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v t e

Onam
Onam
is an annual Hindu
Hindu
festival with origins in the state of Kerala in India.[4][5][6] It falls in the Malayalam calendar month of Chingam, which in Gregorian calendar overlaps with August–September.[7] The festival commemorates the Vamana
Vamana
avatar of Vishnu,[8] the subsequent homecoming of the legendary Emperor Mahabali and mythologies of Hinduism
Hinduism
related to Kashyapa
Kashyapa
and Parashurama.[9][10] Onam
Onam
is a major annual event for Malayali people in and outside Kerala. It is a harvest festival, one of three major annual Hindu celebrations along with Vishu
Vishu
and Thiruvathira, and it is observed with numerous festivities.[11] Onam
Onam
celebrations include Vallam Kali (boat races), Pulikali
Pulikali
(tiger dances), Pookkalam (flower arrangement), Onathappan (worship), Onam
Onam
Kali, Tug of War, Thumbi Thullal (women's dance), Kummattikali
Kummattikali
(mask dance), Onathallu (martial arts), Onavillu (music), Kazhchakkula (plantain offerings), Onapottan (costumes), Atthachamayam (folk songs and dance), and other celebrations.[12] It is the New Year day for Malayali Hindus.[13][14] Onam
Onam
is the official state festival of Kerala
Kerala
with public holidays that start four days from Onam
Onam
Eve (Uthradom).[15] It is celebrated by Malayali diaspora around the world.[10] Though a Hindu
Hindu
festival, non- Hindu
Hindu
communities of Kerala
Kerala
participate in Onam
Onam
celebrations considering it as a cultural festival.[10][16][15] However, some non-Hindus in Kerala
Kerala
denounce its celebration as a cultural event because they consider it as a religious festival.[13][17]

Contents

1 Significance

1.1 Mahabali
Mahabali
legend 1.2 Parashurama
Parashurama
legend 1.3 Cultural festival

2 Celebrations, rituals and practices

2.1 Athachamayam 2.2 Pookkalam: flower arrangements 2.3 Music and dance 2.4 Pulikali: tiger dance 2.5 Vallamkali: boat race 2.6 Onam
Onam
Sadya 2.7 Post Onam
Onam
celebrations 2.8 Other customs

3 Outside India 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Significance See also: Mahabali, Vishnu, and Vamana Onam
Onam
is an ancient Hindu[4][5] festival of Kerala
Kerala
that celebrates rice harvest.[9][6] The significance of the festival is in Hindu
Hindu
legends, of which two are more common. Mahabali
Mahabali
legend According to the Hindu
Hindu
mythology, Mahabali
Mahabali
was the great great grandson of a Brahmin
Brahmin
sage named Kashyapa, the great grandson of demonic dictator Hiranyakashipu, and the grandson of Vishnu
Vishnu
devotee Prahlada. This links the festival to the Puranic mythology of Prahlada of Holika
Holika
fame in Hinduism, who is the son of demon dictator Hiranyakashyap. Prahlada, despite being born to a demonic Asura
Asura
father who hated Vishnu, rebelled against his father's persecution of people and worshipped Vishnu. Hiranyakashyap
Hiranyakashyap
tries to kill his son Prahlada, but is slained by Vishnu
Vishnu
in his Narasimha
Narasimha
avatar, Prahlada is saved.[8]

The dwarf Vamana
Vamana
taking a leap-step is a part of many Hindu
Hindu
temple arts (above), and one legend behind Onam.

Prahlada's grandson Mahabali
Mahabali
came to power by defeating the gods (Devas) and taking over the three worlds. According to Vaishnavism mythology, the defeated Devas approached Vishnu
Vishnu
for help in their battle with Mahabali.[9] Vishnu
Vishnu
refused to join the gods in violence against Mahabali, because Mahabali
Mahabali
was a good ruler and his own devotee. He, instead, decided to test Mahabali's devotion at an opportune moment. Mahabali, after his victory over the gods, declared that he will perform Yajna
Yajna
(homa sacrifices) and grant anyone any request during the Yajna. Vishnu
Vishnu
took the avatar of a dwarf boy called Vamana
Vamana
and approached Mahabali. The king offered anything to the boy – gold, cows, elephants, villages, food, whatever he wished. The boy said that one must not seek more than one needs, and all he needs is the property right over a piece of land that measures "three paces". Mahabali
Mahabali
agreed.[9][18] The Vamana
Vamana
grew and covered everything Mahabali
Mahabali
ruled over in just two paces. For the third pace, Mahabali
Mahabali
offered himself, an act which Vishnu
Vishnu
accepted as evidence of Mahabali's devotion.[9] Vishnu
Vishnu
granted him a boon, by which Mahabali
Mahabali
could visit again, once every year, the lands and people he previously ruled. This revisit marks the festival of Onam, as a reminder of the virtuous rule and his humility in keeping his promise before Vishnu. The last day of Mahabali's stay is remembered with a nine-course vegetarian Onasadya
Onasadya
feast.[9][19] According to Nanditha Krishna, a simpler form of this legend, one without Mahabali, is found in the Rigveda
Rigveda
and the Vedic text Shatapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
where a solar deity is described with powers of Vishnu. This story likely grew over time, and is in part allegorical, where Bali is a metaphor for thanksgiving offering after a bounty of rice harvest during monsoon, and Vishnu
Vishnu
is the metaphor of the Kerala sun and summer that precedes the Onam.[20] According to Roshen Dalal, the story of Mahabali
Mahabali
is important to Onam
Onam
in Kerala, but similar Mahabali
Mahabali
legends are significant in the region of Balia in Uttar Pradesh, Bawan also in the same state, Bharuch in Gujarat, and Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra. The story is significant not because Mahabali's rule ended, but it emphasizes the Hindu
Hindu
belief in cyclical nature of events, that no individual, no ruler and nothing lasts forever, except the virtues and self-understanding that overcomes all sorrow.[21] Parashurama
Parashurama
legend An alternate legend behind Onam
Onam
relates to Parashurama, an incarnation of Vishnu
Vishnu
who is credited in Hindu
Hindu
mythology to have founded the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
from the southern tip of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa
Goa
and up to Maharashtra.[22] According to this legend, Vishnu
Vishnu
got upset with the kings and the warrior caste who were constantly at war and were arrogant over others.[22] Vishnu
Vishnu
took the avatar of Parashurama, or " Rama
Rama
with an axe" and also known as Rama
Rama
Jamadagyna, in the era of King Kaartavirya. This king persecuted and oppressed the people, the sages and the gods.[22] One day, the king came to the hermitage of Parashurama
Parashurama
and his mother Renuka, where while Parashurama
Parashurama
was away, the king without permission took away the calf of their cow. When Parashurama
Parashurama
returned, he felt the injustice of the king, called him to war, and killed the king and all his oppressive warriors. At the end, he threw the axe, and wherever it fell, the sea retreated, creating the land of Kerala
Kerala
and other coastal western parts of Indian subcontinent.[22] Another version states that Parashurama
Parashurama
brought Namboodri Brahmins to southwestern parts of India, by creating a mini-Himalaya like mountain range with his axe. The Onam
Onam
festival, according to this legend, celebrates Parashurama's creation of Kerala
Kerala
by marking those days as the new year.[23] The legend and worship of Parashurama
Parashurama
is attested in texts and epigraphs dated to about the 2nd century CE.[22] Cultural festival The festival is also celebrated by Christians of Kerala, in its churches.[15] These traditions, according to Selvister Ponnumuthan, start with the lighting of Nilavilakku, an arati that includes waving of flowers (pushparati) over the Bible, eating the Onam
Onam
meal together with the Hindus as a form of "communion of brothers and sisters of different faiths". The significance of these practices are viewed by some Kerala
Kerala
Christians as a form of integration with Hindus, mutual respect and sharing a tradition.[15] The festival has been declared as wrong and forbidden for Muslims (Haram) by Islamic preachers.[13] Some Muslim Indian politicians light traditional vilakku (oil lamps), while others have refused to light these lamps at Onam
Onam
events declaring it to be a Hindu
Hindu
tradition and against the teachings of Islam. Muslim daily newspapers and other publications have condemned Muslim ministers who participate in Onam traditions.[13][24][25] However some Muslims observe Onam
Onam
anyway, considering its celebrations and rituals as a cultural practice.[17][26] Celebrations, rituals and practices Onam
Onam
falls in the month of Chingam, which is the first month according to the Malayalam Calendar. The celebrations mark the Malayalam New Year, are spread over ten days, and conclude with Thiruvonam. The ten days are sequentially known as Atham, Chithira, Chodhi, Vishakam, Anizham, Thriketa, Moolam, Pooradam, Uthradom and Thiruvonam. The first and the last day are particularly important in Kerala
Kerala
and to Malayalee communities elsewhere.[9] The Atham day is marked with the start of festivities at Vamanamoorthy Thrikkakara temple
Thrikkakara temple
(Kochi). This Vishnu
Vishnu
temple is considered as the focal centre of Onam
Onam
and the abode of Mahabali, with the raising of the festival flag.[27] Parades are held, which are colourful and depict the elements of Kerala
Kerala
culture with floats and tableaux.[28] Other days have diverse range of celebrations and activities ranging from boat races, cultural programs, sports competitions, dance events, martial arts, floral designs - pookkalam, prayers, shopping, donating time or food for charity to spending time with family over feasts. Men and women wear traditional dress. The Kerala
Kerala
sari or Kasavu sari is particularly wore on this day.[29] Athachamayam

Onam
Onam
starts off every year with a parade called Athachamayam.

The Onam
Onam
celebrations across the state, starts off with a grand procession at Thrippunithura
Thrippunithura
near Kochi
Kochi
called Atthachamayam, also referred to as Thripunithura Athachamayam. The parade features elephants marching, drum beats and other music, folk art forms, floats and colorfully dressed people with masks.[30] In Kerala's history, the Kochi
Kochi
king used to head a grand military procession in full ceremonial robes from his palace to the Thrikkakara temple, meeting and greeting his people. In contemporary times, this a state supported event.[28][31] The parade floats traditionally feature scenes from epics such as the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
and the Ramayana. Additionally, some floats include themes from the Bible
Bible
as well as current themes thereby highlighting unity and harmony.[32] The procession path historically has been from Tripunithura to the Vamanamoorthy Temple in Thrikkakara, Ernakulam district. The temple is dedicated to Vishnu
Vishnu
in his Vamana
Vamana
(dwarf) avatar. After arrival at the temple, the marchers offer a prayer.[32] Pookkalam: flower arrangements

Floral arrangement during Onam
Onam
are a tradition

The floral carpet, known as Onapookkalam or just Pookkalam,[33] is made out of the gathered blossoms with several varieties of flowers of differing tints pinched up into little pieces to design and decorate patterns on floor, particularly at entrances and temple premises like a flower mat. Lamps are arranged in the middle or edges. It is a work of religious art, typically the team initiative of girls and women, who accomplish it with a delicate touch and a personal artistic sense of tone and blending.[34] When completed, a miniature pandal (umbrella) hung with little festoons is erected over it.[35] The pookkalam is similar to Rangoli
Rangoli
which is made of powders of various colors and is popular in North India. The traditional ritual of laying pookkalam (floral carpet) starts on Atham day. The pookkalam on this day is called Athapoo, and it is relatively small in size. The size of the pookkalam grows in size progressively with each day of the Onam
Onam
festival. Only yellow flowers will be used on Atham with only one circular layer made and the design is kept simple. Statues or figurines of Mahabali
Mahabali
and Vamana
Vamana
are also installed at the entrance of each house on this day.[citation needed] Traditionally, Atthapookalams included flowers endemic to Kerala
Kerala
and the Dashapushpam (10-flowers), but nowadays all varieties of flowers are used.[36] Earthen mounds, which look somewhat like square pyramids, representing Mahabali
Mahabali
and Vamana
Vamana
are placed in the dung-plastered courtyards in front of the house along with the Pookalam, and beautifully decorated with flowers. All over Kerala, Pookalam competitions are a common sight on Onam
Onam
day.[28] Music and dance

Thiruvathira
Thiruvathira
Kali
Kali
dance during Onam.

Traditional dance forms including Thiruvathira, Kummattikali, Pulikali, Thumbi Thullal, Onam
Onam
Kali
Kali
and others. Thiruvathira
Thiruvathira
kali is a women's dance performed in a circle around a lamp. Kummattikali
Kummattikali
is a colourful-mask dance. In Thrissur, festivities includes a procession consisting of caparisoned elephants surrounded by Kummatikali dancers. The masked dancers go from house to house performing the colorful Kummattikali. Onam
Onam
Kali
Kali
is a form of dance where players arrange themselves in circles around a pole or tree or lamp, then dance and sing songs derived from the Ramayana
Ramayana
and other epics.[citation needed]

Kathakali
Kathakali
performances are a part of Onam
Onam
tradition.[37]

Kathakali
Kathakali
dance is also commonly performed during this time, with dancers enacting famous mythological legends.[38] A famous venue for this is at Valluvanad which is associated with the growth of Kathakali,[39] and Cheruthuruthy, where Kerala
Kerala
Kalamandalam is located. Pulikali: tiger dance

Pulikali
Pulikali
is a dance in tiger constumes.

Pulikali, also known as Kaduvakali
Kaduvakali
is a common sight during Onam season. This dance showcases performers painted like tigers in bright yellow, red and black, who dance to the beats of instruments like Chenda and thakil. This folk art is mainly performed in the cultural district of Thrissur
Thrissur
and thousands pour into the city to be a part of this art.[citation needed] Performances of the ritual worship dance Theyyam
Theyyam
are given during the Onam
Onam
season.[12] In this, Mahabali
Mahabali
is played by the Onathar. Its variations include characters such as Oneswaran and Onapottan.[citation needed] At the Thrikkakara temple, every day of the festival showcases one or more of these activities including Kathakali, Thiruvathira, Chakyar koothu, Ottam thullal, Patakam, Onam
Onam
songs and percussion instrument shows.[38][40] The Onasadya
Onasadya
here is grand in scale, and is attended by over ten thousand people from all religions and faiths.[41] Festivities include Puli Kali
Puli Kali
(masked leopard dance) and traditional dance forms like Kaikotti Kali
Kali
which are performed in various functions. The official Government celebrations start on this day with heavy illuminations in Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi
Kochi
and Kozhikode
Kozhikode
along with fireworks.[citation needed] Most cities in Kerala, such as the political, commercial and cultural capitals Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi
Kochi
and Thrissur, are lit up with lights and fabulous displays of fireworks. Sumptuous Onam
Onam
Sadya
Sadya
feasts are prepared. In Thrikkakara temple, a mega-feast is conducted which is open to the public and is attended by more than twenty thousand people.[42] Vallamkali: boat race

An Onam
Onam
boat race

The Vallamkali
Vallamkali
(the snake boat race) is another event that is synonymous with Onam. Well-known races include the Aranmula Uthrattadhi Boat Race and the Nehru Trophy Boat Race. Numerous oarsmen row huge snake-shaped boats. Men and women come from far and near to watch and cheer the snake boats race through the water. This event is particularly featured on the Pampa River, considered sacred and Kerala equivalent of Ganges River.[9] As a tribute to the traditional snake boat race, a similar snake boat race is also held by the Malayali diaspora in Singapore annually during Onam
Onam
at the Jurong Lake.[43] Onam
Onam
Sadya

Sadya
Sadya
is the traditional nine or more course vegetarian meal served on banana leaf.

Onam
Onam
harvest festival is marked with a special feast lunch on last day and includes rice and a sweet at the end.

The Onam
Onam
sadya (feast) is another very indispensable part of Thiruvonam,[35] and almost every Keralite attempts to either make or attend one. The Onasadya
Onasadya
reflects the spirit of the season and is traditionally made with seasonal vegetables such as yam, cucumber, ash gourd and so on. The feast is served on plantain leaves and consists of nine courses, but may include over two dozen dishes, including (but not limited to):[44] Chips (especially Banana chips), Sharkaraveratti (Fried pieces of banana coated with jaggery),[45][46] Pappadam, various vegetable and soups such as Injipuli
Injipuli
(also called PuliInji), Thoran, Mezhukkupuratti, Kaalan, Olan, Avial, Sambhar, Dal
Dal
served along with a small quantity of ghee, Erisheri, Molosyam, Rasam, Puliseri (also referred to as Velutha curry), Kichadi (not to be confused with Khichdi) and Pachadi
Pachadi
(its sweet variant), Moru (Curd with water), Pickles both sweet and sour, buttermilk, coconut chutney. The feast ends with a series of dessert called Payasam (a sweet dish made of milk, sugar, jaggery and other traditional Indian savories) eaten either straight or mixed with a ripe small plantain. The curries are served with rice, usually the ' Kerala
Kerala
Matta' parboiled rice preferred in Kerala.[45] In hotels and temples, the number of curries and dishes may go up to 30. The importance of the feast to the Kerala's Onam
Onam
celebration culture is captured in the famous Malayalam proverb "Kaanam Vittum Onam
Onam
Unnanam" which means "One must have the Onam
Onam
lunch even selling his property, to have so".[35] The Travancore-style Onasadya
Onasadya
is renowned to be the most disciplined and tradition-bound.[45] Post Onam
Onam
celebrations Normally, the largest chunk of Onam
Onam
celebrations end by Thiruvonam. However the two days following Thiruvonam are also celebrated as Third and Fourth Onam. The third Onam, called Avvittom marks the preparations for King Mahabali's return ascension to heavens. The main ritual of the day is to take the Onathappan statue which was placed in the middle of every pookkalam during the past 10 days and immerse it in nearby rivers or sea. The pookkalam will be cleaned and removed after this ritual.[citation needed] Other customs

Onapottan in traditional costume is a custom in northern Kerala. Onapottan visits houses and gives blessings.[12]

People buy and wear new clothes for the occasion of Onam, and this tradition is called the Onakkodi.[citation needed] During the Onam, Keralite Hindus install an image of Thrikkakara Appan or Onatthappan ( Vishnu
Vishnu
in the form of Vamana) in their home[47] just as Hindus install images or murtis of Lord Ganesha
Ganesha
on the Ganesha Chaturthi festival elsewhere. Many lamps are lit in Hindu
Hindu
temples of Kerala
Kerala
during this celebration.[48] A palmyra tree is erected in front of temples and surrounded with a wooden balustrade and covered with dry palmyra leaves.[48] It is lit with a torch and burned to ashes to signify that King Mahabali
Mahabali
went to Patala as a sacrifice.[48] The swing is another integral part of Onam, especially in the rural areas. Young men and women, decked in their best, sing Onappaatt, or Onam
Onam
songs, and rock one another on swings slung from high branches.[citation needed] Onam
Onam
season is often associated with creativity as weavers and potters go for excess production to cater to increased demands for their products during the season, especially in North Kerala
Kerala
regions of Kannur
Kannur
and Kasargod. Handloom fairs are an integral part of the spirit of Onam
Onam
festivities these days.[12] In some parts of Kerala, people indulge in various games and dances during and post-Thiruvonam. These are known as Onakkalikal. These include competitions such as Ox races (Maramadimatsaram), Uriyady, food-eating competitions, Pookalam competitions etc. Outside India Onam
Onam
is also celebrated by the worldwide Malayali diaspora. Celebrations are notable in the United Arab Emirates, Singapore and USA.[43][49][50] See also

Onathallu or Avittathallu Thrikkakara temple Vishu

References

^ a b Government of Kerala, Official Holidays 2017 ^ Ann Morrill (2009). Thanksgiving and Other Harvest Festivals. Infobase Publishing. pp. 46, 49–50. ISBN 978-1-4381-2797-2.  ^ Chopra, Prabha (1988). Encyclopaedia of India. p. 285. Onam
Onam
— Most important festival of Kerala; held in Chingam (August–September)  ^ a b Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica (1974). The New Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 534. ISBN 978-0-85229-290-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) , Quote: "Onam, Hindu
Hindu
festival in Kerala
Kerala
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Onam
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Onam
Festival, The Society for Confluence of Festivals of India (2015) ^ a b J. Gordon Melton (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. pp. 400–402. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7.  ^ a b c d e f g h J. Gordon Melton (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. p. 659. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7.  ^ a b c Cush, Denise; Robinson, Catherine; York, Michael (2012). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. pp. 573–574. ISBN 9781135189792. Despite its Hindu
Hindu
associations, Onam
Onam
is celebrated by all communities.  ^ Peter J. Claus; Sarah Diamond; Margaret Ann Mills (2003). South Asian Folklore: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. p. 454. ISBN 978-0-415-93919-5.  ^ a b c d M. Nazeer (2010-08-10). "The abiding lore and spirit of Onam". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-26.  ^ a b c d Filippo Osella; Caroline Osella (2013). Islamic Reform in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-107-27667-3.  ^ Denise Cush; Catherine Robinson; Michael York (2012). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. pp. 573–574. ISBN 978-1-135-18978-5.  ^ a b c d Selvister Ponnumuthan (1996). The Spirituality of Basic Ecclesial Communities in the Socio-religious Context of Trivandrum/Kerala, India. Gregorian Press. pp. 210–212. ISBN 978-88-7652-721-0.  ^ Malayali Muslim man celebrates Onam
Onam
after a preacher calls the festival 'haram', India
India
Today, Shreya Biswas (September 12, 2016); Mahabali
Mahabali
comes calling, The Hindu, Neeti Sarkar (SEPTEMBER 05, 2014) ^ a b Malayali Muslim man celebrates Onam
Onam
after a preacher calls the festival 'haram', India
India
Today, Shreya Biswas (September 12, 2016) ^ Nanditha Kirshna (2009). Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-81-8475-865-8.  ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 74.  ^ Nanditha Krishna
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(2009). Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books. pp. 65–69. ISBN 978-81-8475-865-8.  ^ Nanditha Krishna
Krishna
(2009). Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-81-8475-865-8.  ^ Osella, Filippo; Osella, Caroline (2007). "Islamism and Social Reform in Kerala, South India". Modern Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 42 (2-3): 330–331. doi:10.1017/s0026749x07003198.  ^ Sunni outfits slam Muneer, The Times of India
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salafi preacher says Onam, Christmas haram, The Times of India (Jul 18, 2016) ^ Mahabali
Mahabali
comes calling, The Hindu, Neeti Sarkar (SEPTEMBER 05, 2014) ^ "Myth, mystique and traditions of Onam". The Hindu. Kochi, India. 2014-08-21.  ^ a b c PTI (2010-08-14). "'Athachamayam' Festivities held at Tripunithura". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ "Say it in gold and off-white". The Hindu. Kochi, India. 2016-09-14.  ^ Thripunithura Athachamayam, Kerala
Kerala
Tourism, Government of Kerala ^ "And Onam
Onam
is here, officially". The Hindu. Kochi, India. 2016-09-14.  ^ a b Athachamayam: a festival of generations, Athachamayam, Trippunithura Municipality (2015) ^ Ann Morrill (2009). Thanksgiving and Other Harvest Festivals. Infobase Publishing. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-1-4381-2797-2.  ^ Stephen P. Huyler (1994). Painted Prayers: Women's Art in Village India. St Martins Press. p. 191. ISBN 978-0-8478-1809-9.  ^ a b c Team MetroPlus. "The feel of Onam". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ "'Athappookalam' losing traditional verve". The Hindu. 2009-09-01. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ D. Appukuttan Nair (1993). Kathakali, the Art of the Non-worldly. Marg Publications. p. 47. ISBN 978-81-85026-22-0.  ^ a b "Thiruvonam celebrated with enthusiasm". The Hindu. 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ Vinu Vasudevan (2013-05-09). "Majestic portrayals". The Hindu. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ "Ritual lunch marks Onam
Onam
at Thrikkakara". The Hindu. 2010-08-24. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ "Grandeur marks Onam
Onam
celebrations at Thrikkakkara
Thrikkakkara
temple". The Hindu. 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ " Thrikkakara temple
Thrikkakara temple
gears up for Onam". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2013-08-24.  ^ a b " Onam
Onam
celebrated in S'pore". Asia One news. 2012-09-07. Retrieved 2012-12-30.  ^ "' Kerala
Kerala
gets ready for 26 dish Onam
Onam
sadya'". 4 Sep 2014.  ^ a b c N. Satyendran (2010-08-10). " Onam
Onam
on a leaf". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-09-14.  ^ "Sarkara varatti recipe". Cheena Chatti. Retrieved 2015-10-30.  ^ "Flowers, pookkalam and Onam". The Hindu. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2013-09-17.  ^ a b c P. 179 Genealogy Of The South Indian Deities By Bartholomaeus Ziegenbalg, Daniel Jeyaraj ^ " Onam
Onam
celebrations in Dubai to have traditional flair". The Khaleej Times. 2015-08-15. Retrieved 2015-12-30.  ^ Shveta Pathak (2011-09-10). "Keralites in the UAE celebrate Onam". Gulf News. Retrieved 2012-12-30. 

External links

Media related to Onam
Onam
at Wikimedia Commons

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State of Kerala

Capital: Thiruvananthapuram

Symbols

Bird Great hornbill Animal Indian elephant Tree Coconut Flower Golden shower Fish Karimeen

Topics

Arts Culture Demographics Economy Education Film Geography Roads Ports History Flora and Fauna Government Tourism Sports

Districts

Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
KL-01 Kollam
Kollam
KL-02 Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
KL-03 Alappuzha
Alappuzha
KL-04 Kottayam
Kottayam
KL-05 Idukki
Idukki
KL-06 Ernakulam KL-07 Thrissur
Thrissur
KL-08 Palakkad
Palakkad
KL-09 Malappuram
Malappuram
KL-10 Kozhikode
Kozhikode
KL-11 Wayanad KL-12 Kannur
Kannur
KL-13 Kasaragod
Kasaragod
KL-14

Taluks

Neyyattinkara Kattakada Thiruvananthapuram Nedumangad Chirayinkeezhu Varkala Kollam Karunagappalli Kunnathur Kottarakkara Punalur Pathanapuram Adoor Konni Kozhencherry Ranni Mallapally Tiruvalla Chengannur Mavelikkara Karthikappally Ambalappuzha Kuttanad Cherthala Changanassery Kottayam Kanjirappally Meenachil Vaikom Peermade Udumbanchola Idukki Thodupuzha Devikulam Kothamangalam Muvattupuzha Kunnathunad Kanayannur Kochi Aluva North Paravur Kodungallur Chalakudy Mukundapuram Thrissur Chavakkad Thalapilly Alathur Chittur Palakkad Pattambi Ottapalam Mannarkkad Perinthalmanna Ponnani Thirur Tirurangadi Eranad Kondotty Nilambur Kozhikode Thamarassery Koyilandy Vatakara Vythiri Sultan Bathery Mananthavady Iritty Thalassery Kannur Taliparamba Hosdurg Vellarikundu Kasaragod Manjeshwaram

Municipal Corporations

Thiruvananthapuram Kochi Kozhikode Kollam Thrissur Kannur

Municipalities

Adoor Anthoor Alappuzha Aluva Angamaly Attingal Chalakudy Changanassery Chavakkad Chengannur Cherthala Chittur Tattamangalam Eloor Guruvayur Irinjalakuda Iritty Kalamassery Kalpetta Kanhangad Karunagappalli Kasaragod Kayamkulam Kodungallur Kuthuparamba Kothamangalam Kottakkal Kottarakkara Kottayam Koyilandy Kunnamkulam Malappuram Manjeri Maradu Mattanur Mavelikkara Muvattupuzha Nedumangad Neyyattinkara Nilambur Nileshwaram North Paravur Ottapalam Palai Palakkad Panoor Paravur Pathanamthitta Payyanur Perintalmanna Perumbavoor Ponnani Punalur Shoranur Sreekandapuram Thalassery Taliparamba Tiruvalla Thodupuzha Thrikkakkara Thrippunithura Tirur Vatakara Vaikom Varkala

Other Towns

Parassala Balaramapuram Kattakkada Chirayinkeezhu Kilimanoor Chathannur Kundara Chavara Oachira Sasthamkotta Kunnathur Anchal Pathanapuram Kozhencherry Konni Ranni Mallapally Kumbanad Aranmula Kulanada Omalloor Vadasserikkara Parumala Mannar Charummoodu Ambalapuzha Mararikulam Aroor Kanjirapally Erumeli Mundakayam Vazhoor Karukachal Pampady Puthuppally Kuravilangad Uzhavoor Thalayolaparambu Kaduthuruthy Peermade Vandiperiyar Kumily Rajakkad Munnar Devikulam Adimali Kolenchery Puthencruz Kunnathunad Kalady Malayattoor Chottanikkara Udayamperoor Varapuzha Sreemoolanagaram Nedumbassery Mala Kodakara Pudukkad Manalur Pavaratty Chelakkara Vadakkencherry Alathur Nemmara Puthunagaram Malampuzha Sreekrishnapuram Lakkidi-Perur Thrithala Edappal Tavanur Angadipuram Mankada Kuttippuram Karipur Areekode Wandoor Vengara Vallikunnu Olavanna Kunnamangalam Thamarassery Thiruvambady Kodencheri Balussery Perambra Nadapuram Kuttiyadi Lakkidi Vythiri Chundale Meppadi Kottappadi Muttil Padinharethara Meenangadi Panamaram Pulpally Peravoor Dharmadam Anjarakandi Muzhappilangad Azhikode Cherukunnu Pappinisseri Kaliiasseri Irikkur Alakode Trikaripur Cheruvathur Bekal Udma Vellarikundu Parappa Karadka Kumbala Mangalpady Uppala Manjeshwaram

Historical Regions

Malabar

North Malabar South Malabar

Cochin Venad
Venad
Swarupam (Kingdom of Quilon) Travancore Travancore-Cochin

Portal: Kerala

v t e

Tourism in Kerala

Organizations

Kerala
Kerala
Tourism Development Corporation Department of Tourism (Kerala) Gandhi Seva Sadan

Informative articles

Chinese fishing nets God's Own Country Chundan Vallam Kerala
Kerala
backwaters Pooram Puli Kali Temple Festivals of Kerala Tourist Resorts (Kerala) Vallam Kali Wildlife of Kerala

Airports

Aranmula
Aranmula
International Airport Sabarigiri International Airport Calicut International Airport Cochin Duty Free Cochin International Airport Kannur
Kannur
International Airport Kollam
Kollam
Airport(Defunct) Trivandrum International Airport

Amusement parks

Fantasy Park Kottakkunnu Vismaya Wonderla

Archaeological sites

Anchuthengu Ariyannur Umbrellas Cheraman Parambu Kadavallur Kandanissery Kudakkallu Parambu Pattanam Tangasseri Thovarimala Ezhuthupara

Beaches

Alappuzha
Alappuzha
Beach Azheekal beach Chavakkad
Chavakkad
Beach Cherai Beach Fort Kochi
Kochi
beach Kappad Kappil, Thiruvananthapuram Kappkadavu Kollam
Kollam
Beach Kovalam Mappila Bay Marari Beach Meenkunnu Beach Munakkal Beach Mundakkal Beach Muzhappilangad
Muzhappilangad
Beach Muziris beach Payyambalam Beach Poovar Shankumugham Beach Snehatheeram Beach Paravur Thekkumbhagam Thirumullavaram Beach Thottada Beach Varkala
Varkala
Beach

Boat races

Aranmula
Aranmula
Boat Race Champakulam Moolam Boat Race Indira Gandhi Boat Race Kallada Boat Race Kandassankadavu Boat Race Nehru Trophy Boat Race Payippadu Vallam Kali President's Trophy Boat Race Sree Narayana Jayanthi Boat Race Triprayar Boat Race

Caves

Chovvanur burial cave Edakkal Caves Kottukal cave temple Nedumala caves, Piralimattam Vizhinjam rock caves

Dams

Banasura Sagar Dam Bhoothathankettu Cheruthoni Dam Chimmony Dam Idamalayar Dam Idukki
Idukki
Dam Kakki Reservoir Karapuzha Dam Malampuzha
Malampuzha
Dam Mangalam Dam (dam) Mattupetty Dam Mullaperiyar Dam Neyyar Dam Parambikulam Dam Pazhassi Dam Peechi Dam Peringalkuthu Dam Peruvaripallam Dam Ponmudi
Ponmudi
Dam Poomala
Poomala
Dam Pothundi Dam Sholayar Dam Siruvani Dam Thanneermukkom Bund Thenmala Dam Thunakkadavu Dam Vazhani Dam Walayar Dam

Festivals

Aanayoottu Aaraattu Aluva
Aluva
Sivarathri festival Arattupuzha Pooram Edakkunni Uthram Vilakku Feast of Saint Raphael, Ollur Gandharvanpattu Ilanjithara Melam India
India
International Boat Show International Film Festival of Kerala Kadavallur
Kadavallur
Anyonyam Kanyarkali Karivela Kerala
Kerala
Adventure Carnival Keralotsavam Kollam
Kollam
Pooram Kottakkal
Kottakkal
pooram Kottankulangara Festival Machad Mamangam Nalukulangara Pooram Kalpathi Ratholsavam Nenmara Vallanghy Vela Onam Onathallu or Avittathallu Peruvanam Pooram Tattamangalam
Tattamangalam
Kuthira Vela Thirumandhamkunnu Pooram Thrissur
Thrissur
Pooram Uthralikavu Pooram

Forts

Anchuthengu
Anchuthengu
Fort Bekal
Bekal
Fort Chandragiri Fort, Kerala Cranganore Fort East Fort Fort Emmanuel Hosdurg Fort Nedumkotta Overbury's Folly Palakkad
Palakkad
Fort Pallipuram Fort St Thomas Fort, Tangasseri St. Angelo Fort Tellicherry Fort William Fort

Islands

Dharmadam
Dharmadam
Island Ezhumanthuruthu Gundu Island Islands of Kollam Kavvayi Kuruvadweep Munroe Island Parumala Pizhala Pulinkunnoo Ramanthuruthu Valiyaparamba Vallarpadam Vypin Willingdon Island

Lakes

Ashtamudi Lake Enamakkal Lake Mananchira Oranju Poika Padinjarechira Paravur Lake Pookode Lake Sasthamcotta Lake Veeranpuzha Vellayani Lake Vadakkechira Vanchikulam Vembanad

Lighthouses

Vizhinjam Tangasseri Kovilthottam Alappuzha Manakkodam Vypin Azhikode Chetwai Ponnani Beypore Kozhikode Kannur

Mountains

Aathanad Agastya
Agastya
Mala Ambanad Hills Ambukuthi mala Anamudi Anginda peak Banasura Hill Chembra Peak Elivai Malai Ilaveezha Poonchira Illickal Kallu Kunnathoor Padi Marayur Meenuliyan Para Nelliampathi Paithalmala Ponmudi Poomala Urakam Hill Vagamon Vagavurrai Vellarimala

Museums

8 Point Gallery Cafe, Kollam Arakkal Museum Archaeological Museum, Thrissur Indian Business Museum Indo-Portuguese Museum Kerala
Kerala
Science and Technology Museum Kerala
Kerala
Soil Museum Munnar
Munnar
Tea Museum Napier Museum Pazhassi Raja Archaeological Museum Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Police Museum, Kollam Teak Museum Wayanad Heritage Museum

Palaces

Aranmula
Aranmula
Kottaram Bolgatty Palace British Residency Cheena Kottaram Halcyon Castle Hill Palace, Tripunithura Kanakakkunnu Palace Kilimanoor
Kilimanoor
Palace Kodungallur
Kodungallur
Kovilakam Kollengode Palace Kowdiar Palace Koyikkal Palace Krishnapuram Palace Kuthira Malika Laxmipuram Palace Mattancherry Palace Merry Lodge Palace Pandalam Palace Punnathurkotta Puthen Kovilakam Shakthan Thampuran Palace Sri Moolam Thirunal Palace Thevally Palace

Waterfalls

Adyanpara Falls Aripara Falls Aruvikkuzhi Waterfalls Athirappilly Falls Charpa Falls Cheeyappara Kumbhavurutty Waterfalls Lakkom Water Falls Manalar Waterfalls Marmala waterfall Meenmutty Falls, Thiruvananthapuram Meenmutty Falls, Wayanad Oliyarik Waterfalls Palaruvi Falls Panieli Poru waterfalls Pattathippara Falls Perunthenaruvi Perunthenaruvi
Perunthenaruvi
Falls Soochipara Falls Thommankuthu Thusharagiri Falls Thuvanam Waterfalls Vazhachal Falls Vazhvanthol waterfalls

Wildlife sanctuaries

Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary Kurinjimala Sanctuary Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Pathiramanal Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary Peechi-Vazhani Wildlife Sanctuary Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary Periyar Tiger Reserve Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary Thattekad Bird Sanctuary Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary

Zoos

Crocodile Rehabilitation and Research Centre Parassinikkadavu Snake Park Thiruvananthapuram
Thiruvananthapuram
Zoo Thrissur
Thrissur
Zoo Thrissur
Thrissur
Zoological Park Wildlife Conversation & Research Centre

Templates Portal Category WikiProject

v t e

Festivals in the Hindu
Hindu
calendar

Major festivals

Chhath Diwali Ganesh
Ganesh
Chaturthi Vasant Panchami Holi Galungan
Galungan
(Bali) Kartik Purnima Kali
Kali
Puja Krishna
Krishna
Janmashtami Maha Shivaratri Makar Sankranti Nyepi
Nyepi
(Bali) Navratri

Ayudha Puja Durga
Durga
Puja Vijayadashami

Onam Pongal Rama
Rama
Navami Thaipusam Vat Purnima Mesha Sankranti Bhratri Dwitiya Dhanteras Ratha-Yatra Dashahara Anant Chaturdashi

Guru Purnima Buddha Jayanti Hanuman
Hanuman
Jayanti

Regional New Year

Bihu
Bihu
(Assamese) Cheti Chand
Cheti Chand
(Sindhi) Gudi Padwa
Gudi Padwa
(Marathi, Konkani) Nyepi
Nyepi
(Bali) Pana Sankranti
Pana Sankranti
(Oriya) Pohela Boishakh
Pohela Boishakh
(Bengali) Puthandu
Puthandu
(Tamil) Ugadi
Ugadi
(Telugu, Kannada) Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
(North & Central India, Nepal) Vishu
Vishu
(Malayali)

Holy days

Akshaya Tritiya Amalaka Ekadashi Vaikuntha Ekadashi Kamada Ekadashi Shravana Putrada Ekadashi Shayani Ekadashi Pausha Putrada Ekadashi Varuthini Ekadashi Prabodhini Ekadashi Ekadashi Gowri Habba Karva Chauth Mahalakshmi Vrata Nirjala Ekadashi Raksha Bandhan Sankranti Nag Panchami Savitri Brata Amavasya Sharad Purnima Kartik Purnima Datta Jayanti Pradosha

Holy periods

Chaturmas Dhanurmas Pitru Paksha Uttarayana Dakshinayana

Hindu
Hindu
festivals

v t e

Hinduism
Hinduism
topics

Glossary

Philosophy

Concepts

Brahman Om Ishvara Atman Maya Karma Samsara

Purusharthas

Dharma Artha Kama Moksha

Niti

Ahimsa Asteya Aparigraha Brahmacharya Satya Dāna Damah Dayā Akrodha

Schools

Astika: Samkhya Yoga Nyaya Vaisheshika Mimamsa Vedanta

Dvaita Advaita Vishishtadvaita

Nastika: Charvaka

Texts

Classification

Śruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Divisions

Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad

Upanishads

Aitareya Kaushitaki Brihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Maitri Shvetashvatara Chandogya Kena Mundaka Mandukya Prashna

Upavedas

Ayurveda Dhanurveda Gandharvaveda Sthapatyaveda

Vedanga

Shiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa Jyotisha

Other

Bhagavad Gita Agamas Itihasas

Ramayana Mahabharata

Puranas Minor Upanishads Artha
Artha
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Dharma
Shastra

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Sutras Stotras Subhashita Tantras Yoga
Yoga
Vasistha Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali

Deities

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu Shiva

Ishvara Devi Deva Saraswati Lakshmi Parvati Shakti Durga Kali Ganesha Kartikeya Rama Krishna Hanuman Prajapati Rudra Indra Agni Dyaus Bhumi Varuna Vayu

Practices

Worship

Temple Murti Puja Bhakti Japa Bhajana Naivedhya Yajna Homa Tapa Dhyana Tirthadana

Sanskaras

Garbhadhana Pumsavana Simantonayana Jatakarma Namakarana Nishkramana Annaprashana Chudakarana Karnavedha Vidyarambha Upanayana Keshanta Ritushuddhi Samavartana Vivaha Antyeshti

Varnashrama

Varna

Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Shudra

Ashrama

Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyassa

Festivals

Diwali Holi Shivaratri Raksha Bandhan Navaratri

Durga
Durga
Puja Ramlila Vijayadashami
Vijayadashami
(Dasara)

Ganesh
Ganesh
Chaturthi Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Onam Pongal Makar Sankranti New Year

Bihu Gudi Padwa Pahela Baishakh Puthandu Vaisakhi Vishu Ugadi

Kumbha Mela Ratha Yatra Teej Vasant Panchami Others

Other

Svādhyāya Namaste Bindi Tilaka

Related

Hindu Denominations Law Calendar Criticism Gurus, saints, philosophers Hindu
Hindu
studies Iconography Mythology Nationalism

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by country

.