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The Info List - Operation Wrath Of God


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Operation "Wrath of God" (Hebrew: מבצע זעם האל‎ Mivtza Za'am Ha'el), also known as Operation "Bayonet",[1] was a covert operation directed by the Mossad
Mossad
to assassinate individuals involved in the 1972 Munich massacre
Munich massacre
in which 11 members of the Israeli Olympic team were killed. The targets were members of the Palestinian armed militant group Black September and operatives of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Authorized by Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir
Golda Meir
in the autumn of 1972, the operation is believed to have continued for over twenty years.[citation needed] The operation was depicted in the television film Sword of Gideon (1986) and Steven Spielberg's film Munich (2005).

Contents

1 History 2 Operations

2.1 1972–1988 2.2 Ali Hassan Salameh 2.3 Munich hostage-takers 2.4 Other actions 2.5 Other assassinations

3 Reactions

3.1 Black September response

3.1.1 Attempted assassination of Golda Meir
Golda Meir
in Rome 3.1.2 Assassinations of other Israelis
Israelis
and international officials

3.2 Arab reaction

4 Criticism 5 In popular culture 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History Two days after the Munich massacre
Munich massacre
at the 1972 Summer Olympics, Israel retaliated by bombing ten PLO
PLO
bases in Syria
Syria
and Lebanon. Prime Minister Golda Meir
Golda Meir
created Committee X, a small group of government officials tasked with formulating an Israeli response, with herself and Defense Minister Moshe Dayan
Moshe Dayan
at the head. She also appointed General Aharon Yariv
Aharon Yariv
as her Advisor on Counterterrorism; he, along with Mossad
Mossad
Director Zvi Zamir, took the principal role in directing the ensuing operation. The committee came to the conclusion that, to deter future violent incidents against Israel, they needed to assassinate those who had supported or carried out the Munich massacre, and in dramatic fashion. Pressured by Israeli public opinion and top intelligence officials, Meir reluctantly authorized the beginning of the broad assassination campaign.[2] Yet when the three surviving perpetrators of the massacre were released just months later by West Germany in compliance with the demands of the hijackers of a Lufthansa
Lufthansa
aircraft, any remaining ambivalence she felt was removed.[3] The committee's first task for Israeli intelligence was to draw up an assassination list of all those involved in Munich. This was accomplished with the aid of PLO operatives working for Mossad, and with information provided by friendly European intelligence agencies.[4] While the contents of the entire list are unknown, reports put the final number of targets at 20–35, a mix of Black September and PLO
PLO
elements.[nb 1] Once this was complete, Mossad
Mossad
was charged with locating the individuals and assassinating them. Critical in the planning was the idea of plausible deniability, that it should be impossible to prove a direct connection between the assassinations and Israel.[5] In addition, the operations were more generally intended to terrorize Palestinian militants. According to David Kimche, former deputy head of Mossad, "The aim was not so much revenge but mainly to make them [the Palestinian terrorists] frightened. We wanted to make them look over their shoulders and feel that we are upon them. And therefore we tried not to do things by just shooting a guy in the street – that's easy ... fairly."[6] It is also known that Mossad
Mossad
agent Michael Harari led the creation and direction of the teams,[7] although some may not have always been under government responsibility. Author Simon Reeve explains that the Mossad
Mossad
team – whose squad names are letters of the Hebrew alphabet – consisted of:

...fifteen people divided into five squads: "Aleph", two trained killers; "Bet", two guards who would shadow the Alephs; "Het", two agents who would establish cover for the rest of the team by renting hotel rooms, apartments, cars, and so on; "Ayin", comprising between six and eight agents who formed the backbone of the operation, shadowing targets and establishing an escape route for the Aleph and Bet squads; and "Qoph", two agents specializing in communications.[8]

This is similar to former Mossad
Mossad
katsa Victor Ostrovsky's description of Mossad's own assassination teams, the Kidon. In fact, Ostrovsky says in his book that it was Kidon units that performed the assassinations.[9] This is supported by author Gordon Thomas who was given access to the debriefing reports submitted by the eight Kidon and 80 member backup team that were involved in the assassinations.[10] Another report by author Aaron J. Klein says that these teams were actually part of a unit called Caesarea, which would be renamed and reorganized into Kidon in the mid-1970s.[11] Harari eventually commanded three Caesarea teams of around 12 members each. They were each further divided into logistics, surveillance, and assassination squads.[12] One of the covert teams was revealed in the aftermath of the Lillehammer affair (see Ali Hassan Salameh section below), when six members of the Mossad
Mossad
assassination team were arrested by Norwegian authorities. Harari escaped to Israel, and it is possible that others were able to evade capture with him. An article in Time magazine immediately after the killing put the total number of Mossad
Mossad
personnel at 15,[13] which would also be similar to the above descriptions. A markedly different account comes from the book Vengeance, where the author states that according to his source, Mossad
Mossad
set up a five-man unit of trained intelligence personnel which he [the source] led in Europe. The book also says that the team operated outside of direct government control, and that its only communications were with Harari.[5] Several hours before each assassination, each target's family received flowers with a condolence card reading: "A reminder we do not forget we do not forgive."[10] Operations 1972–1988 The first assassination occurred on October 16, 1972, when Palestinian Wael Zwaiter
Wael Zwaiter
was killed in Rome. Mossad
Mossad
agents had been waiting for him to return from dinner, and shot him twelve times.[14] After the shooting, they were spirited away to a safe house. At the time Zwaiter was the PLO
PLO
representative in Italy, and while Israel
Israel
privately claimed he was a member of Black September and was involved in a failed plot against an El Al
El Al
airliner, members of the PLO
PLO
argued that he was in no way connected. Abu Iyad, deputy-chief of the PLO, stated that Zwaiter was "energetically" against terrorism.[15] The second target of Mossad
Mossad
was Mahmoud Hamshari, the PLO representative in France. Israel
Israel
believed that he was the leader of Black September in France. Using an agent posing as an Italian journalist, Mossad
Mossad
lured him from his apartment in Paris to allow a demolition team to enter and install a bomb underneath a desk telephone. On December 8, 1972, the agent posing as a journalist phoned Hamshari's apartment and asked if he was speaking to Hamshari. After Hamshari identified himself, the agent signalled to other colleagues, who then sent a detonation signal down the telephone line, causing the bomb to explode. Hamshari was mortally wounded in the explosion, but managed to remain conscious long enough to tell detectives what had happened. Hamshari died in a hospital several weeks later.[16] He had given an interview a day after the hostage crisis, saying he was not worried for his life, but did not want to "taunt the devil."[17] Mossad
Mossad
did not comment on the fact that Hamsari was connected to the attack of Munich.[14] This assassination was the first in a series of Mossad
Mossad
assassinations that took place in France.[18] Another assassination took place in London, where a Palestinian activist was expertly pushed under a bus during rush hour.[19] On the night of January 24, 1973, Hussein Al Bashir (Jordanian), the Fatah
Fatah
representative in Cyprus, turned off the lights in his Olympic Hotel room in Nicosia. Moments later, a bomb planted under his bed was remotely detonated, killing him and destroying the room. Israel believed him to be the head of Black September in Cyprus, though another reason for his assassination may have been for his close ties with the KGB.[20] On April 6, 1973, Basil al-Kubaissi, a law professor at the American University of Beirut
Beirut
suspected by Israel
Israel
of providing arms logistics for Black September as well as being involved in other Palestinian plots,[21] was gunned down in Paris while returning home from dinner. As in previous assassinations, he was shot around 12 times by two Mossad
Mossad
agents. Three of the targets on the Mossad's list lived in heavily guarded houses in Lebanon
Lebanon
that were beyond the reach of previous assassination methods. In order to assassinate them, Operation Spring of Youth was launched as a sub-operation of the larger "Wrath of God" campaign. On the night of April 9, 1973, Sayeret Matkal, Shayetet 13, and Sayeret Tzanhanim commandos landed on the coast of Lebanon
Lebanon
in Zodiac speedboats launched from Israeli Navy
Israeli Navy
missile boats offshore. The commandos were met by Mossad
Mossad
agents, who drove them to their targets in cars rented the previous day, and later drove them back to the beaches for extraction. The commandos were disguised as civilians, and some were dressed as women. In Beirut, they raided guarded apartment buildings and killed Muhammad Youssef al-Najjar (Operations leader in Black September), Kamal Adwan (a Chief of Operations in the PLO) and Kamal Nasser
Kamal Nasser
( PLO
PLO
Executive Committee member and spokesman). During the operation, two Lebanese police officers, an Italian citizen, and Najjar's wife were also killed. One Israeli commando was wounded. Sayeret Tzanhanim
Sayeret Tzanhanim
paratroopers raided a six-story building that served as the headquarters of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. The paratroopers met strong resistance and lost two soldiers, but managed to destroy the building. Shayetet 13
Shayetet 13
naval commandos and Sayeret Tzanhanim
Sayeret Tzanhanim
paratroopers also raided PLO arms-manufacturing facilities and fuel dumps.[22] Some 12–100 PLO and PFLP members were killed during the attacks.[citation needed] Three attacks quickly followed the Lebanon
Lebanon
operation. Zaiad Muchasi, the replacement for Hussein Al Bashir in Cyprus, was killed by a bomb in his Athens
Athens
hotel room on April 11. Two minor Black September members, Abdel Hamid Shibi and Abdel Hadi Nakaa, were seriously injured when their car was bombed in Rome.[23] Mossad
Mossad
agents also began to follow Mohammad Boudia, the Algerian-born director of operations for Black September in France, who was known for his disguises and womanizing. On June 28, 1973, Boudia was killed in Paris by a pressure-activated bomb packed with heavy nuts and bolts placed under his car seat.[24] On December 15, 1979, two Palestinians, Ali Salem Ahmed and Ibrahim Abdul Aziz, were killed in Cyprus. According to police, both men were shot with silenced weapons at point-blank range.[25] On June 17, 1982, two senior PLO
PLO
members in Italy were killed in separate attacks. Nazeyh Mayer, a leading figure in the PLO's Rome office, was shot dead outside his home. Kamal Husain, deputy director of the PLO
PLO
office in Rome, was killed by a shrapnel bomb placed under the back seat of his car as he drove home, less than seven hours after he had visited the home of Mayer and helped the police in their investigation.[25] On July 23, 1982, Fadl Dani, deputy director of the PLO
PLO
office in Paris, was killed by a bomb that had been placed in his car. On August 21, 1983, PLO
PLO
official Mamoun Meraish was killed in his car in Athens by two Mossad
Mossad
operatives who shot him from a motorcycle.[26] On June 10, 1986, Khaled Ahmed Nazal, Secretary-General of the PLO's DFLP faction, was gunned down outside a hotel in Athens, Greece. Nazal was shot four times in the head.[25] On October 21, 1986, Munzer Abu Ghazala, a senior PLO
PLO
official and member of the Palestinian National Council, was killed by a bomb as he drove through a suburb of Athens.[25][27] On February 14, 1988, a car bomb exploded in Limassol, Cyprus, killing Palestinians Abu Al Hassan Qasim and Hamdi Adwan, and wounding Marwan Kanafami.[25] Ali Hassan Salameh Mossad
Mossad
continued to search for Ali Hassan Salameh, nicknamed the Red Prince, who was the head of Force 17 and the Black September operative believed by Israel
Israel
to be the mastermind behind the Munich massacre. This belief has since been challenged by accounts of senior Black September officials, who say that while he was involved in many attacks in Europe, Salameh was not at all connected with the events in Munich.[28] Almost a full year after Munich, Mossad
Mossad
believed they had finally located Salameh in the small Norwegian town Lillehammer. On July 21, 1973, in what would become known as the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
affair, a team of Mossad
Mossad
agents shot and killed Ahmed Bouchiki, a Moroccan waiter unrelated to the Munich attack and Black September, after an informant mistakenly identified Bouchiki as Salameh. Six Mossad
Mossad
agents, including two women, were arrested by local police, while others, including the team leader, Michael Harari, managed to escape back to Israel. Five of the captured were convicted of the killing and imprisoned, but were released and returned to Israel
Israel
in 1975. Victor Ostrovsky claimed that Salameh was instrumental in leading Mossad
Mossad
off course by feeding it false information about his whereabouts.[29] In January 1974, Mossad
Mossad
agents covertly deployed to Switzerland after receiving information that Salameh would meet PLO
PLO
leaders in a church on January 12. Two assassins entered the church at the time of the meeting, and encountered three men who appeared to be Arab. One of them made a move for his weapon, and all three were then immediately shot and killed. The Mossad
Mossad
agents continued into the church to search for Salameh, but did not find him. In a short time, the decision was made to abort the mission and escape.[30] Shortly afterward, three Mossad
Mossad
operatives travelled to London
London
to meet with a source who offered information on Salameh. When the source failed to show up, the team members began suspecting they were under surveillance. A female assassin-for-hire seduced one of the agents in a hotel, then shot him dead in his hotel room. The Mossad
Mossad
team members located the woman in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
three months later, and she was killed near her home on August 21 after she instinctively reached for a weapon as the team approached her. Local sources revealed that she was a freelance assassin, and it was never learned who exactly contracted her to kill the agent. The kidon team leader was later reprimanded for acting outside the assigned scope of the mission.[5] One of the team members said, "most of our victims plead for their lives before being killed but not this woman. She was different. She didn't plead. She looked us all directly in the eye with cold detached hatred. Her face reflected nothing but disdain and defiance before we killed her."[31][32][unreliable source?] Following the incident, operation commander Michael Harari ordered the mission to kill Salameh be aborted. The kidon team, however, elected to ignore the order and try one more time to kill Salameh. Intelligence placed Salameh at a house in Tarifa, Spain. As three agents moved toward the house, they were approached by an Arab security guard. The guard raised an AK-47
AK-47
assault rifle, and was immediately shot. The operation was aborted, and the team escaped to a safe house.[30] In the aftermath of the Lillehammer
Lillehammer
affair, international outrage prompted Golda Meir
Golda Meir
to order the suspension of Operation "Wrath of God".[33] The ensuing Norwegian investigation and revelations by the captured agents compromised Mossad
Mossad
assets across Europe, including safe houses, agents, and operational methods.[34] Five years later, it was decided to recommence the operation under new Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and find those on the list still at large.[35] Mossad
Mossad
began surveillance of Salameh's movements after tracking him to Beirut
Beirut
during late autumn of 1978. In November 1978, a female Mossad agent identifying herself as Erika Chambers entered Lebanon
Lebanon
with a British passport
British passport
issued in 1975, and rented an apartment on the Rue Verdun, a street frequently used by Salameh. Several other agents arrived, including two using the pseudonyms Peter Scriver and Roland Kolberg, traveling with British and Canadian passports respectively. Some time after their arrival a Volkswagen
Volkswagen
packed with plastic explosives was parked along Rue Verdun within view of the rented apartment. At 3:35 p.m. on January 22, 1979, as Salameh and four bodyguards drove down the street in a Chevrolet
Chevrolet
station wagon,[36] the explosives in the Volkswagen
Volkswagen
were detonated from the apartment with a radio device, killing everyone in the vehicle. After five unsuccessful attempts,[37] Mossad
Mossad
had assassinated Salameh. However, the blast also killed four innocent bystanders, including a British student and a German nun, and injured 18 other people in the vicinity. Immediately following the operation the three Mossad
Mossad
officers fled without trace, as well as up to 14 other agents believed to have been involved in the operation.[37] Munich hostage-takers Three of the eight terrorists that carried out the Munich massacre survived the botched German rescue attempt at Fürstenfeldbruck airbase on 6 September 1972 and were taken into German custody: Jamal Al-Gashey, Adnan Al-Gashey, and Mohammed Safady. On 29 October, they were released in exchange for the hostages onboard hijacked Lufthansa Flight 615 and travelled to Libya, where they went into hiding.[38] It had been thought that Adnan Al-Gashey and Mohammed Safady were both assassinated by Mossad
Mossad
several years after the massacre; Al-Gashey was found after making contact with a cousin in a Gulf State, and Safady was found by remaining in touch with family in Lebanon.[39] This account was challenged by Aaron J. Klein, who wrote that Adnan died of heart failure in the 1970s and that Safady was killed by Christian Phalangists in Lebanon
Lebanon
in the early 1980s. However, in July 2005, PLO veteran Tawfiq Tirawi told Klein that Safady, whom Tirawi claimed as a close friend, was "as alive as you are."[40] Jamal Al-Gashey went into hiding in North Africa, and is believed to be living in Tunisia; he last surfaced in 1999, when he granted an interview to director Kevin MacDonald for the documentary One Day in September.[41][42] Other actions Along with direct assassinations, Mossad
Mossad
used a variety of other means to respond to the Munich massacre
Munich massacre
and deter future terrorist action. Mossad
Mossad
engaged in a campaign of letter bombs against Palestinian officials across Europe.[43] Historian Benny Morris
Benny Morris
writes that these attacks caused non-fatal injuries to their targets, which included persons in Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, Palestinian student activists in Bonn and Copenhagen, and a Red Crescent
Red Crescent
official in Stockholm.[4] Klein also cites an incident in Cairo
Cairo
where a bomb malfunctioned, sparing the two Palestinian targets.[44] Former Mossad
Mossad
katsa Victor Ostrovsky claimed that Mossad
Mossad
also used psychological warfare tactics such as running obituaries of still-living militants and sending highly detailed personal information to others.[43] Reeve further stated that Mossad
Mossad
would call junior Palestinian officials, and after divulging to them their personal information, would warn them to disassociate from any Palestinian cause.[45] British intelligence writer Gordon Thomas wrote that hours before each militant was killed, his family would receive flowers and a condolences card bearing the words "A reminder we do not forget or forgive". Thomas further claimed that after each killing, Mossad's psychological warfare department leaked notices about the dead militant to Arabic-language newspapers throughout the Middle East.[46] Other assassinations Several assassinations or assassination attempts have been attributed to the "Wrath of God" campaign, although doubt exists as to whether Mossad
Mossad
was behind them, with breakaway Palestinian factions being suspected of carrying them out. The first such assassination occurred on January 4, 1978, when Said Hammami, the PLO
PLO
representative in London, was shot and killed. The assassination is suspected of being the work of either Mossad
Mossad
or the Abu Nidal
Abu Nidal
Organization.[47] On August 3, 1978, Ezzedine Kalak, chief of the PLO's Paris bureau, and his deputy Hamad Adnan, were killed at their offices in the Arab League building. Three other members of the Arab League
Arab League
and PLO
PLO
staff were wounded.[25] This attack was either the work of Mossad
Mossad
or the Abu Nidal Organization. On July 27, 1979. Zuheir Mohsen, head of PLO military operations, was gunned down in Cannes, France, just after leaving a casino. Responsibility for the attack has been placed by various sources on Mossad, other Palestinians, and possibly Egypt.[48] On June 1, 1981, Naim Khader, the PLO
PLO
representative in Belgium, was assassinated in Brussels. Officials at the PLO
PLO
information and liaison office in Brussels
Brussels
issued a statement accusing Israel
Israel
of being behind the killing.[25] Abu Daoud, a Black September commander who openly claimed to have helped plan the Munich attack, was shot multiple times on August 1, 1981 by a gunman in a Warsaw
Warsaw
hotel cafe. Daoud survived the attack.[49] It is unclear whether this was done by Mossad
Mossad
or another breakaway Palestinian faction.[50] Daoud claimed that the attack was carried out by a Palestinian double agent for Mossad, who was killed by the PLO
PLO
ten years later. On March 1, 1982, PLO
PLO
official Nabil Wadi Aranki was killed in Madrid.[25] On June 8, 1992 PLO
PLO
head of intelligence Atef Bseiso was shot and killed in Paris by two gunmen with suppressed weapons. While the PLO
PLO
and a book by Israeli author Aaron Klein blamed Mossad
Mossad
for the killing, other reports indicate that the Abu Nidal Organization was behind it.[51][52] Reactions Black September response Black September did attempt and carry out a number of attacks and hostage takings against Israel. Similar to the Mossad
Mossad
letter-bomb campaign, dozens of letter bombs were sent from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to Israeli diplomatic posts around the world in September and October 1972. One such attack killed Ami Shachori, an Israeli Agricultural Counselor in Britain.[53] Attempted assassination of Golda Meir
Golda Meir
in Rome A terrorist operation was planned by Black September when it learned that Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir
Golda Meir
would be travelling to Rome to meet with Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
in January 1973. The planned visit was placed under a regimen of strict secrecy in Israel, and news of the upcoming visit was probably leaked by a pro-Palestinian priest in the Vatican Secretariat of State.[54] Black September commander Ali Hassan Salameh began planning a missile attack against Meir's plane as it arrived in Rome. Salameh's goal was to kill not only Meir, but also key cabinet ministers and senior Mossad
Mossad
officers accompanying her. At the time, Salameh was negotiating with the Soviet Union, asking for safe haven, and he hoped that by the time Israel
Israel
recovered from this blow, he and his men would be in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and out of Israel's reach. Black September smuggled several shoulder-launched Strela 2
Strela 2
missiles to Bari, Italy, from Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, by boat. The missiles were then smuggled to Rome and positioned around Fiumicino Airport
Fiumicino Airport
shortly before Meir's arrival. To divert Mossad's vigilance away from Rome in the run-up to the attack, Salameh planned a terrorist attack on the Israeli embassy in Bangkok, Thailand.[55] On December 28, 1972, four Black September members took over the Israeli embassy in Bangkok, holding 12 hostages. They raised the PLO flag over the building, and threatened to kill the hostages unless 36 PLO
PLO
prisoners were released. The building was surrounded by Thai troops and police. The option of a rescue operation was considered in Israel
Israel
but ruled out. A rescue operation was considered a logistical impossibility, and it was also thought that as the embassy was in busy central Bangkok, the Thai government would never allow the possibility of a shootout to occur. Though their demands were not met, negotiations secured the release of all the hostages and the Black September militants were given safe passage to Cairo.[56] Mossad
Mossad
found out about the plan to assassinate Golda Meir
Golda Meir
on January 14, 1973, when a local volunteer informed Mossad
Mossad
that he had handled two telephone calls from a payphone in an apartment block where PLO members sometimes stayed. The calls were in Arabic, which he spoke. Speaking in code, the caller stated that it was "time to deliver the birthday candles for the celebration". Mossad
Mossad
Director-General Zvi Zamir was convinced that this was a coded order connected to an upcoming attack. Zamir had been convinced that the Bangkok
Bangkok
embassy raid was a diversion for a larger attack, due to the participants in the raid having so easily given up, something he did not expect from a group as well-trained, financed, strategically cunning, and motivated as Black September. Zamir further interpreted that "birthday candles" could refer to weapons, and the most likely one with a candle connotation was a rocket. Zamir linked the possible upcoming missile attack with Meir's upcoming arrival, and guessed that Black September was planning to shoot down Meir's plane. Zamir then sent a Mossad katsa, or field intelligence officer, to Rome, and travelled to the city with a team of Mossad
Mossad
officers. Zamir met with the head of DIGOS, the Italian anti-terrorism unit, and laid out his concerns. DIGOS officers raided the apartment blocks from where the calls had been made, and found a Russian instruction manual for launching missiles. Throughout the night, DIGOS teams, each accompanied by a Mossad
Mossad
katsa, raided known PLO
PLO
apartments, but found no evidence of any plot to kill Meir. In the morning, a few hours before Meir's plane arrived, Mossad agents and Italian police surrounded Fiumicino Airport. A Mossad
Mossad
katsa spotted a Fiat
Fiat
van parked in a field close to the flight path. The agent ordered the driver to step out. The back door then flew open, and two militants opened fire. The agent returned fire, severely wounding both of them. The van was found to contain six missiles. The driver escaped on foot, and was pursued by the agent. He was captured as he tried to hijack a car driven by another patrolling Mossad
Mossad
operative. The driver was bundled into the car and taken to the truck that served as Mossad's mobile command post, where he revealed the whereabouts of the second missile team after being severely beaten. The truck then sped off, heading north. A cafe-van with three missile launchers protruding from the roof was spotted. The truck then rammed the van, turning it over, trapping the launch team inside and half-crushing them beneath the weight of the missiles, and turning the van's fixed launchers away from the sky. The unconscious driver was pulled from the van and tossed to the side of the road, and DIGOS was alerted that there had been "an interesting accident they should look into". Zamir briefly considered killing the Palestinian terrorists, but felt that their deaths would serve as an embarrassment to Golda Meir's audience with the pope. The terrorists, who had been involved in the Munich massacre, were taken to the hospital and eventually allowed to fly to Libya, but within months, all were killed by Mossad.[57][58][59] Assassinations of other Israelis
Israelis
and international officials Two Israelis
Israelis
suspected of being intelligence agents were shot and killed, as well as an Israeli official in Washington. Baruch Cohen, a Mossad
Mossad
agent in Madrid, was killed on January 23, 1973 by a young Palestinian contact.[21] Mossad
Mossad
then conducted a side operation to locate and kill Cohen's assassins, and at least three Palestinians involved in planning and carrying out Cohen's killing were assassinated.[60] Vittorio Olivares, an Italian El Al
El Al
employee suspected by Black September, was shot and killed in Rome in April 1973.[61] The Israeli military attaché to the United States, Colonel Yosef Alon, was assassinated on July 1, 1973 in Chevy Chase, Maryland.[62][63] Alon's killer was never officially identified, and the FBI closed its investigation after failing to identify the culprits, but theorized that Black September was behind the assassination. Fred Burton, former deputy chief of the counterterrorism division of the U.S. State Department's Diplomatic Security Service and Vice-President of the private intelligence and consulting firm Stratfor, conducted an investigation and concluded that Alon's killer was a Black September operative who was killed by Mossad
Mossad
in 2011.[64] Ami Shachori, an agriculture counselor working at the Israeli Embassy in London, was assassinated by Black September on September 19, 1973.[65] Black September conducted several other attacks only indirectly against Israel, including the seizure of Western diplomats in the Saudi embassy in Khartoum
Khartoum
(see: 1973 Khartoum
Khartoum
diplomatic assassinations), but the group was officially dissolved by al- Fatah
Fatah
in December 1974.[66] Arab reaction While the first wave of assassinations from October 1972 to early 1973 caused greater consternation among Palestinian officials, it was the raid on Lebanon
Lebanon
Operation Spring of Youth in April 1973 – that truly shocked the Arab world.[67] The audacity of the mission, plus the fact that senior leaders such as Yasser Arafat, Abu Iyad and Ali Hassan Salameh were only yards away from the fighting, contributed to the creation of the belief that Israel
Israel
was capable of striking anywhere, anytime.[68] It also brought about popular mourning. At the funerals for the victims of the raid, half a million people came into the streets of Beirut.[68] Nearly six years later, 100,000 people, including Arafat, turned out in the same city to bury Salameh.[69] The operation also caused some of the less radical Arab governments to begin putting pressure on Palestinians to stop attacks against Israeli targets and threatened to pull support for the Palestinians if they used their passports during the course of attacks against Israel. As a result, some Palestinian militants began to instead use forged Israeli documents.[70] Criticism In his 2005 book Striking Back, author Aaron Klein – who says he based his book in large part on rare interviews with key Mossad officers involved in the reprisal missions – contends that Mossad
Mossad
got only one man directly connected to the massacre. The man, Atef Bseiso, was killed in Paris in 1992. Klein goes on to say that the intelligence on Wael Zwaiter, the first Palestinian to die, was "uncorroborated and improperly cross-referenced. Looking back, his assassination was a mistake." He elaborates, stating that the real planners and executors of Munich had gone into hiding along with bodyguards in the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
and Arab world, where Israel
Israel
could not reach them. Most of those killed were minor Palestinian figures who happened to be wandering unprotected around Western Europe. "Israeli security officials claimed these dead men were responsible for Munich; PLO
PLO
pronouncements made them out to be important figures; and so the image of Mossad
Mossad
as capable of delivering death at will grew and grew." The operation functioned not just to punish the perpetrators of Munich but also to disrupt and deter future terrorist acts, writes Klein. "For the second goal, one dead PLO
PLO
operative was as good as another." Klein quotes a senior intelligence source: "Our blood was boiling. When there was information implicating someone, we didn't inspect it with a magnifying glass."[40] Abu Daoud, one of the main planners of the Munich massacre, said in interviews before the release of the movie Munich that "I returned to Ramallah in 1995, and Israel
Israel
knew that I was the planner of the Munich operation."[71] The leader of Black September, Abu Iyad, was also not killed by Israel, although he was assassinated in 1991 in Tunis
Tunis
by the Abu Nidal
Abu Nidal
Organization.[72] Former Mossad
Mossad
chief Zvi Zamir has countered this in an interview in 2006, when he said that Israel
Israel
was more interested in striking the "infrastructure of the terrorist organizations in Europe" than those directly responsible for Munich. "We had no choice but to start with preventive measures."[73] As the campaign continued, relatives of the athletes killed at Munich were kept informed. Simon Reeve writes that some felt vindicated, while others, including the wife of fencer Andre Spitzer, felt ambivalent.[74] The wife of assassinated Mossad
Mossad
agent Baruch Cohen called the operation, especially a side operation directed against those who had murdered her husband, sickening.[74] According to Ronen Bergman
Ronen Bergman
(security correspondent for the Israeli newspaper Yediot Ahronoth
Yediot Ahronoth
and expert on Mossad): "This campaign stopped most PLO
PLO
terrorism outside the borders of Israel. Did it help in any way to bring peace to the Middle East? No. Strategically it was a complete failure."[6] Former katsa Victor Ostrovsky has said that the direction Meir set Mossad
Mossad
on, namely that of focusing heavily on the people and operations of the PLO, took energy away from intelligence gathering on Israel's neighbors.[75] This led Mossad
Mossad
to miss the warning signs of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, which caught Israeli defenses by surprise. In popular culture The 1984 book Vengeance, by Canadian journalist George Jonas, tells the story of an Israeli assassination squad from the viewpoint of a self-described former Mossad
Mossad
agent and leader of the squad, Avner. Avner has since been claimed to be a pseudonym for Yuval Aviv, an Israeli who now runs a private investigation agency in New York. However, Jonas denies that Aviv was his source for Vengeance, although the book has not been independently verified beyond the fact checking Jonas says he has done.[76] Jonas points to a former Director General of the RCMP Security Service, John Starnes, who he says believes his source's essential story.[76] In spite of this, Mossad's director at the time of the operation, Zvi Zamir, has stated that he never knew Aviv.[77] Several former Mossad
Mossad
officers who took part in Operation "Wrath of God" have also told British journalists that Yuval Aviv's version of events is not accurate.[78] After its 1984 publication the book was listed on the fiction and non-fiction bestseller lists in Britain.[76] Since its release, two films have been based on Vengeance. In 1986, Michael Anderson directed the HBO
HBO
film Sword of Gideon. Steven Spielberg released a second movie based on the account in December 2005 entitled Munich. Both movies use Yuval Aviv's pseudonym "Avner" and take a certain amount of artistic license with his account. See also

Counter-terrorism Dahiya doctrine Israeli targeted killings Lillehammer
Lillehammer
affair List of Israeli assassinations Moral equivalence Operation Nemesis, conducted by Armenians
Armenians
in the 1920s in response to the Armenian Genocide. Samson Option Selective assassination Special
Special
Activities Division Targeted killing

Notes

^ Reeve states that intelligence sources put the number at 20 (Reeve, 162), while Ostrovsky puts it at 35 (Ostrovsky, 179).

References

^ Munich: Operation Bayonet, BBC, January 16, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2006. ^ Reeve, 152–4. ^ Reeve, 158. ^ a b Morris, 381. ^ a b c Countering Terrorism: The Israeli Response To The 1972 Munich Olympic Massacre And The Development Of Independence Covert Action Teams, M.A. thesis by Alexander B. Calahan at Marine Corps Command and Staff College, 1995. ^ a b Quoted by Britain's Channel 4. Channel4.com. Retrieved on May 8, 2012. ^ Reeve, 161. ^ Reeve, 162. ^ Ostrovsky, 179. ^ a b We know where you live Sydney Morning Herald
Sydney Morning Herald
January 14, 2006 ^ Klein, 107 & 203. ^ Klein, 133 ^ "Fatal Error", Time, August 6, 1973. Retrieved June 23, 2006. ^ a b "Olympics Massacre: Munich - The real story". The Independent. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ Nasr, Kameel B. Arab and Israeli Terrorism: The Causes and Effects of Political Violence, 1936–1993. McFarland & Company, 1996. ISBN 0-7864-0280-6 p. 68 ^ Reeve, 165. ^ Tauriac, Michel (8 December 1972). "Attentat représentant OLP à Paris". ina.fr. Office national de radiodiffusion télévision française. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ Fleurot, Grégoire (15 January 2013). "La France, théâtre historique des assassinats politiques". Slate. Retrieved 1 July 2015.  ^ Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad.  ^ Reeve, 168. ^ a b Reeve, 169. ^ Operation Spring of Youth. Jewishvirtuallibrary.org (April 9, 1973). Retrieved on May 8, 2012. ^ Reeve, 184. ^ Reeve, 185. ^ a b c d e f g h Chapter 2: Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem Archived March 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Palestine-encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on May 8, 2012. ^ "Palestinian Shot Dead By Gunmen in Athens". August 21, 1983 – via NYTimes.com.  ^ הודעת שגיאה – דף הבית. ynet (June 20, 1995). Retrieved on May 8, 2012. ^ Klein, 219. ^ Ostrovsky, 206. ^ a b Hunter, Thomas B. – Wrath of God: The Israeli Response to the 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre ^ "1st Fem Assassin". Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ "Spycraft Myra Panache Report". Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ Reeve, 199. ^ Black, 276–7. ^ Reeve, 203. ^ Chapter 8: Encyclopedia of the Palestine Problem Archived September 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Palestine-encyclopedia.com. Retrieved on May 8, 2012. ^ a b "Death of a Terrorist", Time, February 5, 1979. Retrieved June 19, 2006. Archived November 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Greenfeter, Yael (4 November 2010). " Israel
Israel
in shock as Munich killers freed". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 July 2013.  ^ Reeve, 188. ^ a b Beyer, Lisa. "The Myths and Reality of Munich", Time, December 12, 2005. Retrieved June 20, 2006. ^ One Day in September. dir. Kevin MacDonald, Sony Pictures presents an Arthur Cohn production, 1999, video recording. ^ [OLYMPICS; A 23-Year-Old Would Still Healing] - The New York Times (7 August 2004) ^ a b Ostrovsky, 180. ^ Klein, 116. ^ Reeve, 167. ^ Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad. p. 578.  ^ Ayoob, Mohammed. The Middle East in World Politics (1981), page 90 ^ Reeve, 215. ^ Reeve, 212 ^ Wolff, Alexander. "Striking Back" (August 26, 2002). Sports Illustrated. Retrieved June 20, 2006.  ^ MacKinnon, Ian. "Spielberg's take on Olympics massacre called into question", December 12, 2005. Retrieved June 20, 2006. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Retrieved August 18, 2006. Archived December 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. ^ And Now, Mail-a-Death, Time, October 2, 1972. Accessed September 5, 2006. ^ Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad. p. 217.  ^ Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad. p. 220.  ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Retrieved August 18, 2006. Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Thomas, Gordon. Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad. p. 220–221.  ^ Burleigh, Michael: Blood and Rage: A Cultural History of Terrorism[page needed] ^ Reeve, 171–3. ^ Reeve, p. 186 ^ Reeve, 173–4. ^ Richardson, USMC Major Rodney C. Yom Kippur War: Grand Deception Or Intelligence Blunder, 1991. ^ Ostrovsky, 205. ^ "Was Alon Killed Because He 'Knew Too Much?' - Defense/Security - News - Arutz Sheva". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved December 16, 2014.  ^ Assassination in Khartoum. David A. Korn. pg 49 ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base. Retrieved August 18, 2006. Archived March 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Klein, 170. ^ a b Klein, 169. ^ Reeve, 208. ^ "Deadly Battle of the Spooks", Time, February 12, 1973. Retrieved September 19, 2006.[dead link] ^ "Munich operation 'mastermind' gives his account" Archived September 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., Monsters and Critics News, February 16, 2006. Accessed September 5, 2006. ^ In the Spotlight: Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) Archived September 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., Center for Defense Information Terrorism Project, October 9, 2002. Accessed September 5, 2006. ^ Melman, Yossi. "Preventive Measures Archived October 1, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.", Haaretz, February 17, 2006. Retrieved September 18, 2006. ^ a b Reeve, 186. ^ Ostrovsky, 197. ^ a b c Jonas, George. "The Spielberg massacre", Maclean's, January 7, 2006. Retrieved August 19, 2006. ^ Melman, Yossi. "Spielberg could be on the wrong track ", Haaretz, July 6, 2005. Retrieved June 20, 2006. ^ Black, Ian and MacAskil, Ewen. "Munich: Mossad
Mossad
breaks cover", The Guardian, January 26, 2006. Retrieved June 20, 2006.

Further reading

Black, Ian; Morris, Benny (1991). Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services. New York: Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-1159-9.  Klein, Aaron J. (2005). Striking Back: The 1972 Munich Olympics Massacre and Israel's Deadly Response. New York: Random House, Inc. ISBN 1-4000-6427-9.  Morris, Benny (1999). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict 1881–1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-679-42120-3.  Ostrovsky, Victor (1990). By Way of Deception: The making and unmaking of a Mossad
Mossad
Officer. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-9717595-0-2.  Reeve, Simon (2000). One Day in September. New York: Arcade Publishing. ISBN 1-55970-547-7. 

External links

Munich: Operation Bayonet 2006 DVD

v t e

Israeli–Palestinian conflict

Participants

Israel

Israel
Israel
Defense Forces Israel
Israel
Police Mossad Shabak (Shin Bet)

Palestinians

Principals

All-Palestine Protectorate Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) Fatah Hamas Palestinian National Authority

Other groups

al-Aqsa Brigades DFLP PLF PIJ PPSF PFLP PFLP-GC PRC

Third-party groups

Arab League Hezbollah

Individuals

Israelis

Moshe Arens Ami Ayalon Ehud Barak Menachem Begin Meir Dagan Moshe Dayan Avi Dichter Yuval Diskin David Ben-Gurion Efraim Halevy Dan Halutz Tzipi Livni Golda Meir Shaul Mofaz Yitzhak Mordechai Benjamin Netanyahu Ehud Olmert Shimon Peres Yaakov Peri Yitzhak Rabin Amnon Lipkin-Shahak Yitzhak Shamir Ariel Sharon Shabtai Shavit Moshe Ya'alon Danny Yatom Zvi Zamir

Palestinians

Abu Abbas Mahmoud Abbas Moussa Arafat Yasser Arafat Yahya Ayyash Marwan Barghouti Mohammed Dahlan Mohammed Deif George Habash Wadie Haddad Ismail Haniyeh Nayef Hawatmeh Amin al-Husayni Ghazi Jabali Ahmed Jibril Abu Jihad Salah Khalaf Leila Khaled Sheikh Khalil Khaled Mashal Zuheir Mohsen Abu Ali Mustafa Abu Nidal Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Jibril Rajoub Abdel Aziz al-Rantisi Ali Hassan Salameh Salah Shehade Ramadan Shalah Fathi Shaqaqi Ahlam Tamimi Ahmed Yassin

Timeline

Background

1920–1948

1920

Nebi Musa riots Battle of Tel Hai

1921 Jaffa riots 1929 Palestine riots

Hebron massacre Safed massacre

1936–39 Arab revolt 1944–47 Jewish insurgency 1947–48 Civil War

 

1948–1970

1948 Arab–Israeli War

massacres

1948–present Fedayeen insurgency

1951–1967 Attacks against Israeli civilians 1950s–1960s IDF reprisal operations

1953 Qibya massacre 1956 Kafr Qasim / Khan Yunis / Rafah massacres 1967 Six-Day War 1967–70 War of Attrition

1968 Battle of Karameh

Palestinian insurgency

1968–1982

1970 Avivim school bus massacre 1972 Sabena Flight 571 / Munich massacre / Operation "Wrath of God" (1973  Lillehammer
Lillehammer
affair) 1974 Kiryat Shmona massacre / Ma'alot massacre 1975 Savoy Hotel attack 1976 Operation "Entebbe" 1978 Coastal Road massacre / South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

 

1973–1987

1973 Yom Kippur War 1975 Zion Square bombing 1982  Lebanon
Lebanon
War

Siege of Beirut

1984 Bus 300 affair 1985 Achille Lauro hijacking / Operation "Wooden Leg" 1987 Night of the Gliders

First Intifada

1987–1991

1988  Tunis
Tunis
Raid 1989 Bus 405 attack 1990 Temple Mount riots 1990s Palestinian suicide attacks 1994 Cave of the Patriarchs massacre

Second Intifada

2000–2005

Palestinian rocket attacks

list

Palestinian suicide attacks Israeli assassinations 2000 October events 2001 Santorini 2002 Karine A / Operation "Defensive Shield" / Battle of Jenin / Battle of Nablus / Operation "Determined Path" 2003 Abu Hasan / Ain es Saheb airstrike 2004 Operation "Rainbow" / Beit Hanoun raid / Operation "Days of Penitence"

 

2006–present

2006 Operation "Bringing Home the Goods" 2008 Mercaz HaRav / Jerusalem bulldozer attack 2009 Temple Mount riots 2010 Palestinian militancy campaign 2015  Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
(2015–2016) 2017 Temple Mount crisis

Gaza–Israel conflict

2006–present

2006 Gaza beach explosion / Gaza cross-border raid / Operation "Summer Rains" / Operation "Autumn Clouds" / Beit Hanoun shelling 2008 Gaza– Egypt
Egypt
border breach / Operation "Hot Winter" 2008–09 Gaza War 2010 Gaza flotilla raid 2012 Operation "Returning Echo" / Operation "Pillar of Defense" 2014 Operation "Protective Edge" 2015 Freedom Flotilla III 2018 Land Day incidents

Diplomacy

Timeline

1948–1991

1948 Palestinian exodus

depopulated Arab settlements

1949 Lausanne Conference 1967–present Israeli settlement

settler violence international law

1990s

1991  Madrid
Madrid
Conference 1993/95 Oslo Accords 1994  Protocol on Economic Relations (Paris Protocol) 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement 1994–present US security assistance to PNA 1997 Hebron Agreement 1998 Wye River Memorandum 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum

2000s

2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters 2001 Taba Summit 2002 Quartet established 2003 Road Map 2005 Israeli disengagement from Gaza 2005 Agreement on Movement and Access 2006 Valley of Peace initiative 2007 Annapolis Conference 2009 Aftonbladet Israel
Israel
controversy

2010s

2010–11 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks 2011 Palestine Papers 2013–14 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks

United Nations

1947 UN Resolution 181 1948 UN Resolution 194 1967 UN Resolution 242

v t e

Arab–Israeli conflict

v t e

Countries Authorities Organizations

Primary countries and authorities

All-Palestine Egypt Hamas
Hamas
Gaza Iraq Kuwait Israel Jordan Lebanon Pakistan Palestinian National Authority Saudi Arabia Syria

Organizations

Active

Abu Nidal
Abu Nidal
Organization Amal al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades Syrian Social Nationalist Party Arab League Arab Liberation Front Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine Fatah Guardians of the Cedars Hamas Hezbollah Jaish al-Islam Kataeb Lebanese Forces al-Mourabitoun Muslim Brotherhood Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestine Liberation Front Palestine Liberation Organization Palestinian Popular Struggle Front Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
– General Command Popular Resistance Committees as-Sa'iqa

Inactive or former

Arab Higher Committee Arab Liberation Army Black Hand Black September Haganah Holy War Army Irgun
Irgun
(Etzel) Japanese Red Army Lehi Palmach Revolutionary Cells South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army

Other countries

Algeria China Cuba France Iran Kuwait Libya Morocco North Korea Norway Pakistan Russia Sudan Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Venezuela Yemen

Transnational

European Union United Nations

Former states

Mandatory Palestine Soviet Union United Arab Republic

v t e

Armed engagements

Background

1920 Battle of Tel Hai 1936–39 Arab revolt 1944 Operation ATLAS 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

1948–1950s

1948–49 Arab–Israeli War 1950s Palestinian Fedayeen attacks (Reprisal operations) 1956 Suez Crisis

1960s

1966 Operation Shredder 1967 Six-Day War 1967–70 War of Attrition

1968 Battle of Karameh

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1968 Operation Gift

1970s–1980

1973 Yom Kippur War

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1972 Operation Isotope / Lod Airport massacre / Munich Olympics massacre 1972–79  Operation Wrath of God (Airstrike, Spring of Youth) 1973 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 1974 Ma'alot massacre 1975 Savoy Operation 1976 Operation Entebbe 1978 Coastal Road massacre / Operation Litani 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

1980s

1981 Operation Opera 1982  Lebanon
Lebanon
War 1982–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 1984 Bus 300 affair 1985 Operation Wooden Leg 1987–93 First Intifada

1988 Mothers' Bus rescue / Tunis
Tunis
raid

1990s

1992 Operation Bramble Bush 1993–2008 Palestinian suicide attacks 1993 Operation Accountability 1996 Operation Grapes of Wrath

2000s

2000–05 Al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) 2000–06 Shebaa Farms conflict 2001–present Rocket and mortar attacks on southern Israel 2003 Ain es Saheb airstrike 2006 Operation Bringing Home the Goods / Operation Summer Rains / Operation Autumn Clouds / Lebanon
Lebanon
War 2006–present Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2007–08 Operation Hot Winter 2008–09 Gaza War

2007–present Lebanese rocket attacks

2010s

2010 Adaisseh skirmish / Palestinian militancy campaign Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2011 Southern Israel
Israel
cross-border attacks 2012 Operation Returning Echo / Operation Pillar of Defense 2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict 2015  Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
(2015–2016)

v t e

Diplomacy and peace proposals

To 1948

1914 Damascus Protocol 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement 1917 Balfour Declaration 1918 Declaration to the Seven / Anglo-French Declaration 1919 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement 1920 San Remo conference 1922 Churchill White Paper 1937 Peel Commission 1939 White Paper 1947 UN Partition Plan 1948 American trusteeship proposal

1948–91

1948 UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 194 1949 Armistice agreements / Lausanne Conference 1950  Tripartite Declaration 1964 Palestinian National Covenant 1967  Khartoum
Khartoum
Resolution / UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 242 1973 UNSC Resolution 338 / UNSC Resolution 339 1974 Israel– Syria
Syria
disengagement agreement / UNSC Resolution 350 1978 UNSC Resolution 425 / Camp David Accords 1979 UNSC Resolution 446 / Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty / UNSC Resolution 452 1980 UNSC Resolution 478 1981 UNSC Resolution 497 1983 Israel– Lebanon
Lebanon
agreement

1991–present

1991  Madrid
Madrid
Conference 1993 Oslo Accords 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement / Israel– Jordan
Jordan
peace treaty 1995 Beilin-Abu Mazen agreement 1998 Wye River Memorandum 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum 2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters 2001 Taba Summit 2002  Beirut
Beirut
Summit and peace initiative / Road map 2003 Geneva Initiative 2004 UNSC Resolution 1559 / UNSC Resolution 1566 2005 UNSC Resolution 1583 / Sharm el-Sheikh Summit / Israeli disengagement from Gaza / Agreement on Movement and Access 2006 UNSC Resolution 1701 2007 Annapolis Conference 2010 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks 2013 Israeli–Pales

.