The English-language neologism omics informally refers to a field of
study in biology ending in -omics, such as genomics, proteomics or
metabolomics. The related suffix -ome is used to address the objects
of study of such fields, such as the genome, proteome or metabolome
1 Origin 2 Kinds of omics studies
2.1 Genomics 2.2 Lipidomics 2.3 Proteomics 2.4 Glycomics 2.5 Foodomics 2.6 Transcriptomics 2.7 Metabolism 2.8 Nutrition, pharmacology, and toxicology 2.9 Culture 2.10 Miscellaneous
3 Unrelated words in -omics 4 Current usage 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Further reading 8 External links
"Omicum": Building of the
Oxford English Dictionary
in medicine, forming nouns with the sense "swelling, tumour" in botany or zoology, forming nouns in the sense "a part of an animal or plant with a specified structure" in cellular and molecular biology, forming nouns with the sense "all constituents considered collectively"
The -ome suffix originated as a variant of -oma, and became productive
in the last quarter of the 19th century. It originally appeared in
terms like sclerome or rhizome. All of these terms derive from
Greek words in -ωμα, a sequence that is not a single suffix, but
analyzable as -ω-μα, the -ω- belonging to the word stem (usually a
verb) and the -μα being a genuine Greek suffix forming abstract
The OED suggests that its third definition originated as a
back-formation from mitome, Early attestations include biome
(1916) and genome (first coined as German Genom in 1920).
The association with chromosome in molecular biology is by false
etymology. The word chromosome derives from the Greek stems
χρωμ(ατ)- "colour" and σωμ(ατ)- "body". While σωμα
"body" genuinely contains the -μα suffix, the preceding -ω- is not
a stem-forming suffix but part of the word's root. Because genome
refers to the complete genetic makeup of an organism, a neo-suffix
-ome suggested itself as referring to "wholeness" or "completion".
Bioinformaticians and molecular biologists figured amongst the first
scientists to apply the "-ome" suffix widely. Early advocates included
bioinformaticians in Cambridge, UK, where there were many early
bioinformatics labs such as the MRC centre, Sanger centre, and EBI
Genomics: Study of the genomes of organisms.
Cognitive genomics examines the changes in cognitive processes associated with genetic profiles. Comparative genomics: Study of the relationship of genome structure and function across different biological species or strains. Functional genomics: Describes gene and protein functions and interactions (often uses transcriptomics). Metagenomics: Study of metagenomes, i.e., genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples. Neurogenomics: Study of genetic influences on the development and function of the nervous system. Personal genomics: Branch of genomics concerned with the sequencing and analysis of the genome of an individual. Once the genotypes are known, the individual's genotype can be compared with the published literature to determine likelihood of trait expression and disease risk. Helps in Personalized Medicine
Epigenomics: Study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of a cell, known as the epigenome. ChIP-Chip and ChIP-Seq technologies used.
Lipidomics: Large-scale study of pathways and networks of lipids. Mass spectrometry techniques are used.
Proteomics Proteome is the entire complement of proteins, including the modifications made to a particular set of proteins, produced by an organism or system.
Proteomics: Large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Mass spectrometry techniques are used.
Immunoproteomics: study of large sets of proteins (proteomics)
involved in the immune response
Nutriproteomics: Identifying the molecular targets of nutritive and
non-nutritive components of the diet. Uses proteomics mass
spectrometry data for protein expression studies
Proteogenomics: An emerging field of biological research at the
intersection of proteomics and genomics.
Glycomics is the comprehensive study of the glycome i.e. sugars and
Transcriptomics: Study of transcriptomes, their structures and functions.
Metabolomics: Scientific study of chemical processes involving metabolites. It is a "systematic study of the unique chemical fingerprints that specific cellular processes leave behind", the study of their small-molecule metabolite profiles Metabonomics: The quantitative measurement of the dynamic multiparametric metabolic response of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli or genetic modification
Nutrition, pharmacology, and toxicology
Nutritional genomics: A science studying the relationship between human genome, nutrition and health.
Nutrigenetics studies the effect of genetic variations on the interaction between diet and health with implications to susceptible subgroups Nutrigenomics: Study of the effects of foods and food constituents on gene expression. Studies the effect of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome
Inspired by foundational questions in evolutionary biology, a Harvard
team around Jean-Baptiste Michel and
Erez Lieberman Aiden
Mitointeractome Psychogenomics: Process of applying the powerful tools of genomics and proteomics to achieve a better understanding of the biological substrates of normal behavior and of diseases of the brain that manifest themselves as behavioral abnormalities. Applying psychogenomics to the study of drug addiction, the ultimate goal is to develop more effective treatments for these disorders as well as objective diagnostic tools, preventive measures, and eventually cures. Stem cell genomics: Helps in stem cell biology. Aim is to establish stem cells as a leading model system for understanding human biology and disease states and ultimately to accelerate progress toward clinical translation. Connectomics: The study of the connectome, the totality of the neural connections in the brain. Microbiomics: the study of the genomes of the communities of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of animals. Cellomics: Is the quantitative cell analysis and study using bioimaging methods and bioinformatics. Tomomics: A combination of tomography and omics methods to understand tissue or cell biochemistry at high spatial resolution, typically using imaging mass spectrometry data. Ethomics: Is the high-throughput machine measurement of animal behaviour. Videomics (or vide-omics): A video analysis paradigm inspired by genomics principles, where a continuous image sequence (or video) can be interpreted as the capture of a single image evolving through time through mutations revealing ‘a scene’.
Unrelated words in -omics
Further information: -nomics
The word “comic” does not use the "omics" suffix; it derives from
Greek “κωμ(ο)-” (merriment) + “-ικ(ο)-” (an adjectival
suffix), rather than presenting a truncation of “σωμ(ατ)-”.
Similarly, the word “economy” is assembled from Greek
“οικ(ο)-” (household) + “νομ(ο)-” (law or custom), and
“economic(s)” from “οικ(ο)-” + “νομ(ο)-” +
“-ικ(ο)-”. The suffix -omics is sometimes used to create names
for schools of economics, such as Reaganomics.
Main article: List of omics topics in biology
Many “omes” beyond the original “genome” have become useful
and have been widely adopted by research scientists. “Proteomics”
has become well-established as a term for studying proteins at a large
scale. "Omes" can provide an easy shorthand to encapsulate a field;
for example, an interactomics study is clearly recognisable as
relating to large-scale analyses of gene-gene, protein-protein, or
protein-ligand interactions. Researchers are rapidly taking up omes
and omics, as shown by the explosion of the use of these terms in
Systems biology Panomics
^ Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf (2002). "Plant functional genomics". Naturwissenschaften. 89 (6): 235–249. doi:10.1007/s00114-002-0321-3. ^ "scleroma, n : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 2011-04-25. ^ "rhizome, n : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 2011-04-25. ^ "-oma, comb. form : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 2011-04-25. ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 2011-04-25. ^ "biome, n. : Oxford English Dictionary". Retrieved 2011-04-25. ^ Hans Winkler (1920). Verbreitung und Ursache der Parthenogenesis im Pflanzen - und Tierreiche. Verlag Fischer, Jena. p. 165. Ich schlage vor, für den haploiden Chromosomensatz, der im Verein mit dem zugehörigen Protoplasma die materielle Grundlage der systematischen Einheit darstellt den Ausdruck: das Genom zu verwenden ... " In English: " I propose the expression Genom for the haploid chromosome set, which, together with the pertinent protoplasm, specifies the material foundations of the species ... ^ a b Coleridge, H.; et alii. The Oxford English Dictionary ^ Liddell, H.G.; Scott, R.; et alii. A Greek-English Lexicon . (Search at Perseus Project.) ^ Cumpson, Peter; Fletcher, Ian; Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders (2016). "Rapid multivariate analysis of 3D ToF-SIMSdata: graphical processor units (GPUs) and low-discrepancy subsampling for large-scale principal component analysis". Surface and Interface Analysis. 48 (12): 1328. doi:10.1002/sia.6042. Retrieved 20 March 2017. ^ Reiser, Michael (2009). "The ethomics era?". Nature Methods. 6 (6): 413–414. doi:10.1038/nmeth0609-413. ^ Kazantzidis, Ioannis; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco; Dequidt, Mickael; Hill, Natasha; Nebel, Jean-Christophe (2018). "Vide-omics: A genomics-inspired paradigm for video analysis". Computer Vision and Image Understanding. 166: 28–40. doi:10.1016/j.cviu.2017.10.003. ^ Omes Table, Gerstein Lab
Lederberg, Joshua; McCray, Alexa T. (April 2, 2001). "Commentary: 'Ome
Look up -omics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
List of omics, including references/origins. Maintained by the (CHI)
v t e
Metagenomics Personal genomics Social genomics Structural genomics
Biochip Cheminformatics Chemogenomics Connectomics Glycomics Immunomics Lipidomics Metabolomics Microbiomics Nutrigenomics Paleopolyploidy Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenomics Systems biology Toxicogenomics Transcriptomics
Human Proteome Project
Call-map proteomics Structure-based drug design Expression proteomics
2-D electrophoresis Mass spectrometer Electrospray ionization Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometer Microfluidic-based tools Isotope affinity tags
National Institutes of Health