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Omsk
Omsk
(Russian: Омск, IPA: [omsk]) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk
Omsk
Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia
Siberia
2,236 kilometers (1,389 mi)[13] from Moscow. With a population of 1,154,116, it is Russia's second-largest city east of the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
after Novosibirsk, and seventh by size nationally.[7] Omsk
Omsk
acts as an essential transport node, serving as a train station for Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
and as a staging post for the Irtysh
Irtysh
River. During the Imperial era, Omsk
Omsk
used to be the seat of the Governor General of Western Siberia
Siberia
and, later, of the Governor General of the Steppes. For a brief period during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
in 1918–1920, it served as the capital of the anti-Bolshevik Russian State and held the imperial gold reserves. Omsk
Omsk
is the administrative center of the Siberian Cossack Host. It also serves as the see of the bishop of Omsk
Omsk
and Tara, as well as the administrative seat of the Imam of Siberia.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Soviet period 1.2 Post-Soviet period

2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Climate

3 Administrative and municipal status 4 Demographics 5 Architecture 6 Life and culture

6.1 Education 6.2 Sports

7 Transportation 8 Honors 9 Notable people

9.1 Athletes

10 Twin towns and sister cities 11 References

11.1 Notes 11.2 Sources

12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Omsk The wooden fort of Omsk
Omsk
was built in 1716 by a cossack unit led by Ivan Buchholz to protect the expanding Russian frontier along the Ishim and the Irtysh
Irtysh
rivers against the Kyrgyz and Dzungar nomads of the Steppes.[14] In 1768 Om fortress was relocated. The original Tobolsk
Tobolsk
and the restored Tara gates, along with the original German Lutheran Church and several public buildings are left from that time. Omsk
Omsk
was granted town status in 1782.[15] In 1822 Omsk
Omsk
became an administrative capital of Western Siberia
Siberia
and later in 1882 the center of the vast Steppes region (today the northern part of Kazakhstan) and Aqmola Oblast in particular acquiring several churches and cathedrals of various denominations, mosques, a synagogue, the governor-general's mansion, and a military academy.[citation needed] But as the frontier receded and its military importance diminished, the town fell into lethargy. For that time Omsk became a major center of the Siberian exile. From 1850 to 1854 Fyodor Dostoyevsky served his sentence in an Omsk
Omsk
katorga prison. Development of the city was catalyzed with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
in the 1890s that affected significance of Omsk as a logistic hub. Many trade companies established stores and offices in Omsk
Omsk
defining the character of the city center. British, Dutch, and German consulates were established roughly at the same time in order to represent their commercial interests. The pinnacle of development for pre-revolutionary Omsk
Omsk
was the Siberian Exposition of Agriculture and Industry in 1910. Popularity of the World Fairs contributed to the image of Omsk
Omsk
as "Chicago of Siberia".[citation needed] Soon after the October Revolution, anti-Bolshevik White forces seized control of Omsk. The "Provisional All-Russian Government" was established here in 1918, headed by the Arctic explorer and decorated war hero Admiral Kolchak. Omsk
Omsk
was proclaimed the capital of Russia, and its central bank was tasked with safekeeping the former empire's gold reserves. These were guarded by a garrison of former Czechoslovakian POWs trapped in Siberia
Siberia
by the chaos of World War I and the subsequent Revolution.[citation needed] Omsk
Omsk
became a prime target for the Red Army
Red Army
leadership, which viewed it as a major target of their Siberian campaign and eventually forced Kolchak and his government to abandon the city and retreat along the Trans-Siberian eastward to Irkutsk. Bolshevik forces entered the city in 1919. Soviet period[edit]

Pushkin State Library

The Soviet government preferred the young Novonikolayevsk (later known as Novosibirsk) as the administrative center of Western Siberia, prompting the mass transfer of administrative, cultural, and educational functions from Omsk. This somewhat stunted Omsk's growth and sparked a continuing rivalry between the two cities.[16] Omsk received new life as a result of World War II. Because it was both far from the fighting and had a well-developed infrastructure, Omsk provided a perfect haven for much of the industry evacuated away from the frontlines in 1941. Additionally, contingency plans were made to transfer the provisional Soviet capital to Omsk
Omsk
in the event of a German victory during the Battle of Moscow
Moscow
(October 1941 to January 1942).[citation needed] At the end of the war Omsk
Omsk
remained a major industrial center, and became a leader in Soviet military production.

Leningrad bridge over the Irtysh

Military industries which moved to Omsk
Omsk
included part of the OKMO tank-design bureau in 1941, and S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 from Chelyabinsk, in 1962. The Kirov Factory and Omsk Transmash
Omsk Transmash
design bureau (KBTM) produced T-80
T-80
tanks from the 1970s, and were responsible for the BTR-T, TOS-1, and the prototype Black Eagle tank. Omsk Transmash declared bankruptcy in 2002. In the 1950s, following the development of the oil and natural-gas field in Siberia, an oil-refining complex was built, along with an entire "town of oil workers", expanding Omsk
Omsk
northward along the Irtysh. It is currently the largest such complex in Russia. Gazprom Neft, the parent company, is the largest employer in the city, wielding its tax rates as leverage in negotiations with municipal and regional authorities. Post-Soviet period[edit] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Omsk
Omsk
experienced a period of economic instability and political stagnation. Most of the city's large businesses, which had previously been state owned, were fought over by members of the former party elite, the emerging nouveau riche, and fast growing criminal syndicates. The most notorious cases involved the privatization of Sibneft, a major oil company, which dragged on for several years. Until the end of the 1990s, political life in Omsk
Omsk
was defined by an ongoing feud between the oblast and city authorities. The resulting conflict made at least two points of view available to the public and served as the impetus for some improvements to the city's infrastructure and cultural life. These included the construction of new leisure parks and the renovation of the city's historic center, the establishment of the annual Siberian International Marathon, and of the annual City Days Festival. Despite this, internal political competition drained the Omsk's resources and served as a major obstacle for smooth government operations and city development. Geography[edit] Location[edit] Omsk
Omsk
is situated on the south of the West Siberian Plain
West Siberian Plain
along the banks of the north-flowing Irtysh
Irtysh
at its confluence with the Om River. The city has an elevation of 87 meters (285 ft) above mean sea level at its highest point. Omsk
Omsk
is an important railroad hub, and is the junction point for the northern and southern branches of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The city also serves as a major hub for the regional highway network. River-port facilities handle both passengers and freight, giving the city access to navigating the extensive waterways of the Irtysh
Irtysh
and Ob River. The waterways connect Omsk
Omsk
with the coal and mineral-mining towns further up the river in Kazakhstan, as well as with the oil, natural gas and lumber operations of northern Siberia. Omsk
Omsk
is served by the Tsentralny Airport, which offers access to domestic and international (primarily, German and Kazakh) destinations, making the city an important aviation hub for Siberia
Siberia
and the Russian Far East. Climate[edit] Omsk
Omsk
has a temperate climate characterized by dramatic swings of weather. Average daily temperatures, taken over the past three decades, are +20 °C (68 °F) for July and −17 °C (1 °F) for January, although temperatures can reach +40 °C (104 °F) in the summer and drop to −45 °C (−49 °F) in the winter. On average, Omsk
Omsk
sees over 300 sunny days a year (2201 hours). The average annual precipitation is 415 millimeters (16.3 in).

Climate data for Omsk

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 4.2 (39.6) 3.6 (38.5) 14.1 (57.4) 31.3 (88.3) 35.5 (95.9) 40.1 (104.2) 40.4 (104.7) 38.0 (100.4) 32.9 (91.2) 27.4 (81.3) 16.1 (61) 4.5 (40.1) 40.4 (104.7)

Average high °C (°F) −12 (10) −10.3 (13.5) −2.5 (27.5) 9.1 (48.4) 19.0 (66.2) 23.9 (75) 25.3 (77.5) 22.7 (72.9) 15.9 (60.6) 8.1 (46.6) −3.7 (25.3) −9.8 (14.4) 7.1 (44.8)

Daily mean °C (°F) −16.3 (2.7) −15.0 (5) −7.3 (18.9) 3.7 (38.7) 12.5 (54.5) 18.0 (64.4) 19.6 (67.3) 16.9 (62.4) 10.4 (50.7) 3.5 (38.3) −7.3 (18.9) −13.8 (7.2) 2.1 (35.8)

Average low °C (°F) −20.5 (−4.9) −19.4 (−2.9) −12 (10) −1.0 (30.2) 6.3 (43.3) 12.0 (53.6) 14.2 (57.6) 11.6 (52.9) 5.7 (42.3) −0.3 (31.5) −10.5 (13.1) −17.9 (−0.2) −2.7 (27.1)

Record low °C (°F) −45.1 (−49.2) −45.5 (−49.9) −41.1 (−42) −26.4 (−15.5) −12.9 (8.8) −3.1 (26.4) 2.1 (35.8) −1.7 (28.9) −7.6 (18.3) −28.1 (−18.6) −41.2 (−42.2) −44.7 (−48.5) −45.5 (−49.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 23 (0.91) 18 (0.71) 17 (0.67) 21 (0.83) 35 (1.38) 51 (2.01) 66 (2.6) 54 (2.13) 37 (1.46) 30 (1.18) 34 (1.34) 29 (1.14) 415 (16.34)

Average rainy days 1 0.4 3 10 17 17 18 19 18 13 5 1 122

Average snowy days 28 25 18 9 2 0.2 0 0 1 11 22 28 144

Average relative humidity (%) 80 78 76 64 54 60 68 70 70 74 81 81 71

Mean monthly sunshine hours 68 125 184 235 284 319 321 248 180 105 71 61 2,201

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[17]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[18]

Administrative and municipal status[edit] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Omsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Omsk
Omsk
is incorporated as Omsk
Omsk
Urban Okrug.[3] Demographics[edit] The population in Omsk
Omsk
had been steadily rising, according to the records: from 31,000 in 1881 to 53,050 in 1900 and to 1,148,418 in 1989.[19] The 2002 Census recorded that the population had declined to 1,134,016,[20] but it rebounded marginally, according to the 2010 Census, which listed the population of 1,154,116.[7] Architecture[edit]

Omsk
Omsk
Dormition Cathedral

The architectural centerpiece of the city is an ensemble of buildings along Lyubinsky Avenue/Lenina Street, anchored by the former Gostiny Dvor, and flanked by two chapels. The area is an eclectic mix of architectural styles, dominated by Art-Nouveau, Neoclassical and Second Empire. Closer to the confluence of the Om and the Irtysh
Irtysh
are the few surviving sombre buildings of the 18th-century fortress. The largest and most opulent church in the city is the Dormition Cathedral, a five-domed edifice in the Russian Revival
Russian Revival
style, consecrated in 1896, demolished by the Soviets, and restored in the first decade of the 21st century.[citation needed] Another area of interest is Nikolsky Avenue-Krasnykh Zor Street, where a line of merchants' wooden houses still stands. The street leads to the Neoclassical cathedral of St. Nicholas, which was commissioned by the Cossacks, designed by Vasily Stasov and consecrated in 1840. It contains various relics of the Siberian Cossacks.[citation needed]

Tarskaya Street

The fountain on Teatralnaya Ploshad'

Life and culture[edit] As a prominent educational center, Omsk
Omsk
has a number of museums, theaters, music venues, and educational institutions.

Omsk
Omsk
Vrubel Museum

Among Omsk's museums, the most notable are:

The State Museum of Regional History The Dostoyevsky Museum of Literature The Vrubel Museum of Fine Arts The Military Museum Complex The Kondraty Belov Art Museum The Liberov Center for Art

Theaters include the Omsk
Omsk
Opera, The Omsk
Omsk
Theater of Drama, The Omsk Circus, Omsk
Omsk
State Music Theater, and a number of smaller venues. Education[edit]

Omsk
Omsk
State Transport University

Omsk
Omsk
is home to many institutions of higher learning and several universities:

Law and Economics Institute Omsk
Omsk
Academy of Law Omsk
Omsk
Academy of MVD Rossija Omsk
Omsk
Aviation Technical School Omsk
Omsk
Foreign Language Institute Omsk
Omsk
Medical Academy Omsk State Transport University
Omsk State Transport University
(1961) Omsk State Agrarian University
Omsk State Agrarian University
(1918) (connected with Omsk
Omsk
State Veterinary Institute and Institute of Agribusiness and Continuing Education) Omsk
Omsk
State Pedagogical University Omsk State University (1974) Omsk
Omsk
Institute of Consumer Service Technology Omsk State Technical University
Omsk State Technical University
(1942) SibADI - (Russian: Сибирский АвтоДорожный Институт) Siberian State Automobile and Highway Academy (formerly, Institute) SibGUFK - (Russian: Сибирский Государственный Университет Физической Культуры) Siberian Academy of Physical Culture Siberian Institute of Business and Information Technology Sovremennyi Gomunitarnyi University SIBNFOR - Siberian Stock Market Institute

Sports[edit]

Arena Omsk

Omsk
Omsk
is represented nationally by professional association football and hockey clubs.

Club Sport Founded Current league League rank Stadium

Avangard Omsk Ice Hockey 1950 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Omsk
Omsk
Arena

Omskie Yastreby Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Omsk
Omsk
Arena

Yastreby Omsk Ice Hockey 2012 Minor Hockey League
Minor Hockey League
Division B Jr. 2nd Omsk
Omsk
Arena

Omichka Omsk Volleyball 1965 Woman's Volleyball
Volleyball
Super League 1st Blinov SCC

Omichka-2 Volleyball 2009 Woman's Supreme League 2nd SC Ermak

Irtysh
Irtysh
Omsk Football 1946 Russian Second Division 2nd Red Star Stadium

Neftyanik Omsk Basketball 1965 Basketball Superleague B 3rd Sports Complex Sibirskiy Neftyanik

Transportation[edit]

The picture of the Omsk
Omsk
Railway station

Omsk
Omsk
is a major rail, road, and air hub. The city is served by a station on the Trans-Siberian Railway, and by the Tsentralny Airport. Additionally, Omsk
Omsk
possesses a river port on the Irtysh, offering service to domestic destinations and to cities within Kazakhstan. Municipal Transport consists of a large bus and trolley, and tram networks, although the latter of these has deteriorated severely since the collapse of the USSR. marshrutkas (shared taxis) supplement municipal transit networks. A Metro system, proposed in the late 1980s, but postponed for lack of funds, is currently under construction, with the Metro bridge over the Irtysh
Irtysh
River. The bridge is already opened for cars (upper level), but the metro (lower level) is still under construction. As a first step, one short line will connect the districts in the northwest with the city center. As of 2017, only one station is open and serves as a pedestrian subway. Honors[edit]

The 3406 Omsk asteroid, which lies in the main asteroid belt, is named after the city.[21]

Notable people[edit] Main article: List of people from Omsk

Innokenty Annensky, poet Nina Arkhipova, actress Fyodor Dostoyevsky, writer and essayist, in exile 1849–1854 Vladislav Dvorzhetsky, actor Wacław Iwaszkiewicz-Rudoszański, Polish general Anatol Josepho, inventor Eduard Kunz, pianist Dmitry Yazov, Russian general Dmitry Karbyshev, general Vilis Krištopans, former Prime Minister of Latvia Valerian Kuybyshev, revolutionary Sergey Letov, jazz musician Yegor Letov, rock musician Vladimir Lukin, politician Leonid Martynov, poet Lyubov Polishchuk, actress Grigory Potanin, ethnographer and natural historian Ludmilla Radchenko, model and actress Vlada Roslyakova, model Robert Rozhdestvensky, poet Vissarion Shebalin, composer Valentina Talyzina, actress Tamāra Vilerte, Latvian chess player Mikhail Vrubel, artist Mikhail Ulyanov, actor Nikolai Yadrintsev, explorer and archaeologist

Athletes[edit]

Egor Averin, hockey player Vladimir Barnashov, biathlete and biathlon coach Vitalina Batsarashkina, sports shooter Viktor Blinov, hockey player Tatiana Borodulina, speed skater Dmitrij Jaskin, hockey player Sergei Kalinin, hockey player Yevgeniya Kanayeva, rhythmic gymnast Yuliya Kosenkova, middle distance athlete Vera Krasnova, speed skater Marat Mulashev, professional football Nikita Nikitin, hockey player Nikita Pivtsakin, hockey player Anastasija Reiberger, pole vaulter Dennis Siver, mixed martial arts fighter Yuri Shatalov, hockey player Alexander Shlemenko, mixed martial arts fighter Galima Shugurova, rhythmic gymnast Sofya Skomorokh, rhythmic gymnast Roman Sloudnov, swimmer Alexander Svitov, hockey player Dmitri Sychev, association football player Andrei Taratukhin, hockey player Irina Tchachina, rhythmic gymnast Aleksei Tishchenko, boxer Polina Tsurskaya, figure skater

Twin towns and sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia Omsk
Omsk
is twinned with:

Púchov, Slovakia Karlovy Vary, Czech Republic Kaifeng, China Jinju, South Korea Petropavl, Kazakhstan Pavlodar, Kazakhstan Novosibirsk, Russia Kaliningrad, Russia Chelyabinsk, Russia Milwaukee, United States Regional Municipality of York, Ontario, Canada Lublin, Poland Łódź, Poland Gdańsk, Poland

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f Law #467-OZ ^ http://www.admomsk.ru/web/guest/city/birthday ^ a b c Law #548-OZ ^ a b Mayor of Omsk
Omsk
Viacheslav Dvorakovsky ^ Избирательное право ^ a b География Омска ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ https://www.emporis.com/city/100841/omsk-russia ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian) ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/dialingcodes.html?p1=369&p2=374&number= ^ mapcrow.info ^ Omsk
Omsk
history timeline (in Russian) ^ admomsk.ru ^ narod.ru ^ "Weather and Climate - The Climate of Omsk" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved November 30, 2015.  ^ " Omsk
Omsk
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 30, 2015.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names - p.284

Sources[edit]

Законодательное Собрание Омской области. Закон №467-ОЗ от 15 октября 2003 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Омской области и о порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №1591-ОЗ от 10 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Омской области в связи с принятием Федерального Закона "Об образовании в Российской Федерации"». Вступил в силу через три месяца со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Омский вестник", №69, 31 октября 2003 г. (Legislative Assembly of Omsk Oblast. Law #467-OZ of October 15, 2003 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Omsk Oblast
Omsk Oblast
and on the Procedures of Its Change, as amended by the Law #1591-OZ of December 10, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Omsk
Omsk
Oblast Due to the Adoption of the Federal Law "On Education in the Russian Federation". Effective as of the day three months after the official publication date.). Законодательное Собрание Омской области. Закон №548-ОЗ от 30 июля 2004 г. «О границах и статусе муниципальных образований Омской области», в ред. Закона №1642-ОЗ от 27 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Омской области "О границах и статусе муниципальных образований Омской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Омский вестник", №45, №47, №49, 13, 20, 27 августа 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Omsk
Omsk
Oblast. Law #548-OZ of July 30, 2004 On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations of Omsk
Omsk
Oblast, as amended by the Law #1642-OZ of June 27, 2014 On Amending the Law of Omsk Oblast
Omsk Oblast
"On the Borders and Status of the Municipal Formations of Omsk
Omsk
Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Lugovskaya, Kseniya (6 September 2014). "Warrior's 3,900 year old suit of bone armour unearthed in Omsk". The Siberian Times. Retrieved June 18, 2017. 

Further reading[edit] Further information: Bibliography of the history of Omsk External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Omsk.

Official website of Omsk
Omsk
(in Russian)  "Omsk". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. 

v t e

Administrative divisions of Omsk
Omsk
Oblast

Administrative center: Omsk

Cities and towns

Isilkul Kalachinsk Nazyvayevsk Omsk Tara Tyukalinsk

Districts

Azovsky Nemetsky (German) Bolsherechensky Bolsheukovsky Cherlaksky Gorkovsky Isilkulsky Kalachinsky Kolosovsky Kormilovsky Krutinsky Lyubinsky Maryanovsky Moskalensky Muromtsevsky Nazyvayevsky Nizhneomsky Novovarshavsky Odessky Okoneshnikovsky Omsky Pavlogradsky Poltavsky Russko-Polyansky Sargatsky Sedelnikovsky Sherbakulsky Tarsky Tavrichesky Tevrizsky Tyukalinsky Ust-Ishimsky Znamensky

v t e

Historical capitals of Rus' and Russian states and their predecessors

Predecessors of modern Russia

Novgorod Rus', Kievan Rus'

Ryurikovo Gorodische, Novgorod (862–882) Kiev
Kiev
(882–1169)

Vladimir-Suzdal

Vladimir-on-Klyazma (1169–1328)

Grand Duchy of Moscow

Vladimir-on-Klyazma (1169–1328)

Tsardom of Russia

Moscow
Moscow
(1328–1565) Oprichnina: Tsar’s residence in Alexandrova Sloboda (1564/1565–1572/1584) Moscow
Moscow
(1572–1611) Provisional government "Council of All Land": Yaroslavl
Yaroslavl
(1611–1612) Moscow
Moscow
(1612–1712) St. Petersburg (1712–1728)

Russian Empire, Russian Republic

St. Petersburg (1712–1728) de facto Moscow
Moscow
(1728–1730) St. Petersburg/Petrograd (1730–...)

Anti-Bolshevik (White movement)

Samara (June 8, 1918 – September 23, 1918) Ufa
Ufa
(September 23, 1918 – October 9, 1918) Omsk
Omsk
(October 9, 1918 – November 18, 1918)

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(USSR included Russia
Russia
from 1922–1991, Russian Federation is the legal successor of the USSR)

Soviet Union

Moscow
Moscow
(1922–1991) WWII partly and temporary (1941–1943): Kuybyshev (administrative), Sverdlovsk (industrial), Kazan
Kazan
(science)

Modern Russia
Russia
(since November 7, 1917)

Soviet Russia, RSFSR, Russian Federation

Petrograd (November 7, 1917 – March 12, 1918) Moscow
Moscow
(since March 12, 1918)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 153553

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