HOME
The Info List - Opisthokont


--- Advertisement ---



The opisthokonts (Greek: ὀπίσθιος (opísthios) = "rear, posterior" + κοντός (kontós) = "pole" i.e. "flagellum") or Choanozoa
Choanozoa
are a broad group of eukaryotes, including both the animal and fungus kingdoms,[5] together with the eukaryotic microorganisms that are sometimes grouped in the paraphyletic phylum Choanozoa (conventionally assigned to the protist "kingdom").[6] The opisthokonts, previously called the "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group",[7] are generally recognized as a clade. Opisthokonts together with Apusomonadida
Apusomonadida
and Breviata
Breviata
comprise the larger clade Obazoa.[6][8][9][10][11]

Contents

1 Flagella 2 History 3 Taxonomy

3.1 Phylogeny

4 Gallery 5 References 6 External links

Flagella[edit] A common characteristic of opisthokonts is that flagellate cells, such as the sperm of most animals and the spores of the chytrid fungi, propel themselves with a single posterior flagellum. It is this feature that gives the group its name. In contrast, flagellate cells in other eukaryote groups propel themselves with one or more anterior flagella. However, in some opisthokont groups, including most of the fungi, flagellate cells have been lost.[6] History[edit] The close relationship between animals and fungi was suggested by Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
in 1987,[3] who used the informal name opisthokonta (the formal name has been used for the chytrids by Copeland in 1956), and was supported by later genetic studies.[12] Early phylogenies placed fungi near the plants and other groups that have mitochondria with flat cristae, but this character varies. More recently, it has been said that holozoa (animals) and holomycota (fungi) are much more closely related to each other than either is to plants, because opisthokonts have a triple fusion of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, dihydroorotase, and aspartate carbamoyltransferase that is not present in plants, and plants have a fusion of thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase not present in the opisthokonts. Animals and fungi are also more closely related to amoebas than they are to plants, and plants are more closely related to the SAR supergroup
SAR supergroup
of protists than they are to animals or fungi.[citation needed] Animals and fungi are both heterotrophs, unlike plants, and while fungi are sessile like plants, there are also sessile animals. Cavalier-Smith and Stechmann[13] argue that the uniciliate eukaryotes such as opisthokonts and Amoebozoa, collectively called unikonts, split off from the other biciliate eukaryotes, called bikonts, shortly after they evolved. Taxonomy[edit] Opisthokonts are divided into Holomycota
Holomycota
or Nucletmycea (fungi and all organisms more closely related to fungi than to animals) and Holozoa (animals and all organisms more closely related to animals than to fungi); no opisthokonts basal to the Holomycota/ Holozoa
Holozoa
split have yet been identified.[citation needed] The Opisthokonts was largely resolved by Torriella et al.[14] Holomycota
Holomycota
and Holozoa
Holozoa
are composed of the following groups.

Holomycota
Holomycota
( Fungus
Fungus
like)

Fungi

Includes:

Nucleariida chytrids (flagellated, zoosporic fungi) microsporidia (previously thought to be sporozoans) Hyaloraphidium (previously thought to be a green alga, now considered a fungus) Fonticula
Fonticula
[15]

Excludes:

oomycetes (water molds) (now included in the SAR supergroup) labyrinthulomycetes (slime nets) (now included in the SAR supergroup) myxomycetes (now included in amoebozoans)

Rozellida
Rozellida
(placement uncertain)

Holozoa
Holozoa
( Animal
Animal
like)

Mesomycetozoea

Dermocystida (formerly considered parasitic fungi or sporozoans) Ichthyophonida
Ichthyophonida
(formerly considered parasitic fungi incertae sedis) Eccrinales (formerly considered trichomycetes) Amoebidiales (formerly considered trichomycetes)

Corallochytrium
Corallochytrium
(formerly considered a Heterokont) Filozoa

Filasterea Choanoflagellata
Choanoflagellata
(flagellates formerly included in protozoa) Animalia

including Myxozoa
Myxozoa
(previously considered fungi, now considered cnidarians)

Phylogeny[edit] The paraphyletic taxon Choanozoa
Choanozoa
includes either non-animal holozoans, or non-animal, non-fungal opisthokonts. The choanoflagellates have a circular mitochondrial DNA genome with long intergenic regions. This is four times as large as animal mitochondrial genomes and contains twice as many protein coding genes. Corallochytrium
Corallochytrium
seem likely to be more closely related to the fungi than to the animals on the basis of the presence of ergosterol in their membranes and being capable of synthesis of lysine via the AAA pathway. The ichthyosporeans have a two amino acid deletion in their EEF1A1 gene that is considered characteristic of fungi.[citation needed] The ichthyosporean genome is >200 kilobase pairs in length and consists of several hundred linear chromosomes that share elaborate terminal-specific sequence patterns.[citation needed] In the following phylogenetic tree it is indicated how many millions of years ago (Mya) the clades diverged into newer clades.

Eukaryotes

Bikonta

Archaeplastida
Archaeplastida
( Plantae
Plantae
sensu lato)

Hacrobia
Hacrobia

SAR supergroup
SAR supergroup

Excavata
Excavata

Podiata

Varisulca

Amorphea/

Amoebozoa
Amoebozoa

Obazoa

Breviatea
Breviatea

Apusomonadida
Apusomonadida

Opisthokonts

Holomycota

Opisthosporidia
Opisthosporidia

Fungi
Fungi

Cristidiscoidea

Nucleariida
Nucleariida

Fonticulida

Holozoa

Ichthyosporea
Ichthyosporea

Pluriformea

Syssomonas

Corallochytrium
Corallochytrium

Filozoa

Filasterea
Filasterea

Apoikozoa

Choanoflagellatea
Choanoflagellatea

Animalia
Animalia

950 mya

1300 mya

Unikonts

One view of the great kingdoms and their stem groups.[16] Gallery[edit]

Nuclearia
Nuclearia
(Nucleariida)

Rozella
Rozella
sp. (Rozellida)

Microsporidian spore (Microsporidia)

Chytrid
Chytrid
(flagellated fungus)

Sphaeroforma sp. (Mesomycetozoea)

Ministeria
Ministeria
sp. (Filasterea)

Capsaspora
Capsaspora
sp. (Filasterea)

Salpingoeca
Salpingoeca
(Choanoflagellatea)

Desmarella sp. colony (Choanoflagellatea)

Two opisthokonts: a man (Metazoa) and a mushroom (Fungi)

References[edit]

^ Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Katz, Laura A. (August 16, 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–13629. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185 . PMID 21810989.  ^ Copeland, H. F. (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith, T. (1987). "The origin of fungi and pseudofungi". In Rayner, Alan D. M. (ed.). Evolutionary biology of Fungi. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. pp. 339–353. ISBN 0-521-33050-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ Adl, S.M.; et al. (September–October 2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". Journal of eukaryotic microbiology. 52: 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873.  ^ Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, et al. (7 May 2008). Aramayo R, ed. "Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals". PLoS ONE. 3 (5): e2098. Bibcode:2008PLoSO...3.2098S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098. PMC 2346548 . PMID 18461162.  ^ a b c Steenkamp ET, Wright J, Baldauf SL (January 2006). "The protistan origins of animals and fungi". Mol. Biol. Evol. 23 (1): 93–106. doi:10.1093/molbev/msj011. PMID 16151185.  ^ "Fungi/ Metazoa
Metazoa
group". Retrieved 2009-03-08.  ^ Huang, Jinling; Xu, Ying; Gogarten, Johann Peter (November 2005). "The presence of a haloarchaeal type tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase marks the opisthokonts as monophyletic". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (11): 2142–2146. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi221. PMID 16049196.  ^ Parfrey, Laura Wegener; et al. (December 2006). "Evaluating support for the current classification of eukaryotic diversity". PLOS Genetics. 2 (12): e220. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220. PMC 1713255 . PMID 17194223.  ^ Torruella, Guifré; et al. (February 2012). "Phylogenetic relationships within the Opisthokonta based on phylogenomic analyses of conserved single-copy protein domains". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (2): 531–544. doi:10.1093/molbev/msr185. PMC 3350318 . PMID 21771718.  ^ Eme, Laura; Sharpe, Susan C.; Brown, Matthew W.; Roger, Andrew J. (2014-08-01). "On the Age of Eukaryotes: Evaluating Evidence from Fossils and Molecular Clocks". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 6 (8): a016139. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a016139. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 4107988 . PMID 25085908.  ^ Wainright PO, Hinkle G, Sogin ML, Stickel SK (April 1993). "Monophyletic origins of the metazoa: an evolutionary link with fungi". Science. 260 (5106): 340–2. Bibcode:1993Sci...260..340W. doi:10.1126/science.8469985. PMID 8469985.  ^ Stechmann, A.; Cavalier-Smith, T. (5 July 2002). "Rooting the eukaryote tree by using a derived gene fusion". Science. 297 (5578): 89–91. Bibcode:2002Sci...297...89S. doi:10.1126/science.1071196. PMID 12098695.  ^ Torruella, Guifré; Mendoza, Alex de; Grau-Bové, Xavier; Antó, Meritxell; Chaplin, Mark A.; Campo, Javier del; Eme, Laura; Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Whipps, Christopher M. (2015). "Phylogenomics Reveals Convergent Evolution
Evolution
of Lifestyles in Close Relatives of Animals and Fungi". Current Biology. 25 (18): 2404–2410. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.053.  ^ Matthew W. Brown, Frederick W. Spiegel and Jeffrey D. Silberman (2009), "Phylogeny of the "Forgotten" Cellular Slime Mold, Fonticula alba, Reveals a Key Evolutionary Branch within Opisthokonta", Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26 (12): 2699–2709, doi:10.1093/molbev/msp185, PMID 19692665  ^ Phylogeny based on:

Eichinger, L.; Pachebat, J. A.; Glöckner, G.; Rajandream, M. A.; Sucgang, R.; Berriman, M.; Song, J.; Olsen, R.; et al. (2005). "The genome of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum". Nature. 435 (7038): 43–57. doi:10.1038/nature03481. PMC 1352341 . PMID 15875012.  Steenkamp, E. T.; Wright, J.; Baldauf, S. L. (2005). "The Protistan Origins of Animals and Fungi". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 23 (1): 93–106. doi:10.1093/molbev/msj011. PMID 16151185. 

External links[edit]

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Opisthokonta

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Opisthokonta.

Tree of Life Eukaryotes

v t e

Opisthokonta

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Holomycota

Cristidiscoidea

Nucleariida

Nucleariidae

Fonticulida

Fonticulaceae

O+F

Opisthosporidia

Aphelida

Aphelidea

Aphelidida

C+M

Cryptomycota

Rozellidea

Rozellida

Microsporidia

Metchnikovellea

Metchnikovellida

Microsporea

Chytridiopsida Glugeida Meiodihaplophasida Dissociodihaplophasida

True Fungi

Neocallimastigomycota Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Olpidiomycota Entomophthoromycota Kickxellomycota Mucoromycota Glomeromycota Entorrhizomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota

Holozoa

Ichthyosporea

Dermocystida

Rhinosporidiaceae

Ichthyophonida

Sphaeroformina

Psorospermidae Piridae Creolimacidae

Trichomycina

Ichthyophonidae Amoebidiidae Palavasciaceae Parataeniellaceae Eccrinaceae

P+F

Pluriformea

Corallochytrea

Corallochytriida

Corallochytriidae

Syssomonas multiformis

Filozoa

Filasterea

Ministeriida

Capsasporidae Ministeriidae

Apoikozoa

Choanoflagellate

Acanthoecida

Stephanoecidae Acanthoecidae

Craspedida

Codonosigidae Salpingoecidae

Metazoa
Metazoa
(Animalia)

Porifera Ctenophora Placozoa Cnidaria Xenacoelomorpha Deuterostome

chordates echinoderms

Protostome

Ecdysozoa
Ecdysozoa
inc. arthropods and nematodes Spiralia
Spiralia
inc. molluscs and annelids

Sources and alternative views: Wikispecies.

v t e

Eukaryota

Domain Archaea Bacteria Eukaryota (Supergroup Plant Hacrobia Heterokont Alveolata Rhizaria Excavata Amoebozoa Opisthokonta

Animal Fungi)

Diaphoretickes

Archaeplastida

Glaucophyta Rhodophyta

Viridiplantae Plantae
Plantae
s.s.

Chlorophyta Streptophyta

Cryptista

Corbihelia Cryptophyta

A+H

Ancoracysta twista Haptista

Centroheliozoa Haptophyta

SAR

Halvaria

Alveolata

Ciliates Miozoa

Acavomonadia Colponemidia Myzozoa

Stramenopiles (heterokonts)

Bicosoecea Developea Hyphochytrea Ochrophyta Peronosporomycota Pirsoniomycota Placidozoa Platysulcea Sagenista

Rhizaria

Filosa Phytomyxea Retaria

Ectoreta Marimyxia

Vampyrellidea

Incertae sedis

Kamera lens

Excavata

Ancyromonadida Malawimonadea Metamonada
Metamonada
(Anaeromonada, Trichozoa)

Discoba

Jakobea Tsukubea

Discicristata

Euglenozoa Percolozoa

Podiata

Amorphea

Amoebozoa

Conosa
Conosa
(Archamoebae, Semiconosia) Lobosa
Lobosa
(Cutosea, Discosea, Tubulinea)

Obazoa

Apusomonadida Breviatea

Opisthokonta

Holomycota

Cristidiscoidea Opisthosporidia

Aphelida Cryptomycota Microsporidia

True fungi

Holozoa

Choanoflagellates Filasterea Metazoa
Metazoa
or Animals Ichthyosporea Pluriformea

Syssomonas Corallochytrea

CRuMs

Diphyllatea Mantamonadida Rigifilida Discocelida? Micronucleariida?

Incertae sedis

Parakaryon myojinensis †Acritarcha †Charnia †Gakarusia †Galaxiopsis †Grypania †Leptoteichos

Major kingdoms are underlined. See also: protist. Sources and alternative views: Wikispecies.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q129021 EoL: 2910700

.