Open nomenclature
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Open nomenclature is a vocabulary of partly informal terms and signs in which a taxonomist may express remarks about their own material. This is in contrast to synonymy lists, in which a taxonomist may express remarks on the work of others. Commonly such remarks take the form of abbreviated
taxonomic Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific classification scheme. Originally used only about biological ...
expressions in biological classification.


Usage of open nomenclature

There are no strict conventions in open nomenclature concerning which expressions to use or where to place them in the Latin name of a
species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanis ...

species
or other
taxon In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...
, and this may lead to difficulties of interpretation. However, the most significant unsettled issues concern the way that their meanings are to be interpreted. The
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Co ...
(ICZN) makes no reference to open nomenclature, leaving its use and meaning open for interpretation by taxonomists. The following are examples of commonly used shorthand in open nomenclature: *Sp. (pl. spp.; short for "species") indicates potentially new species without remarking on its possible affinity. This suggests either that identification has not yet been completed or that currently available evidence and material are insufficient to allocate the specimens to relevant known taxa, or alternatively, that as yet the specimen cannot be assigned to a new taxon of its own with sufficient confidence. *Sp. aff. or aff. (short for ) indicates a potentially new and undescribed species has an
affinity Affinity may refer to: Commerce, finance and law * Affinity (law) In law and in cultural anthropology Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human ...
to, but is not identical to, the named species. *V. (short for the la, vidimus, links=no, meaning "we have seen") means that the author inspected the original type specimens and are basing their statements on first-hand experience. Sometimes the opposite is expressed as "non v." ('), meaning that the original has never been observed, as is the case with many kinds of fungal spore, for instance. *
Cf. The abbreviation ''cf.'' (short for the la, confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed. Style guides recommend that ''cf.'' be used only ...
(short for the la, confer, links=no, "compare with") or a question mark (?) signify varying degrees or types of uncertainty and may be used differently depending on the author. In more recent usage, "cf." indicates greater uncertainty than a question mark.


See also

* ''
CandidatusIn prokaryote A prokaryote is a typically unicellular organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual contiguous system that embodies the Life#Biology, properties of life ...
'', a candidate taxon proposed from metagenomics or other incomplete information * ''
Incertae sedis ' () or ''problematica'' is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Alternatively, such groups are frequently referred to as "enigmatic taxa". In the system of open nomenclature, uncertainty ...
'', a taxon of uncertain position in a classification * ''
Nomen dubium In zoological nomenclature The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted Convention (norm), convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific name, scientific naming of organisms treated as animals. It is als ...
'' (''
nomen ambiguum In International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, zoological nomenclature, a ''nomen dubium'' (Latin for "doubtful name", plural ''nomina dubia'') is a scientific name that is of unknown or doubtful application. In zoology In case of a ''nomen dub ...
''), a name of unknown or doubtful application * ''
Nomen novum In biological nomenclature, a ''nomen novum'' (Latin for "new name"), new replacement name (or replacement name, new substitute name, substitute name) is a technical term. It indicates a scientific name that is created specifically to replace anoth ...
'' a new name, usually to replace a name that in some way is unacceptable, say because it is a junior synonym * ''
Nomen nudum In Taxonomy (biology), taxonomy (especially in zoological nomenclature, zoological and botanical nomenclature), a ''nomen nudum'' ("naked name"; plural ''nomina nuda'') is a ''designation'' which looks exactly like a scientific name of an organism, ...
'' an apparent taxon name, usually in the correct binomial form, but invalid, for instance because of not having been published with an adequate description. * ''
Species inquirenda In Taxonomy (biology), biological classification, a ''species inquirenda'' is a species of doubtful identity requiring further investigation. The use of the term in English-language biological literature dates back to at least the early nineteenth c ...
'', a species that in the opinion of the taxonomist requires further investigation * Similar Latin terms in the glossary of scientific naming


References


Literature cited

*


Further reading

*{{cite journal , last1=Sigovini , first1=Marco , last2=Keppel , first2=Erica , last3=Tagliapietra , first3=Davide , title=Open Nomenclature in the biodiversity era , journal=Methods in Ecology and Evolution , date=2016 , volume=7 , issue=10 , pages=1217–1225 , doi=10.1111/2041-210X.12594 , doi-access=free , ref=none Taxonomy (biology)