Gimojan languages: Yemsa Bench (Gimira) Chara Ometo
The OMOTIC languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic family spoken in
* 1 Languages * 2 Classification * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Sources cited * 6 General Omotic bibliography * 7 External links
The North and
South Omotic branches ("Nomotic" and "Somotic") are
universally recognized. The primary debate is over the placement of
Mao languages . Bender (2000) classifies
* South Omotic / Aroid (Hamer-Banna , Aari , Dime , Karo )
* North Omotic / Non-Aroid
* Bambassi * West Mao (Hozo , Seze , Ganza )
* Dizoid (Dizi , Sheko , Nayi )
* Gonga/Kefoid (Boro , Anfillo , Kafa , Shekkacho )
* Bench * Chara * Ometo languages
Apart from terminology, this differs from Fleming (1976) in including the Mao languages, whose affiliation had originally been controversial, and in abolishing the "Gimojan" group. There are also differences in the subclassification of Ometo, which is not covered here.
Hayward (2003) separates out the Mao languages as a third branch of Omotic, and breaks up Ometo–Gimira:
* South Omotic * Mao
* Yemsa * Bench * Ometo–Chara
Blench (2006) gives a more agnostic classification:
* Mao * Dizoid * Gonga (Kefoid) * Yem * Gimira * Ometo (?Chara )
Bosha † is unclassified; Ethnologue lists it as a dialect of Kafa, but notes it may be a distinct language.
Omotic is generally considered the most divergent branch of the
* Languages of
* ^ Blench, 2006. The Afro-Asiatic Languages: Classification and Reference List * ^ Hayward (2000:85) * ^ Lamberti (1991), Zaborksi (1986) * ^ I. M. Diakonoff (1998) Journal of Semitic Studies 43:209: "It is quite evident that cultural ties between Proto-Semitic and the African branches of the Afrasian macrofamily must have been severed at a very early date indeed. However, the grammatical structure of (especially in the verb) is obviously close to that of Common Berbero-Libyan (CBL), as well as to Bedauye. (Bedauye might, quite possibly, be classified as a family distinct from the rest of Kushitic.) The same grammatical isoglosses are somewhat more feebly felt between Semitic and (the other?) Kushitic languages. They practically disappear between the Semitic and the Omotic languages, which were formerly termed Western Kushitic, but which actually may not be Afrasian at all, like their neighbours the Nubian languages and Meroitic." * ^ Newman (1980) * ^ Rolf Theil (2006) Is Omotic Afro-Asiatic? pp 1–2: "I claim to show that no convincing arguments have been presented , and that OM should be regarded as an independent language family. No closer genetic relations have been demonstrated between OM and AA than between OM and any other language family." * ^ Gerrit Dimmendaal (2008) "Language Ecology and Linguistic Diversity on the African Continent", in Language and Linguistics Compass 2/5:841: "Although its Afroasiatic affiliation has been disputed, the allocation of Omotic within this family is now well-established, based on the attestation of morphological properties that this family shares with other Afroasiatic branches."
* Bender, M. Lionel. 2000. Comparative Morphology of the Omotic Languages. Munich: LINCOM. * Fleming, Harold. 1976. Omotic overview. In The Non-Semitic Languages of Ethiopia, ed. by M. Lionel Bender, pp. 299–323. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University. * Newman, Paul. 1980. The classification of Chadic within Afroasiatic. Universitaire Pers Leiden.
GENERAL OMOTIC BIBLIOGRAPHY
* Bender, M. L. 1975. Omotic: a new Afroasiatic language family. (University Museum Series, 3.) Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University. * Blench, Roger. 2006. Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. AltaMira Press * Hayward, Richard J., ed. 1990. Omotic Language Studies. London: School of Oriental and African Studies. * Hayward, Richard J. 2003. Omotic: the "empty quarter" of Afroasiatic linguistics. In Research in Afroasiatic Grammar II: selected papers from the fifth conference on Afroasiatic languages, Paris 2000, ed. by Jacqueline Lecarme, pp. 241–261. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. * Lamberti, Marcello. 1991. Cushitic and its classification.'Anthropos 86(4/6):552-561. * Zaborski, Andrzej. 1986. Can Omotic be reclassified as West Cushitic? In Gideon Goldenberg, ed., Ethiopian Studies: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference pp. 525–530. Rotterdam: Balkema.