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Ireland 1960s

Battle of the Bogside/August 1969 riots

1970s

Battle of St Matthew's Falls Curfew 1970 Crossmaglen bombing Scottish soldiers' killings Operation Demetrius Ballymurphy massacre Newry killings McGurk's bombing Balmoral showroom bombing Bloody Sunday Abercorn bombing Donegall St bombing Battle at Springmartin Battle of Lenadoon Springhill massacre Bloody Friday Operation Motorman Claudy bombing Benny's bombing Belturbet bombing Dublin bombings New Lodge Six shooting "Captain Black" killings Coleraine bombings Rose & Crown Bar bombing Dublin-Monaghan bombings Conway's Bar Mountainview Tavern Strand Bar Bombing Miami Showband killings Bayardo Bar Tullyvallen massacre Belfast
Belfast
& Coleraine attacks Drummuckavall ambush Dublin Airport bombing Dundalk & Silverbridge attacks Gilford bombing Reavey-O'Dowd killings Kingsmill massacre Castleblayney bombing Hillcrest Bar bombing Step Inn Pub Flagstaff incident Chlorane Bar Ramble Inn Jonesboro Gazelle downing La Mon bombing Crossmaglen Ambush Bessbrook bombing Warrenpoint ambush

1980s

Dunmurry train bombing Lough Foyle Bessbrook landmine attack Glasdrumman ambush Ballykelly bombing Ballygawley landmine attack Darkley killings Kesh ambush Gransha shootings Newry mortar attack Killeen Landmine attack Ballygawley barracks The Birches barracks Clontibret invasion Loughgall ambush Enniskillen bombing Milltown Cemetery Corporals killings Avenue Bar shooting Lisburn van bombing Ballygawley bus bombing Orange Cross Social Club shooting Jonesborough ambush Derryard checkpoint

1990s

Downpatrick bombing Derrygorry Gazelle shootdown Operation Conservation Fort Victoria 1990 proxy bombs Mullacreevie ambush Cappagh killings Drumbeg killings Glenanne barracks Coagh ambush Donegall Arms shooting Teebane bombing Sean Graham bookmakers Clonoe ambush Cloghoge checkpoint Coalisland riots South Armagh sniper campaign James Murray's bookmakers IRA purge the IPLO Castlerock killings Cullaville occupation Battle of Newry Road Shankill bombing Greysteel massacre Crossmaglen Lynx shootdown 1994 Shankill Road Killings Loughinisland massacre Connolly station bomb Drumcree crisis 1996 Killyhevlin Hotel bombing Thiepval barracks 1997 Coalisland attack July 1997 riots Newtownhamilton bombing Omagh bombing

Great Britain 1970s

Aldershot bombing Old Bailey bombing King's Cross & Euston stations M62 coach bombing Parliament bombing Guildford bombings Brook's bombing Harrow School Woolwich pub bombing Birmingham bombings Pillar box bombs Oxford Street bombing Caterham bombing London Hilton bombing Green Park bombing Scott's bombing Walton's bombing Balcombe St siege

1980s

Chelsea bombing Hyde & Regent's Park bombings Harrods bombing Woolwich barracks Brighton bombing Inglis barracks Deal barracks

1990s

Lichfield shooting Downing St attack Victoria & Paddington station bombings London Bridge bombing 1992 Manchester bombing Warrington bombings Bishopsgate bombing Heathrow mortar attacks Docklands bombing 1996 Manchester bombing

Mainland Europe

Rheindahlen bombing (Germany) Operation Flavius
Operation Flavius
(Gibraltar) 1988 Netherlands attacks Roermond killings (Netherlands) Osnabrück barracks (Germany)

Operation Demetrius
Operation Demetrius
was a British Army
British Army
operation in Northern Ireland on 9–10 August 1971, during the Troubles. It involved the mass arrest and internment (imprisonment without trial) of 342 people suspected of being involved with the Irish Republican Army (IRA), which was waging a campaign for a united Ireland
Ireland
against the British state. It was proposed by the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Government and approved by the British Government. Armed soldiers launched dawn raids throughout Northern Ireland, sparking four days of violence in which 20 civilians, two IRA members and two British soldiers were killed. All of those arrested were Irish nationalists, the vast majority of them Catholic. Due to faulty intelligence, many had no links with the IRA. Ulster loyalist
Ulster loyalist
paramilitaries were also carrying out acts of violence, which were mainly directed against Catholics and Irish nationalists, but no loyalists were included in the sweep.[1] The introduction of internment, the way the arrests were carried out, and the abuse of those arrested, led to mass protests and a sharp increase in violence. Amid the violence, about 7,000 people fled or were forced out of their homes. The interrogation techniques used on the internees were described by the European Commission of Human Rights in 1976 as torture, but the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled on appeal in 1978 that while the techniques were "inhuman and degrading", they did not constitute torture.[2] It was later revealed that the British government had withheld information from the ECHR and that a policy of torture had in fact been authorized by British government ministers.[3] In December 2014, the Irish government asked the ECHR to revise its 1978 judgement.[4] The policy of internment lasted until December 1975 and during that time 1,981 people were interned;[5] 1,874 were nationalist, while 107 were loyalist. The first loyalist internees were detained in February 1973.[1]

Contents

1 Background and planning 2 Legal basis 3 Operation and immediate aftermath 4 Long-term effects 5 Interrogation of internees

5.1 Parker Report 5.2 European Commission of Human Rights 5.3 European Court of Human Rights 5.4 Later developments

6 References

Background and planning[edit] Internment
Internment
had been used a number of times during Northern Ireland's (and the Republic of Ireland's) history, but had not previously been used during the Troubles, which began in the late 1960s. Ulster loyalist paramilitaries, such as the Ulster Volunteer Force
Ulster Volunteer Force
(UVF), had been engaged in a low-level violent campaign since 1966. After the August 1969 riots, the British Army
British Army
was deployed on the streets to bolster the Royal Ulster Constabulary
Royal Ulster Constabulary
(RUC). Up until this point, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) had been largely inactive. However, as the violence and political situation worsened, the IRA was divided over how to deal with it. It split into two factions, the Provisional IRA and Official IRA. In 1970–71, the Provisionals began to retaliate against the British Army
British Army
and the RUC. The Officials' policy was more defensive.[6] During 1970–71, there were numerous clashes between state forces and the two wings of the IRA, between the IRAs and loyalists, and occasionally between the IRAs. Most loyalist attacks were directed against Catholic civilians, but they also clashed with state forces and the IRA on a number of occasions.[6] The idea of re-introducing internment for Irish republican
Irish republican
militants came from the unionist government of Northern Ireland, headed by Prime Minister Brian Faulkner. It was agreed to re-introduce internment at a meeting between Faulkner and UK Prime Minister Edward Heath
Edward Heath
on 5 August 1971. The British cabinet recommended "balancing action", such as the arrest of loyalist militants, the calling in of weapons held by (generally unionist) rifle clubs in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and an indefinite ban on parades (most of which were held by unionist/loyalist groups). However, Faulkner argued that a ban on parades was unworkable, that the rifle clubs posed no security risk and that there was no evidence of loyalist terrorism.[7] It was eventually agreed that there would be a six-month ban on parades but no interning of loyalists and that internment would go ahead on 9 August, in an operation carried out by the British Army.[6] On the initial list of those to be arrested, which was drawn up by RUC Special
Special
Branch and MI5, there were 450 names, but only 350 of these were found. Key figures on the list, and many who never appeared on them, had got wind of the swoop before it began. The list included leaders of the non-violent Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Civil Rights Association such as Ivan Barr and Michael Farrell. But, Tim Pat Coogan noted:

What they did not include was a single Loyalist. Although the UVF had begun the killing and bombing, this organisation was left untouched, as were other violent Loyalist satellite organisations such as Tara, the Shankill Defence Association and the Ulster Protestant Volunteers. Faulkner was urged by the British to include a few Protestants in the trawl but, apart from two republicans, he refused.[8]

In a subsequent case brought to the European Commission of Human Rights by the Irish government
Irish government
against the government of the United Kingdom, it was conceded that Operation Demetrius
Operation Demetrius
was planned and implemented from the highest levels of the British government and that specially trained personnel were sent to Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
to familiarize the local forces in what became known as the 'five techniques', methods of interrogation described by opponents as "a euphemism for torture".[9] Legal basis[edit] The internments were initially carried out under Regulations 11 and 12 of 1956 and Regulation 10 of 1957 (the Special
Special
Powers Regulations), made under the authority of the Special
Special
Powers Act. The Detention of Terrorists Order of 7 November 1972, made under the authority of the Temporary Provisions Act, was used after direct rule was instituted. Internees arrested without trial pursuant to Operation Demetrius
Operation Demetrius
could not complain to the European Commission of Human Rights about breaches of Article 5 of the European Convention on Human Rights
European Convention on Human Rights
(ECHR) because on 27 June 1957, the UK lodged a notice with the Council of Europe declaring that there was a "public emergency within the meaning of Article 15(1) of the Convention."[10] Operation and immediate aftermath[edit]

HMS Maidstone (pictured here in Algiers in the Second World War), a prison ship which docked at Belfast
Belfast
and where many internees were sent

Operation Demetrius
Operation Demetrius
began on Monday 9 August at about 4AM. The operation was in two parts:

(1) Arrest
Arrest
and movement of the detainees to one of three regional holding centers: Girdwood in Belfast, Ballykinler in County Down, or Magilligan in County Londonderry (2) The process of identification and questioning, leading either to release of the detainee or movement into detention at Crumlin Road prison or aboard HMS Maidstone, a prison ship in Belfast
Belfast
Harbour.[11]

In the first wave of raids across Northern Ireland, 342 people were arrested.[12] Many of those arrested reported that they and their families were assaulted, verbally abused and threatened by the soldiers. There were claims of soldiers smashing their way into houses without warning and firing baton rounds through doors and windows. Many of those arrested also reported being ill-treated during their three-day detention at the holding centres. They complained of being beaten, verbally abused, threatened, harassed by dogs, denied sleep, and starved. Some reported being forced to run a gauntlet of baton-wielding soldiers, being forced to run an 'obstacle course', having their heads forcefully shaved, being kept naked, being burnt with cigarettes, having a sack placed over their heads for long periods, having a rope kept around their necks, having the barrel of a gun pressed against their heads, being dragged by the hair, being trailed behind armoured vehicles while barefoot, and being tied to armoured trucks as a human shield.[13][14] Some were hooded, beaten and then thrown from a helicopter. They were told they were hundreds of feet in the air, but were actually only a few feet from the ground.[15] The operation sparked an immediate upsurge of violence, the worst since the August 1969 riots.[12] The British Army
British Army
came under sustained attack from Irish nationalist
Irish nationalist
rioters and gunmen, especially in Belfast. According to journalist Kevin Myers: "Insanity seized the city. Hundreds of vehicles were hijacked and factories were burnt. Loyalist and IRA gunmen were everywhere".[16] People blocked roads and streets with burning barricades to stop the British Army
British Army
entering their neighbourhoods. In Derry, barricades were again erected around Free Derry
Derry
and "for the next 11 months these areas effectively seceded from British control".[17] Between 9 and 11 August, 24 people were killed or fatally wounded: 20 civilians (14 Catholics, 6 Protestants), two members of the Provisional IRA
Provisional IRA
(shot dead by the British Army), and two members of the British Army
British Army
(shot dead by the Provisional IRA).[18]

A mural commemorating those killed in the Ballymurphy Massacre
Ballymurphy Massacre
during Operation Demetrius

Of the civilians killed, 17 were killed by the British Army
British Army
and the other three were killed by unknown attackers.[18] In West Belfast's Ballymurphy housing estate, 11 Catholic civilians were killed by 1st Battalion, Parachute Regiment between 9 and 11 August in an episode that has become known as the Ballymurphy Massacre. Another flashpoint was Ardoyne
Ardoyne
in North Belfast, where soldiers shot dead three people on 9 August.[18] Many Protestant families fled Ardoyne
Ardoyne
and about 200 burnt their homes as they left, lest they "fall into Catholic hands".[19] Protestant and Catholic families fled "to either side of a dividing line, which would provide the foundation for the permanent peaceline later built in the area".[16] Catholic homes were burnt in Ardoyne
Ardoyne
and elsewhere too.[19] About 7,000 people, most of them Catholics, were left homeless.[19] About 2,500 Catholic refugees fled south of the border, where new refugee camps were set up.[19] By 13 August, media reports indicated that the violence had begun to wane, seemingly due to exhaustion on the part of the IRA and security forces.[20] On 15 August, the nationalist Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) announced that it was starting a campaign of civil disobedience in response to the introduction of internment. By 17 October, it was estimated that about 16,000 households were withholding rent and rates for council houses as part of the campaign of civil disobedience.[12] On 16 August, over 8,000 workers went on strike in Derry
Derry
in protest at internment. Joe Cahill, then Chief of Staff of the Provisional IRA, held a press conference during which he claimed that only 30 Provisional IRA
Provisional IRA
members had been interned.[12] On 22 August, in protest against internment, about 130 non-unionist councillors announced that they would no longer sit on district councils. The SDLP also withdrew its representatives from a number of public bodies.[12] On 19 October, five Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Members of Parliament (MPs) began a 48-hour hunger strike against internment. The protest took place near 10 Downing Street
10 Downing Street
in London. Among those taking part were John Hume, Austin Currie, and Bernadette Devlin.[12] Protests would continue until internment was ended in December 1975. Long-term effects[edit]

Modern anti-internment graffiti on Derry's Walls seen from the Bogside area of Derry

The backlash against internment contributed to the decision of the British Government under Prime Minister Edward Heath
Edward Heath
to suspend the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Government and replace it with direct rule from Westminster, under the authority of a British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. This took place in 1972. Following the suspension of the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Government and Parliament, internment was continued by the direct rule administration until 5 December 1975. During this time a total of 1,981 people were interned: 1,874 were from an Irish nationalist
Irish nationalist
background, while 107 were from a unionist background.[1] Historians generally view the period of internment as inflaming sectarian tensions in Northern Ireland, while failing in its goal of arresting key members of the IRA. Many of the people arrested had no links whatsoever with the IRA, but their names appeared on the list of those to be arrested through bungling and incompetence. The list's lack of reliability and the arrests that followed, complemented by reports of internees being abused far in excess of the usual state violence,[7] led to more nationalists identifying with the IRA and losing hope in non-violent methods. After Operation Demetrius, recruits came forward in huge numbers to join the Provisional and Official wings of the IRA.[19] Internment
Internment
also led to a sharp increase in violence. In the eight months before the operation, there were 34 conflict-related deaths in Northern Ireland. In the four months following it, 140 were killed.[19] A serving officer of the British Royal Marines
Royal Marines
declared:

It (internment) has, in fact, increased terrorist activity, perhaps boosted IRA recruitment, polarised further the Catholic and Protestant communities and reduced the ranks of the much needed Catholic moderates.[21]

In terms of loss of life, 1972 was the most violent year of the Troubles. The fatal march on Bloody Sunday (30 January 1972) in Derry, when 14 unarmed civil rights protesters were shot dead by British paratroopers, was an anti-internment march. Interrogation of internees[edit] All of those arrested were interrogated by the British Army
British Army
and RUC. However, twelve internees were then chosen for further "deep interrogation", using sensory deprivation. This took place at a secret interrogation centre, which was later revealed to be Shackleton Barracks, outside Ballykelly. In October, a further two internees were chosen for deep interrogation. These fourteen became known as "the Hooded Men", or "the Guineapigs". After undergoing the same treatment as the other internees, the men were hooded, handcuffed and flown to the base by helicopter. On the way, soldiers severely beat them and threatened to throw them from the helicopter. When they arrived they were stripped naked, photographed, and examined by a doctor.[22] For seven days, when not being interrogated, they were kept hooded and handcuffed in a cold cell and subjected to a continuous loud hissing noise. Here they were forced to stand in a stress position for many hours and were repeatedly beaten on all parts of their body. They were deprived of sleep, food and drink. Some of them also reported being kicked in the genitals, having their heads banged against walls, being shot at with blank rounds, and being threatened with injections. The result was severe physical and mental exhaustion, severe anxiety, depression, hallucinations, disorientation and repeated loss of consciousness.[22][23] The interrogation methods used on the men became known as the 'five techniques'. Training and advice regarding the five techniques came from senior intelligence officials in the British government. The European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
(ECHR) defined the five techniques as follows:

(a) wall-standing: forcing the detainees to remain for periods of some hours in a "stress position", described by those who underwent it as being "spreadeagled against the wall, with their fingers put high above the head against the wall, the legs spread apart and the feet back, causing them to stand on their toes with the weight of the body mainly on the fingers"; (b) hooding: putting a black or navy coloured bag over the detainees' heads and, at least initially, keeping it there all the time except during interrogation; (c) subjection to noise: pending their interrogations, holding the detainees in a room where there was a continuous loud and hissing noise; (d) deprivation of sleep: pending their interrogations, depriving the detainees of sleep; (e) deprivation of food and drink: subjecting the detainees to a reduced diet during their stay at the centre and pending interrogations.

The fourteen Hooded Men were the only internees subjected to the full five techniques. However, over the following months, some internees were subjected to at least one of the five techniques, as well as other interrogation methods. These allegedly included waterboarding,[24] electric shocks, burning with matches and candles, forcing internees to stand over hot electric fires while beating them, beating and squeezing of the genitals, inserting objects into the anus, injections, whipping the soles of the feet, and psychological abuse such as Russian roulette.[25] Parker Report[edit] When the interrogation techniques used on the internees became known to the public, there was outrage at the British government, especially from Irish nationalists. In answer to the anger from the public and Members of Parliament, on 16 November 1971, the British government commissioned a committee of inquiry chaired by Lord Parker (the Lord Chief Justice of England) to look into the legal and moral aspects of the 'five techniques'. The "Parker Report"[26] was published on 2 March 1972 and found the five techniques to be illegal under domestic law:

10. Domestic Law ...(c) We have received both written and oral representations from many legal bodies and individual lawyers from both England and Northern Ireland. There has been no dissent from the view that the procedures are illegal alike by the law of England and the law of Northern Ireland. ... (d) This being so, no Army Directive and no Minister could lawfully or validly have authorized the use of the procedures. Only Parliament can alter the law. The procedures were and are illegal.

On the same day (2 March 1972), United Kingdom Prime Minister Edward Heath stated in the House of Commons:

[The] Government, having reviewed the whole matter with great care and with reference to any future operations, have decided that the techniques ... will not be used in future as an aid to interrogation... The statement that I have made covers all future circumstances.[27]

As foreshadowed in the Prime Minister's statement, directives expressly forbidding the use of the techniques, whether alone or together, were then issued to the security forces by the government.[27] While these are still legally in force and the use of such methods by UK security forces is not officially condoned by the government, the five techniques were still being used by the British Army in 2003.[28] European Commission of Human Rights[edit] The Irish Government, on behalf of the men who had been subject to the five techniques, took a case to the European Commission on Human Rights ( Ireland
Ireland
v. United Kingdom, 1976 Y.B. Eur. Conv. on Hum. Rts. 512, 748, 788–94 (Eur. Comm’n of Hum. Rts.)). The Commission stated that it

...unanimously considered the combined use of the five methods to amount to torture, on the grounds that (1) the intensity of the stress caused by techniques creating sensory deprivation "directly affects the personality physically and mentally"; and (2) "the systematic application of the techniques for the purpose of inducing a person to give information shows a clear resemblance to those methods of systematic torture which have been known over the ages...a modern system of torture falling into the same category as those systems applied in previous times as a means of obtaining information and confessions.[29][30]

European Court of Human Rights[edit] The Commissions findings were appealed. In 1978, in the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) trial Ireland
Ireland
v. the United Kingdom (Case No. 5310/71),[31] the court ruled:

167. ... Although the five techniques, as applied in combination, undoubtedly amounted to inhuman and degrading treatment, although their object was the extraction of confessions, the naming of others and/or information and although they were used systematically, they did not occasion suffering of the particular intensity and cruelty implied by the word torture as so understood. ... 168. The Court concludes that recourse to the five techniques amounted to a practice of inhuman and degrading treatment, which practice was in breach of the European Convention on Human Rights
European Convention on Human Rights
Article 3 (art. 3).

On 8 February 1977, in proceedings before the ECHR, and in line with the findings of the Parker Report and UK Government policy, the Attorney-General of the United Kingdom stated:

The Government of the United Kingdom
Government of the United Kingdom
have considered the question of the use of the 'five techniques' with very great care and with particular regard to Article 3 (art. 3) of the Convention. They now give this unqualified undertaking, that the 'five techniques' will not in any circumstances be reintroduced as an aid to interrogation.

Later developments[edit] In 2013, declassified documents revealed the existence of the interrogation centre at Ballykelly. It had not been mentioned in any of the inquiries. Human rights group the Pat Finucane Centre accused the British Government of deliberately hiding it from the inquiries and the European Court of Human Rights.[32] In June 2014, an RTÉ documentary entitled The Torture
Torture
Files uncovered a letter from the UK Home Secretary Merlyn Rees
Merlyn Rees
in 1977 to the then British Prime Minister James Callaghan. It confirmed that a policy of 'torture' had in fact been authorized by the British Government's ministers—specifically the Secretary for Defence Peter Carrington—in 1971, contrary to the knowledge of the Irish government
Irish government
or the ECHR. The letter states: "It is my view (confirmed by Brian Faulkner
Brian Faulkner
before his death) that the decision to use methods of torture in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
in 1971/72 was taken by ministers – in particular Lord Carrington, then secretary of state for defence".[3][33] Following the 2014 revelations, the President of Sinn Féin, Gerry Adams, called on the Irish government
Irish government
to bring the case back to the ECHR because the British government, he said, "lied to the European Court of Human Rights both on the severity of the methods used on the men, their long term physical and psychological consequences, on where these interrogations took place and who gave the political authority and clearance for it".[34] On 2 December 2014, the Irish government announced that, having reviewed the new evidence and following requests from the survivors, it had decided to officially ask the ECHR to revise its 1978 judgement.[4] References[edit]

^ a b c Internment
Internment
– Summary of Main Events. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) ^ http://www.worldlii.org/eu/cases/ECHR/1978/1.html ^ a b 'British ministers sanctioned torture of NI internees' (5 June 2014) ^ a b "Government backs 'Hooded Men' torture case". 2 December 2014.  ^ Joint Committee on Human Rights, Parliament of the United Kingdom (2005). Counter-Terrorism Policy And Human Rights: Terrorism Bill and related matters: Oral and Written Evidence. Counter-Terrorism Policy And Human Rights: Terrorism Bill and related matters. 2. The Stationery Office. p. 110.  ^ a b c "Today in Irish History, 9 August 1971, Internment
Internment
is introduced in Northern Ireland". 10 August 2012.  ^ a b "Today in Irish History, 9 August 1971, Internment
Internment
is introduced in Northern Ireland". 10 August 2012.  ^ Coogan, Tim Pat. The Troubles: Ireland's ordeal 1966–1996 and the search for peace. London: Hutchinson. p. 126 Internment
Internment
– Summary of Main Events ^ Parker, Tom. Frontline: "Is torture ever justified?". PBS. ^ Dickson, Brice (March 2009). "The Detention of Suspected Terrorists in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Great Britain". University of Richmond Law Review. 43 (3). Archived from the original on 2013-05-15.  ^ The Compton Report, November 1971. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) ^ a b c d e f Internment: A chronology of the main events. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) ^ Danny Kennally and Eric Preston. Belfast
Belfast
August 1971: A Case to be Answered. Independent Labour Party, 1971. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). ^ Danny Kennally and Eric Preston. Belfast
Belfast
August 1971: A Case to be Answered. Chapter: Treatment of Arrested. Independent Labour Party, 1971. Conflict Archive on the Internet
Conflict Archive on the Internet
(CAIN). ^ "Former internees claim 'new evidence' of Army torture". BBC News. 28 November 2013. ^ a b McKittrick, David. Lost Lives: The stories of the men, women and children who died through the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Troubles. Mainstream, 1999. p.80 ^ "Blunt weapon of internment fails to crush nationalist resistance". An Phoblacht. 9 August 2007. ^ a b c Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland: 1971. Conflict Archive on the Internet
Conflict Archive on the Internet
(CAIN) ^ a b c d e f Coogan, Tim Pat. The Troubles: Ireland's ordeal 1966–1996 and the search for peace. Palgrave, 2002. p.152 ^ "Violence ebbing in Northern Ireland". The Milwaukee Journal, 13 August 1971. ^ Hamill, D. Pig in the Middle: The Army in Northern Ireland. London, Methuen, 1985. ^ a b The Guineapigs by John McGuffin (1974, 1981). Chapter 4: The Experiment. ^ The Guineapigs by John McGuffin (1974, 1981). Chapter 6: Replay. ^ "Prisoners in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
'subjected to waterboarding by British army officers'". The Telegraph. 22 December 2009. ^ The Guineapigs by John McGuffin (1974, 1981). Chapter 9: Down on the Killing Floor. ^ The Parker Report, March 1972. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN) ^ a b Ireland
Ireland
v. the United Kingdom Paragraph 101 and 135 ^ "Deplorable, shocking, shameful: Fox's verdict on troops who beat Iraqi as he vows to end 'conspiracy of silence'".  ^ Security Detainees/Enemy Combatants: U.S. Law Prohibits Torture
Torture
and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Footnote 16 ^ Weissbrodt, David. Materials on torture and other ill-treatment: 3. European Court of Human Rights
European Court of Human Rights
(doc) html: Ireland
Ireland
v. United Kingdom, 1976 Y.B. Eur. Conv. on Hum. Rts. 512, 748, 788–94 (Eur. Comm’n of Hum. Rts.) ^ "IRELAND v. THE UNITED KINGDOM – 5310/71 (1978) ECHR 1 (18 January 1978)".  ^ "Secret Ballykelly interrogation centre unveiled". BBC News. 6 August 2013. ^ 'British government authorised use of torture methods in NI in early 1970s' (5 June 2014) ^ Adams calls on Government to reopen ‘Hooded Men’ case (5 June 2014)

v t e

The Troubles

History of Northern Ireland History of Ireland Irish nationalism Irish republicanism Ulster unionism Ulster loyalism Books about the Troubles

Participants

Republican paramilitaries

Provisional IRA
Provisional IRA
(timeline) Official IRA Irish National Liberation Army
Irish National Liberation Army
(timeline) Continuity IRA (timeline) Real IRA (timeline) IPLO (timeline)

Security forces

United Kingdom British Army Royal Air Force Royal Navy Northern Ireland Ulster Defence Regiment/Royal Irish Regiment Royal Ulster Constabulary/Ulster Special
Special
Constabulary Republic of Ireland Garda Síochána Irish Army

Loyalist paramilitaries

Ulster Defence Association
Ulster Defence Association
(timeline) Ulster Volunteer Force
Ulster Volunteer Force
(timeline) Loyalist Volunteer Force Red Hand Commando Ulster Resistance Linked to: Some RUC and British Army
British Army
members

Political parties

Unionist

Ulster Unionist Party Democratic Unionist Party Progressive Unionist Party UK Unionist Party Traditional Unionist Voice Ulster Vanguard Ulster Democratic Party

Nationalist

Social Democratic & Labour Party Sinn Féin Irish Republican Socialist Party Workers' Party of Ireland Republican Sinn Féin Irish Independence Party

Other

Alliance Party

Chronology

   

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
civil rights movement begins (1967) August riots and beginning of Operation Banner
Operation Banner
(1969) Falls Curfew
Falls Curfew
(1970) Internment
Internment
without trial begins with Operation Demetrius
Operation Demetrius
(1971) Irish government
Irish government
enacts broadcasting restrictions (1971) Bloody Sunday by British Army
British Army
(1972) Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
government dissolved; direct rule from London begins (1972) Bloody Friday by IRA (1972) Operation Motorman
Operation Motorman
ends no-go areas (1972) Sunningdale Agreement
Sunningdale Agreement
establishes power-sharing Assembly (1973) Ulster Workers' Council strike brings down Agreement and power-sharing (1974) Dublin and Monaghan bombings
Dublin and Monaghan bombings
by UVF (1974) Birmingham pub bombings
Birmingham pub bombings
by IRA (1974) Kingsmill massacre
Kingsmill massacre
by IRA (1976) Warrenpoint ambush
Warrenpoint ambush
by IRA (1979) 1981 Irish hunger strike; hunger striker Bobby Sands
Bobby Sands
elected MP; Sinn Féin begins to move towards electoral politics (1981) Droppin Well bombing
Droppin Well bombing
by INLA (1982) Brighton hotel bombing
Brighton hotel bombing
by IRA (1984)

Anglo-Irish Agreement
Anglo-Irish Agreement
(1985) Newry mortar attack by IRA (1985) Loughgall ambush
Loughgall ambush
by British Army
British Army
(1987) Remembrance Day bombing
Remembrance Day bombing
by IRA (1987) Peace Process begins (1988) Operation Flavius, Milltown Cemetery attack
Milltown Cemetery attack
and Corporals killings (1988) British government introduces broadcasting restrictions (1988) Bishopsgate bombing (1993) Downing Street Declaration (1993) Shankill bombing and Greysteel massacre
Greysteel massacre
(1993) Loughinisland massacre
Loughinisland massacre
by UVF (1994) First IRA and loyalist ceasefires (1994) Docklands and Manchester bombings by IRA (1996) Drumcree riots (1997) Second IRA ceasefire (1997) Good Friday Agreement
Good Friday Agreement
(1998) signals the end of the Troubles Omagh bombing
Omagh bombing
by the Real IRA (1998)

Other issues and topics

Segregation Peace lines/Interface areas Parades Flags Collusion The Disappeared Shoot-to-kill policy Diplock courts Special
Special
Category Status Five techniques Punishment shootings Murals The Troubles
The Troubles
in popular culture List of books

.