Denmark and Norway
Commanders and leaders
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
Hans Ferdinand Geisler
Carl Gustav Fleischer
William Wain Prior
Adrian Carton de Wiart
Charles Tolver Paget
Pierse Joseph Mackesy
1 artillery battalion
1 motorized rifle brigade
Norway: 6 divisions: ~60,000
Denmark: 2 divisions: ~14,500
Casualties and losses
1 heavy cruiser
2 light cruisers
various U-boats, transports and smaller warships
Luftwaffe: 1,130 air crew
5,636 KIA or MIA
Royal Norwegian Navy & Army:
26 KIA and 23 WIA
Nordic countries in World War II
Military history of
Finland during World War II
Denmark in World War II
Sweden in World War II
German invasion of
Norway in World War II
Occupation of Norway
Occupation of the Faroe Islands
Invasion of Iceland
Occupation of Iceland
Greenland in World War II
Iceland in World War II
Transit of German troops through
Finland and Sweden
Lofoten Islands campaign
Raids on Spitsbergen
German battleship Tirpitz
Norwegian heavy water sabotage
Swedish iron-ore mining during World War II
Operation Silver Fox
Raid on Kirkenes and Petsamo
Liberation of Finnmark
Danish resistance movement
Rescue of the Danish Jews
Norwegian resistance movement
Nazi concentration camps in Norway
German occupation of Norway
Norwegian heavy water sabotage
Liberation of Finnmark
Campaigns of World War II
Denmark & Norway
France & Benelux
Western Front (1944–45)
South West Pacific
Mediterranean and Middle East
Horn of Africa
French West Africa
Chinese Civil War
USSR–Japan Border Wars
Operation Weserübung (German: [ˈveːsɐˌʔyːbʊŋ]) was the code
name for Germany's assault on
Norway during the Second
World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign. The
name comes from the German for Operation Weser-Exercise (Unternehmen
Weserübung), the Weser being a German river.
In the early morning of 9 April 1940 (Wesertag; "Weser Day"), Germany
Denmark and Norway, ostensibly as a preventive manoeuvre
against a planned, and openly discussed, Franco-British occupation of
Norway. After the invasions, envoys of the Germans informed the
Norway that the
Wehrmacht had come to
protect the countries' neutrality against Franco-British aggression.
Significant differences in geography, location and climate between the
two countries made the actual military operations very dissimilar.
The invasion fleet's nominal landing time—Weserzeit ("Weser
Time")—was set to 05:15.
1 Political and military background
2 Invasion of Denmark
3 Invasion of Norway
3.1 Order of battle
3.2 Concise timeline
4 Encircling of
Sweden and Finland
5 Nuremberg Trials
6 See also
10 External links
Political and military background
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Main articles: Swedish iron ore during World War II, Plan R 4,
Operation Wilfred, and Franco–British plans for intervention in the
Starting in the spring of 1939, the British
Admiralty began to view
Scandinavia as a potential theatre of war in a future conflict with
Germany. The British government was reluctant to engage in another
land conflict on the continent that they believed would be a
repetition of the First World War. So they began considering a
blockade strategy in an attempt to weaken Germany indirectly. German
industry was heavily dependent on the import of iron ore from the
northern Swedish mining district, and much of this ore was shipped
through the northern Norwegian port of
Narvik during the winter
months. Control of the Norwegian coast would also serve to tighten
a blockade against Germany.
In October 1939, the chief of the German Kriegsmarine—Grand Admiral
Erich Raeder—discussed with
Adolf Hitler the danger posed by the
risk of having potential British bases in
Norway and the possibility
of Germany seizing these bases before the
United Kingdom could. The
navy argued that possession of
Norway would allow control of the
nearby seas and serve as a staging base for future submarine
operations against the United Kingdom. But at this time, the other
branches of the
Wehrmacht were not interested, and Hitler had just
issued a directive stating that the main effort would be a land
offensive through the Low Countries.
Toward the end of November, Winston Churchill—as a new member of the
British War Cabinet—proposed the mining of Norwegian waters in
Operation Wilfred. This would force the ore transports to travel
through the open waters of the North Sea, where the
Royal Navy could
intercept them. Churchill assumed that Wilfred would provoke a German
response in Norway. When that occurred, the Allies would implement
Plan R 4
Plan R 4 and occupy Norway. Though later implemented, Operation
Wilfred was initially rejected by
Neville Chamberlain and Lord
Halifax, due to fear of an adverse reaction among neutral nations such
as the United States. After the start of the
Winter War between the
Soviet Union and
Finland in November had changed the diplomatic
situation, Churchill again proposed his mining scheme, but once more
In December, the
United Kingdom and
France began serious planning for
sending aid to Finland. Their plan called for a force to land at
Narvik in northern Norway, the main port for Swedish iron ore exports,
and to take control of the
Malmbanan railway line from
Sweden on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia. Conveniently,
this plan would also allow the Allied forces to occupy the Swedish
iron ore mining district. The plan received the support of both
Chamberlain and Halifax. They were counting on the cooperation of
Norway, which would alleviate some of the legal issues, but stern
warnings[by whom?] issued to both
Sweden resulted in
strongly negative reactions in both countries. Planning for the
expedition continued, but the justification for it was removed when
Finland sued for peace with the
Soviet Union in March 1940.
Following a meeting with
Vidkun Quisling from
Norway on 14
December, Hitler turned his attention to Scandinavia. Convinced of
the threat posed by the Allies to the iron ore supply, Hitler ordered
Wehrmacht (Armed Forces High Command; OKW) to begin
preliminary planning for an invasion of Norway. The preliminary plan
was named Studie Nord and called for only one army division.
Between 14 and 19 January, the
Kriegsmarine developed an expanded
version of this plan. They decided upon two key factors: that surprise
was essential to reduce the threat of Norwegian resistance (and
British intervention); the second to use faster German warships,
rather than comparatively slow merchant ships, as troop transports.
This would allow all targets to be occupied simultaneously, impossible
if transport ships, which travelled only at slow speeds, were used.
This new plan called for a full army corps, including a mountain
division, an airborne division, a motorized rifle brigade, and two
infantry divisions. The target objectives of this force were the
Oslo and nearby population centres, Bergen, Narvik,
Tromsø, Trondheim, Kristiansand, and Stavanger. The plan also called
for the rapid capture of the kings of
Norway in the hopes
that would trigger a rapid surrender.
On 21 February 1940, command of the operation was given to General
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst. He had fought in
Finland during the First
World War and was familiar with Arctic warfare. But he was to have
command only of the ground forces, despite Hitler's desire to have a
The final plan was code-named
Operation Weserübung ("Exercise on the
Weser") on 27 January 1940. The ground forces would be the XXI Army
Corps, including the 3rd Mountain Division and five infantry
divisions, none of the latter having yet been tested in battle. The
initial echelon would consist of three divisions for the assault, with
the remainder to follow in the next wave. Three companies of
paratroopers would be used to seize airfields. The decision to also
send the 2nd Mountain Division was made later.
U-boat operations in the Atlantic were to be stopped in
order for the submarines to aid in the operation. Every available
submarine—including some training boats—were used as part of
Operation Hartmut in support of Weserübung.
Initially, the plan was to invade
Norway and to gain control of Danish
airfields by diplomatic means. But Hitler issued a new directive on 1
March that called for the invasion of both
Norway and Denmark. This
came at the insistence of the
Luftwaffe to capture fighter bases and
sites for air-warning stations. The XXXI
Corps was formed for the
invasion of Denmark, consisting of two infantry divisions and the 11th
motorized brigade. The entire operation would be supported by the X
Air Corps, consisting of some 1,000 aircraft of various types.
German dead being brought ashore from the German naval tanker Altmark.
The heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper landing troops in
Norway in 1940.
In February, the British destroyer HMS Cossack boarded the German
transport ship Altmark while in Norwegian waters, thereby violating
Norwegian neutrality, rescuing POWs held also in violation of
Norwegian neutrality (the Altmark was obliged to release them as soon
as she entered neutral territory). Hitler regarded this as a clear
sign that the UK was willing to violate Norwegian neutrality, and so
became even more strongly committed to the invasion.
On 12 March, the
United Kingdom decided to send an expeditionary force
Norway just as the
Winter War was winding down. The expeditionary
force began boarding on 13 March, but it was recalled—and the
operation cancelled—with the end of the Winter War. Instead, the
British cabinet voted to proceed with the mining operation in
Norwegian waters, followed by troop landings.
The first German ships set sail for the invasion on 3 April. Two days
later, the long-planned
Operation Wilfred was put into action, and the
Royal Navy detachment—led by the battlecruiser
Scapa Flow in order to mine Norwegian waters.
The mine fields were laid in the Vestfjorden in the early morning of 8
Operation Wilfred was over, but later that day, the destroyer
HMS Glowworm—detached on 7 April to search for a man lost
overboard—was lost in action to the German heavy cruiser Admiral
Hipper and two destroyers belonging to the German invasion fleet.
On 9 April, the German invasion was under way and the execution of
Plan R 4
Plan R 4 was promptly started.
Invasion of Denmark
Main article: German invasion of
German Pz.Kpfw. I tanks in Aabenraa, Denmark, 9 April 1940
Leichter Panzerspähwagen armoured car in Jutland.
Strategically, Denmark's importance to Germany was as a staging area
for operations in Norway, and of course as a border nation to Germany
which would have to be controlled in some way. Given Denmark's
position in relation to the
Baltic Sea the country was also important
for the control of naval and shipping access to major German and
At 04:00 on 9 April 1940, the German ambassador to Denmark—Cecil von
Renthe-Fink—called the Danish Foreign Minister Peter Munch and
requested a meeting with him. When the two men met 20 minutes
later, Renthe-Fink declared that German troops were at that moment
moving in to occupy
Denmark to protect the country from Franco-British
attack. The German ambassador demanded that Danish resistance cease
immediately and contact be made between Danish authorities and the
German armed forces. If the demands were not met, the
bomb the capital, Copenhagen.
As the German demands were communicated, the first German advances had
already been made, with forces landing by ferry in
Gedser at 03:55 and
moving north. German
Fallschirmjäger units had made unopposed
landings and taken two airfields at Aalborg, the
Storstrøm Bridge as
well as the fortress of Masnedø, the latter being the first recorded
attack in the world made by paratroopers.
At 04:20 local time, a reinforced battalion of German infantrymen from
the 308th Regiment landed in
Copenhagen harbour from the minelayer
Hansestadt Danzig, quickly capturing the Danish garrison at the
Citadel without encountering resistance. From the harbour, the Germans
Amalienborg Palace to capture the Danish royal family. By
the time the invasion forces arrived at the king's residence, the
King's Royal Guard had been alerted and other reinforcements were on
their way to the palace. The first German attack on Amalienborg was
repulsed, giving Christian X and his ministers time to confer with the
Danish Army chief General Prior. As the discussions were ongoing,
several formations of Heinkel He 111 and
Dornier Do 17
Dornier Do 17 bombers roared
over the city dropping
Danish troops at Bredevad on the morning of the German attack. Two of
these soldiers were killed in action later that day.
At 05:25, two squadrons of German Bf 110s attacked
on Zealand and neutralised the Danish Army Air Service by
strafing.[page needed] Despite Danish anti-aircraft fire, the
German fighters destroyed ten Danish aircraft and seriously damaged
another fourteen, thereby wiping out half of the entire Army Air
Faced with the explicit threat of the
Luftwaffe bombing the civilian
population of Copenhagen, and only General Prior in favour of
continuing to fight, the King Christian X and the entire Danish
government capitulated at approximately 06:00 in exchange for
retaining political independence in domestic matters.
The invasion of
Denmark lasted less than six hours and was the
shortest military campaign conducted by the Germans during the war.
The rapid Danish capitulation resulted in the uniquely lenient
occupation of Denmark, particularly until the summer of 1943, and in
postponing the arrest and deportation of Danish Jews until nearly all
of them were warned and on their way to refuge in Sweden. In the
end, 477 Danish Jews were deported, and 70 of them lost their lives,
out of a pre-war total of Jews and half-Jews at a little over
Invasion of Norway
Main article: Norwegian Campaign
Order of battle
Operation Weserübung Order of Battle
Norway and World War II
Martial law in
Heavy water sabotage
Liberation of Finnmark
Crown Prince Olav
C. J. Hambro
Carl Gustav Fleischer
Jens Christian Hauge
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
The operation's military headquarters was Hotel Esplanade in Hamburg,
where orders were given to, among others, the air units involved in
Norway was important to Germany for two primary reasons: as a base for
naval units, including U-boats, to harass Allied shipping in the North
Atlantic, and to secure shipments of iron-ore from
Sweden through the
port of Narvik. The long northern coastline was an excellent place
U-boat operations into the North Atlantic in order to attack
British commerce. Germany was dependent on iron ore from
was worried, with justification, that the Allies would attempt to
disrupt those shipments, 90% of which originated from Narvik.
The invasion of
Norway was given to the XXI Army
Corps under General
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst
Nikolaus von Falkenhorst and consisted of the following main units:
69th Infantry Division
163rd Infantry Division
181st Infantry Division
196th Infantry Division
214th Infantry Division
3rd Mountain Division
The initial invasion force was transported in several groups by ships
of the Kriegsmarine:
Battleships Scharnhorst and Gneisenau as distant cover, plus 10
destroyers with 2,000 mountaineering troops under General Eduard Dietl
Heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper and four destroyers with 1,700 troops to
Light cruisers Köln and Königsberg, artillery training ship Bremse,
Schnellboot mothership Karl Peters, two torpedo boats and five motor
torpedo boats with 1,900 troops to Bergen;
Light cruiser Karlsruhe, three torpedo boats, seven motor torpedo
Schnellboot mothership (Schnellbootbegleitschiff) Tsingtau
with 1,100 troops to
Kristiansand and Arendal;
Heavy cruiser Blücher, heavy cruiser Lützow, light cruiser Emden,
three torpedo boats and eight minesweepers with 2,000 troops to Oslo;
Four minesweepers with 150 troops to Egersund.
The German landing sites during the initial phase of Operation
Oslofjord with Oscarsborg
Shortly after noon on 8 April, the clandestine German troop transport
Rio de Janeiro was sunk off
Lillesand by the Polish submarine Orzeł,
part of the Royal Navy's 2nd Submarine Flotilla. However, the news of
the sinking reached the appropriate levels of officialdom in
late to do much more than trigger a limited, last-minute alert.
Late in the evening of 8 April 1940,
Kampfgruppe 5 was spotted by the
Norwegian guard vessel Pol III. Pol III was fired at; her captain Leif
Welding-Olsen became the first Norwegian killed in action during the
German ships sailed up the
Oslofjord leading to the Norwegian capital,
Drøbak Narrows (Drøbaksundet). In the early morning of
9 April, the gunners at
Oscarsborg Fortress fired on the leading ship,
Blücher, which had been illuminated by spotlights at about 04:15. Two
of the guns used were the 48-year-old German
Krupp guns (nicknamed
Moses and Aron) of 280 mm (11 in) calibre. Within two hours,
the badly damaged ship, unable to manoeuvre in the narrow fjord from
multiple artillery and torpedo hits, sank with very heavy loss of life
totalling 600–1,000 men. The now obvious threat from the fortress
(and the mistaken belief that mines had contributed to the sinking)
delayed the rest of the naval invasion group long enough for the Royal
Cabinet Nygaardsvold and the Parliament to be evacuated,
along with the national treasury. On their flight northward by special
train, the court encountered the
Battle of Midtskogen
Battle of Midtskogen and bombs at
Elverum and Nybergsund. As the legitimate government and royal family
were not captured,
Norway never surrendered to the Germans, leaving
the Quisling government illegitimate and having
as an Ally in the war, rather than as a conquered nation.
German airborne troops landed at
Oslo airport Fornebu, Kristiansand
airport Kjevik, and
Sola Air Station
Sola Air Station – the latter constituting the
first opposed paratrooper (Fallschirmjäger) attack in history;
coincidentally, among the
Luftwaffe pilots landing at Kjevik was
Vidkun Quisling's radio-effected coup d'etat at 7.30pm on 9 April
– another first.
Cities/towns Bergen, Stavanger, Egersund,
Kristiansand S, Arendal,
Narvik attacked and occupied within
Heroic, but wholly ineffective, stand by the Norwegian armoured
coastal defence ships Norge and Eidsvold at Narvik. Both ships
torpedoed and sunk with great loss of life.
First Battle of
Royal Navy vs Kriegsmarine) on 9 April.
The German force took
Narvik and landed the 2,000 mountain infantry,
but a British naval counter-attack by the modernised battleship
HMS Warspite and a flotilla of destroyers over several days
succeeded in sinking all ten German destroyers once they ran out of
fuel and ammunition.
Devastating bombing of towns Nybergsund, Elverum, Åndalsnes, Molde,
Kristiansund N, Steinkjer, Namsos, Bodø,
Narvik – some of them
tactically bombed, some terror-bombed.
Main German land campaign northward from
Oslo with superior equipment;
Norwegian soldiers with turn-of-the-century weapons, along with some
British and French troops (see
Namsos Campaign), stop invaders for a
time before yielding – first land combat action between British Army
Wehrmacht in World War II.
Second Naval Battle of
Royal Navy vs Kriegsmarine) on 13
Land battles at Narvik: Norwegian and Allied (French and Polish)
forces under General
Carl Gustav Fleischer
Carl Gustav Fleischer achieve the first major
tactical victory against the
Wehrmacht in WWII, and the following
withdrawal of the Allied forces (mentioned below); Fighting at
With the evacuation of the King and the
Cabinet Nygaardsvold from
Tromsø on 29 April, and the allied evacuation of Åndalsnes
on 1 May, resistance in Southern
Norway comes to an end.
The "last stand":
Hegra Fortress (Ingstadkleiven Fort) resisted German
attacks until 5 May – of Allied propaganda importance, like
King Haakon, Crown Prince Olav, and the
Cabinet Nygaardsvold left from
Tromsø 7 June (aboard the British cruiser HMS Devonshire, bound
for Britain) to represent
Norway in exile (King returned to
same date five years later); Crown Princess Märtha and children,
denied asylum in her native Sweden, later left from
Petsamo, Finland, to live in exile in the United States.
The Norwegian Army in mainland
Norway capitulated (though the Royal
Norwegian Navy and other armed forces continued fighting the Germans
abroad and at home until the German capitulation on 8 May 1945) on 10
June 1940, two months after Wesertag, this made
Norway the occupied
country which had withstood a German invasion for the longest time
In the far north, Norwegian, French and Polish troops—supported by
Royal Navy and the
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force (RAF)—fought against the
Germans over the control of the Norwegian harbour Narvik, important
for the year-round export of Swedish iron ore (The Swedish harbour of
Luleå is blocked by ice in the winter months). The Germans were
driven out of
Narvik on 28 May, but due to the deteriorating situation
on the European continent, the Allied troops were withdrawn in
Operation Alphabet – and the Germans recaptured
Narvik on 9 June, by
then deserted also by the civilians due to massive
Sweden and Finland
Iron ore is extracted in
Kiruna and Malmberget, and brought by rail to
the harbours of
Luleå and Narvik.
(Borders as of 1920–1940.)
Operation Weserübung did not include a military assault on (likewise
Sweden because there was no need. By holding
Danish straits and most of the shores of the Baltic Sea,
Third Reich encircled
Sweden from the north, west and south –
and in the East, there was the Soviet Union, the successor of Sweden's
and Finland's arch-enemy Russia, on friendly terms with Hitler under
the terms of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. A small number of Finnish
volunteers helped the Norwegian Army against Germans in an ambulance
Sweden's and Finland's trade was totally controlled by the
Kriegsmarine. As a consequence, Germany put pressure on neutral Sweden
to permit transit of military goods and soldiers on leave. On 18 June
1940, an agreement was reached. Soldiers were to travel unarmed and
not be part of unit movements. A total of 2.14 million German
soldiers, and more than 100,000 German military railway carriages,
Sweden until this traffic was officially suspended on 20
On 19 August 1940,
Finland agreed to grant access to its territory for
the Wehrmacht, with the agreement signed on 22 September. Initially
for transit of troops and military equipment to and from northernmost
Norway, but soon also for minor bases along the transit road that
eventually would grow in the preparation for Operation Barbarossa.
The 1941 Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, and the 1940 German invasion
Norway have been argued to be preemptive, with the German defense
Nuremberg trials in 1946 arguing that Germany was "compelled to
Norway by the need to forestall an Allied invasion and that her
action was therefore preemptive." The German defence was to
attempt to refer to
Plan R 4
Plan R 4 and its predecessors. However it was
determined that Germany had discussed invasion plans as early as 3
October 1939 when in a memo from
Admiral Raeder to Alfred Rosenberg
whose subject was "gaining bases in Norway." had begun by asking
questions such as "Can bases be gained by military force against
Norway's will, if it is impossible to carry this out without
Norway was vital to Germany as a transport route for
iron ore from Sweden, a supply that the
United Kingdom was determined
to stop. One British plan was to go through
Norway and occupy cities
in Sweden.[a][b] An Allied invasion was ordered on 12 March, and the
Germans intercepted radio traffic setting 14 March as deadline for the
preparation. Peace in
Finland interrupted the Allied plans.[c] Two
diary entries by
Jodl dated 13 and 14 March did not indicate any high
level awareness of the Allied plan although they do show that Hitler
was actively considering putting
Operation Weserübung into operation:
The first said "Fuehrer does not give order yet for 'Weser Exercise'.
He is still looking for an excuse." and the second "Fuehrer has
not yet decided what reason to give for Weser Exercise." It was
not till 2 April 1940 that German preparations were completed and the
Naval Operational Order for Weserübung was issued on 4 April 1940.
The new Allied plans were Wilfred and Plan R 4. The plan was to
provoke a German reaction by laying mines in Norwegian waters, and
once Germany showed signs of taking action UK troops would occupy
Narvik, Trondheim, and
Bergen and launch a raid on
destroy Sola airfield. However "the mines were not laid until the
morning of 8 April, by which time the German ships were advancing up
the Norwegian coast." The International Military Tribunal at
Nuremberg determined that no Allied invasion was imminent, and
therefore rejected the German argument that Germany was entitled to
Battle of Kristiansand
British occupation of the Faroe Islands
British occupation of the Faroe Islands in World War II
Kampf um Norwegen – Feldzug 1940
Kampf um Norwegen – Feldzug 1940 (1940 documentary film)
Luftwaffe Order of Battle April 1940
Norway by Nazi Germany
Operation Weserübung's effects on Sweden
Timeline of the Norwegian Campaign
a "The British plan which was adopted was more modest. While
ostensibly intended to bring Allied troops to the Finnish front, it
laid its main emphasis on operations in northern
Norway and Sweden.
The main striking force was to land at
Narvik and advance along the
railroad to its eastern terminus at Lulea, occupying
Gallivare along the way. By late April two Allied brigades were to be
established along that line."
b "The British held back two divisions from France, intending to put
them into the field in Norway, and planned to expand their force
eventually to 100,000 men. The French intended to commit about 50,000.
The British and French staffs agreed that the latter half of March
would be the best time for going into Norway."
c "The objectives were to take Narvik, the railroad, and the Swedish
ore fields","an intercepted radio message setting 14 March as the
deadline for preparation of transport groups indicated that the Allied
operation was getting under way. But another message, intercepted on
the 15th, ordering the submarines to disperse revealed that the peace
[in Finland] had disrupted the Allied plan."
^ Hooton 2007, p. 43.
^ Zabecki 2014, p. 323.
^ a b c d e Booth 1998, pp. 44-49.
^ Petrow 1974, p. 15.
^ Outze 1962, p. 359.
^ a b Schrøder 1999.
^ Danish Jewish Museum 2003.
^ Webb 2007.
^ Jacobsen, Alf R. (2016). Kongens nei - 10. april 1940 (2nd ed.).
Oslo: Vega Forlag. p. 42. ISBN 978-82-8211-279-6.
^ Petrow 1974, p. 72.
^ Petrow 1974, p. 89.
^ Petrow 1974, p. 90.
^ McDouglas 1997, pp. 211-212.
^ a b c d e Yale Law School 2008.
^ Ziemke 1960, p. 68.
^ Ziemke 1960, p. 59.
^ Ziemke 1960, pp. 66-67.
^ Ziemke 1959, pp. 67-68.
Booth, Owen (1998). The Illustrated History of World War II. London:
Chartwell Books, Inc. ISBN 978-078581-016-2.
Hooton, Edward R. (2007).
Luftwaffe at War;
Blitzkrieg in the West:
Volume 2. London: Chervron/Ian Allan.
McDouglas, Myres (1997). The International Law of War:Transnational
Coercion and World Public Order. New York: Springer.
Outze, Børge (1962). Danmark under anden verdenskrig (in Danish).
Copenhagen: Hasselbalch. ISBN 87-567-1889-6.
Petrow, Richard (1974). The Bitter Years; The Invasion and Occupation
Denmark and Norway, April 1940-May 1945. London: William Morrow
& Co. ISBN 978-068800-275-6.
Schrøder, Hans A. (1999). Angrebet på
Værløse flyveplads den 9.
april 1940 : flyveren Vagn Holms dagbog fra den 8. og 9. april
suppleret med en omfattende dokumentation (in Danish). Denmark:
Flyvevåbnets bibliotek. ISBN 87-982509-8-1.
Zabecki, David T. (2014). Germany at War: 400 Years of Military
History. London: ABC-Clio Inc. ISBN 978-1-59884-980-6.
Ziemke, Earl F. (1960). "The German Decision to Invade
Denmark". Command Decisions. United States Army Center of Military
History. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
Derry, Trevor K. (1952). "The Campaign in Norway". ibiblio.org.
Engdahl, William F. (2010). "Halford MacKinder's Necessary War".
ibiblio.org. Retrieved 2016-08-18.
Danish Jewish Museum (2003). "The Operation against Danish Jews in
October 1943". jewmus.dk. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011.
Retrieved 2016-08-19. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown
Webb, Chris (2007). "The Fate of the Jews of Denmark".
holocaustresearchproject.org. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
Yale Law School (2008). "Judgement : The Invasion of
Norway". avalon.law.yale.edu. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
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First Indochina War
Indonesian National Revolution
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany
Allied war crimes
Soviet war crimes
British war crimes
United States war crimes
German (Forced labour) /
Wehrmacht war crimes
Italian war crimes
Japanese war crimes
Croatian war crimes
against the Serbs
against the Jews
Romanian war crimes
German military brothels
Rape during the occupation of Japan
Rape of Nanking
Rape of Manila
Rape during the occupation of Germany
Rape during the liberation of France
Rape during the liberation of Poland
Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
German prisoners of war in the United States
Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Japanese prisoners of war in World War II
German mistreatment of Soviet prisoners of war
Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union
Soviet prisoners of war in Finland
Coordinates: 64°00′N 12°00′W / 64.000°N 12.000°W /