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The Scotokaryotes (Cavalier-Smith) or Opimoda is a proposed basal Neokaryote clade as sister of the Diaphoratickes. Basal Scotokaryote groupings are the Metamonads, the Malawimonas and the Podiata.[1][2][3] The Discoba are seen as paraphyletic and basal Eukaryotes.

Taxonomy

A proposed cladogram is[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Eukaryota

Tsukubea



Discicristata

Euglenozoa



Percolozoa



Orthokaryotes

Jakobea


Neokaryotes
Corticata/Diaphoretickes/

Archaeplastida


Chromista

Hacrobia



SAR



SAR HA Supergroup/Bikont
Scotokaryotes/Opimoda/Neozoa

Metamonada




Malawimonas


Sulcozoa/Podiata/Sarcomastigota

Planomonadida





Mantamonadida



Diphyllatea



Amorphea/Unikont

Amoebozoa


Obazoa


Breviata



Apusomonadida




Opisthokonta/Choanozoa












References

  1. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2013-05-01). "Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa". European Journal of Protistology. 49 (2): 115–178. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. 
  2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas. "Euglenoid pellicle morphogenesis and evolution in light of comparative ultrastructure and trypanosomatid biology: semi-conservative microtubule/strip duplication, strip shaping and transformation". European Journal of Protistology. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2017.09.002. 
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas. "Euglenoid pellicle morphogenesis and evolution in light of comparative ultrastructure and trypanosomatid biology: semi-conservative microtubule/strip duplication, strip shaping and transformation". European Journal of Protistology. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2017.09.002. 
  4. ^ Zaremba-Niedzwiedzka, Katarzyna; Caceres, Eva F.; Saw, Jimmy H.; Bäckström, Disa; Juzokaite, Lina; Vancaester, Emmelien; Seitz, Kiley W.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Starnawski, Piotr (2017-01-11). "Asgard archaea illuminate the origin of eukaryotic cellular complexity". Nature. advance online publication. doi:10.1038/nature21031. ISSN 1476-4687. 
  5. ^ Derelle, Romain; Torruella, Guifré; Klimeš, Vladimír; Brinkmann, Henner; Kim, Eunsoo; Vlček, Čestmír; Lang, B. Franz; Eliáš, Marek (2015-02-17). "Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (7): E693–E699. doi:10.1073/pnas.1420657112. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 4343179Freely accessible. PMID 25646484. 
  6. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T.; Chao, E. E.; Snell, E. A.; Berney, C.; Fiore-Donno, A. M.; Lewis, R. (2014). "Multigene eukaryote phylogeny reveals the likely protozoan ancestors of opisthokonts (animals, fungi, choanozoans) and Amoebozoa". Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 81: 71–85. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.012. 
  7. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2010-06-23). "Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree". Biology Letters. 6 (3): 342–345. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2009.0948. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 2880060Freely accessible. PMID 20031978. 
  8. ^ He, Ding; Fiz-Palacios, Omar; Fu, Cheng-Jie; Fehling, Johanna; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Baldauf, Sandra L. "An Alternative Root for the Eukaryote Tree of Life". Current Biology. 24 (4): 465–470. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.036. 
  9. ^ Cavelier Smith. "Early evolution of eukaryote ...". Elsevier. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2012.06.001. 
  10. ^ Hug, Laura A.; Baker, Brett J.; Anantharaman, Karthik; Brown, Christopher T.; Probst, Alexander J.; Castelle, Cindy J.; Butterfield, Cristina N.; Hernsdorf, Alex W.; Amano, Yuki (2016-04-11). "A new view of the tree of life". Nature Microbiology. 1 (5). doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.48. ISSN 2058-5276. 
  11. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Chao, Ema E.; Lewis, Rhodri (2016-06-01). "187-gene phylogeny of protozoan phylum Amoebozoa reveals a new class (Cutosea) of deep-branching, ultrastructurally unique, enveloped marine Lobosa and clarifies amoeba evolution". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 99: 275–296. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.023. 
  12. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2017-09-05). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma: 1–61. doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3. ISSN 0033-183X.