 90,800 overnight stays were hosted for international tourists, a figure making up 12.4% of the total amount of ovenight stays for Opole
Opole
Voivodeship. The majority (44.7%) of international overnight stays were hosted in the city of Opole, followed by Kędzierzyn-Koźle County
Kędzierzyn-Koźle County
(9.9%) and Nysa County
Nysa County
at (9.4%).[3] Transportation[edit] The transport route from Germany
Germany
to Ukraine, the A4, runs through Opole. The region has four border crossings, and direct rail connections to all important Polish cities, as well as to Frankfurt, Munich, Budapest, Kiev, and the Baltic ports. Universities[edit] There are three state-run universities in the region: the Opole University, the Opole
Opole
University of Technology, and the State Medical College. All of them are based in the voivodeship's capital. Among the region's private schools, the Opole
Opole
School of Management and Administration has been certified as a degree-granting institution by the Ministry of National Education.

Opole
Opole
University of Technology Opole
Opole
University State Medical College Opole
Opole
School of Management and Administration Bogdan Jański College The State Higher Vocational School in Nysa, PWSZ in NYSA

Surnames[edit] Most popular surnames in Opole
Opole
Voivodeship:

Nowak: 5,538 Wieczorek: 2,654 Mazur: 2,512

Former Opole
Opole
voivodeships[edit]

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
1975–1999.

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
was also a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland
Poland
between 1975 and 1998. Major cities and towns (population in 1995):

Opole, capital city (130,600) Kędzierzyn-Koźle
Kędzierzyn-Koźle
(70,700) Nysa (49,000) Brzeg
Brzeg
(39,900) Kluczbork
Kluczbork
(26,900) Prudnik
Prudnik
(24,300) Strzelce Opolskie (21,900) Krapkowice
Krapkowice
(20,100)

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(1950–1975)[edit] This administrative region of the People's Republic of Poland (1950–1975) was created as a result of the partition of Katowice Voivodeship
Voivodeship
in 1950. See also[edit]

Opole
Opole
cuisine Śląsk Opolski Upper Silesia Silesia

References[edit]

^ Arkadiusz Belczyk,Tłumaczenie polskich nazw geograficznych na język angielski [Translation of Polish Geographical Names into English], 2002–2006. ^ http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/45_655_PLK_HTML.htm ^ a b "opole.stat.gov.pl" (PDF). TURYŚCI ZAGRANICZNI KORZYSTAJĄCY Z BAZY NOCLEGOWEJ TURYSTYKI WEDŁUG WYBRANYCH KRAJÓW STAŁEGO ZAMIESZKANIA. Retrieved 22 August 2017. 

External links[edit]

Opolskie - photogallery Self-Government of the Opolskie Voivodeship Opolski Urząd Wojewódzki Official website

v t e

Counties of Opole
Opole
Voivodeship

City county

Opole
Opole
(capital)

Land counties

Brzeg Głubczyce Kędzierzyn-Koźle Kluczbork Krapkowice Namysłów Nysa Olesno Opole Prudnik Strzelce

v t e

Voivodeships of Poland

Greater Poland Kuyavian-Pomeranian Lesser Poland Łódź Lower Silesian Lublin Lubusz Masovian Opole Podkarpackie Podlaskie Pomeranian Silesian Świętokrzyskie Warmian-Masurian West Pomeranian

v t e

Voivodeships of Poland
Voivodeships of Poland
1975–1998

Biała Podlaska Białystok Bielsko-Biała Bydgoszcz Chełm Ciechanów Częstochowa Elbląg Gdańsk Gorzów Wielkopolski Jelenia Góra Kalisz Katowice Kielce Konin Koszalin Kraków Krosno Legnica Leszno Lublin Łomża Łódź Nowy Sącz Olsztyn Opole Ostrołęka Piła Piotrków Płock Poznań Przemyśl Radom Rzeszów Siedlce Sieradz Skierniewice Słupsk Suwałki Szczecin Tarnobrzeg Tarnów Toruń Wałbrzych Warsaw Włocławek Wrocław Zamość Zielona Góra

v t e

Silesia
Silesia
topics

History

Offensives Uprisings Wars (First, Second, Third) Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
plebiscite Treaty of Dresden Treaty of Teschen Book of Henryków Battle of Legnica Battle of Leuthen more...

Geography

Areas

Jelenia Góra valley Kłodzko Valley Lower Silesian Wilderness Obniżenie Milicko-Głogowskie Ostrava Valley Oświęcim Basin Przedgórze Sudeckie Silesian Walls Silesian Foothills Silesian Lowlands Silesian Przesieka Silesian Upland Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Wał Trzebnicki Zielona Góra Acclivity

Lakes

Jezioro Goczałkowickie Jezioro Otmuchowskie Jezioro Sławskie Nyskie Slezská Harta Dam

Mountains

Carpathian

Silesian Beskids Moravian-Silesian Beskids

Sudetes

Eastern Central Western

Rivers

Elbe

Divoká Orlice Jizera Úpa

Oder

Barycz Bóbr Kaczawa Kłodnica Kwisa Liswarta Mała Panew Nysa Kłodzka Olza Ślęza

Vistula

Biała Brynica Gostynia Przemsza Pszczynka Rawa

Politics

Subdivisions

Former

Duchies

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Silesian Voivodeship
Voivodeship
(1920–39)

parliament politicians treasury

State country Silesia
Silesia
Province

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Sudetenland New Silesia Austrian Silesia Eastern Silesia

Current

Jeseník District Moravian–Silesian Region Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz

Voivodeships

Lower Silesian Lubusz Voivodeships Opole Silesian

EP constituencies

Lower Silesian and Opole Silesian

Economy

Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy Katowice urban area Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy Lower Silesian Coal Basin Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Industrial Region Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik Coal Areas

Upper Silesian metropolitan area Tourism

Society

Culture

Architecture

Familok

Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)

Cuisine

Black noodles Bryja Ciapkapusta Dumplings Galert Hauskyjza Karminadle Kołocz Kreple Krupniok (Kaszanka) Makówki Moczka Modra kapusta Siemieniotka Szałot Wodzionka Żur śląski

Religion

Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Roman Catholic Church Pentecostal Church in Poland

Sport

Football Association Moravian–Silesian Football League National football team Silesian Stadium

Languages

Silesian

Bytom Cieszyn Jabłonków Lach Lower Namysłów Niemodlin Opole Prudnik Sulkovian Syców Texas

Czech German

Silesian German (Lower Silesian)

Moravian Polish

Symbols

Coats of arms Flags

Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

Category Portal

Coordinates: 50°38′54″N 17°54′02″E / 50.64833°N 17.90056°E / 50.64833; 17.90056

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 245025771 GND: 4116770-3 BNF: cb1211

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