An 'OMBUDSMAN\', OMBUDS, or PUBLIC ADVOCATE is an official, usually
appointed by the government or by parliament, but with a significant
degree of independence, who is charged with representing the interests
of the public by investigating and addressing complaints of
maladministration or a violation of rights. In some countries an
Inspector General , CITIZEN ADVOCATE or other official may have duties
similar to those of a national ombudsman, and may also be appointed by
a legislature. Below the national level an ombudsman may be appointed
by a state, local or municipal government. Unofficial ombudsmen may be
appointed by, or even work for, a corporation such as a utility
supplier, newspaper, NGO, or professional regulatory body.
The typical duties of an ombudsman are to investigate complaints and
attempt to resolve them, usually through recommendations (binding or
not) or mediation . Ombudsmen sometimes also aim to identify
systematic issues leading to poor service or breaches of people's
rights. At the national level, most ombudsmen have a wide mandate to
deal with the entire public sector, and sometimes also elements of the
private sector (for example, contracted service providers). In some
cases, there is a more restricted mandate, for example with particular
sectors of society. More recent developments have included the
creation of specialized Children\'s
Ombudsman and Information
In some jurisdictions an ombudsman charged with handling concerns
about national government is more formally referred to as the
"Parliamentary Commissioner" (e.g. the United Kingdom Parliamentary
Commissioner for Administration, and the Western Australian state
Ombudsman). In many countries where the ombudsman's responsibility
includes protecting human rights, the ombudsman is recognized as the
national human rights institution . The post of ombudsman had by the
end of the 20th century been instituted by most governments and by
some intergovernmental organizations such as the
European Union .
* 1 Origins and etymology
* 2 In politics
* 3 In organizations
Ombudsman services by country
* 4.1 Albania
* 4.4 Armenia
* 4.7 Azerbaijan
* 4.9 Bahrain
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
* 4.14 Bulgaria
* 4.15.1 Provincial and Territorial ombudsmen
* 4.28 France
* 4.29 Georgia
* 4.33 Hong Kong
* 4.34 Hungary
* 4.35 Iceland
* 4.36 India
* 4.36.3 Anti-corruption movements
* 4.39 Israel
* 4.40 Italy
* 4.41 Jamaica
* 4.42 Kazakhstan
* 4.43 Kenya
* 4.44 Kosovo
* 4.45 Kyrgyz Republic
* 4.46 Latvia
* 4.47 Lithuania
* 4.48 Macedonia
* 4.49 Netherlands
* 4.50 New Zealand
* 4.51 Norway
* 4.53 Peru
* 4.54 Philippines
* 4.55 Poland
* 4.56 Portugal
* 4.57 Romania
* 4.58 Russia
* 4.59 Serbia
* 4.60 Slovenia
* 4.61 South Africa
* 4.64 Tajikistan
* 4.65 Thailand
* 4.67 Ukraine
* 4.68 United Kingdom
* 4.68.1 Other ombudsman services in the United Kingdom
* 4.69 United States
* 4.70 Uruguay
* 5 In fiction
* 6 See also
* 7 References
* 8 External links
* 8.1 International and regional ombudsman associations
ORIGINS AND ETYMOLOGY
A prototype of an ombudsman may have flourished in China during the
Qin Dynasty (221 BC), and in
Korea during the
Joseon Dynasty . The
position of secret royal inspector , or Amhaeng-eosa (암행어사,
暗行御史) was unique to the Joseon Dynasty, where an undercover
official directly appointed by the king was sent to local provinces to
monitor government officials and look after the populace while
travelling incognito. The Roman
Tribune had some similar roles, with
power to veto acts that infringed upon the Plebeians . Another
precursor to the ombudsman was the Turkish Diwan-al-Mazalim which
appears to go back to the second caliph ,
Umar (634–644) and the
Qadi al-Qudat. They were also attested in Siam, India, the
Liao dynasty (Khitan Empire), Japan, and China.
An indigenous Swedish , Norwegian , and Danish term, ombudsman is
etymologically rooted in the
Old Norse word umboðsmaðr, essentially
meaning "representative" (with the word umbud/ombud meaning proxy,
attorney, that is someone who is authorized to act for someone else, a
meaning it still has in the Scandinavian languages). In the Danish Law
of Jutland from 1241, the term is umbozman and means a royal civil
servant in a hundred . From 1552, it is also used in the other
Scandinavian languages such as the both Icelandic and Faroese
umboðsmaður, the Norwegian ombudsmann/ombodsmann and the Swedish
ombudsman. The Swedish speaking minority in
Finland uses the Swedish
Use of the term in modern times began in
Sweden , with the Swedish
Parliamentary Ombudsman instituted by the Instrument of Government of
1809, to safeguard the rights of citizens by establishing a
supervisory agency independent of the executive branch . The
predecessor of the Swedish
Parliamentary Ombudsman was the Office of
Ombudsman ("Högste Ombudsmannen"), which was established by
the Swedish King, Charles XII , in 1713. Charles XII was in exile in
Turkey and needed a representative in
Sweden to ensure that judges and
civil servants acted in accordance with the laws and with their
duties. If they did not do so, the Supreme
Ombudsman had the right to
prosecute them for negligence. In 1719 the Swedish Office of Supreme
Ombudsman became the
Chancellor of Justice . The Parliamentary
Ombudsman was established in 1809 by the Swedish Riksdag , as a
parallel institution to the still-present
Chancellor of Justice ,
reflecting the concept of separation of powers as developed by
Parliamentary Ombudsman is the institution that the Scandinavian
countries subsequently developed into its contemporary form, and which
subsequently has been adopted in many other parts of the world. The
word ombudsman and its specific meaning have since been adopted in
various languages, including Spanish, Dutch and Czech. The German
language uses Ombudsmann, Ombudsfrau and Ombudsleute. Notable
exceptions are French and Finnish, which use translations instead.
Modern variations of this term include "ombud," "ombuds,"
"ombudsperson," or "ombudswoman," and the conventional English plural
is ombudsmen. In Nigeria, the ombudsman is known as the Public
Complaints Commission or the ombudsman
In general, an ombudsman is a state official appointed to provide a
check on government activity in the interests of the citizen, and to
oversee the investigation of complaints of improper government
activity against the citizen. If the ombudsman finds a complaint to be
substantiated, the problem may get rectified, or an ombudsman report
is published making recommendations for change. Further redress
depends on the laws of the country concerned, but this typically
involves financial compensation. Ombudsmen in most countries do not
have the power to initiate legal proceedings or prosecution on the
grounds of a complaint. This role is sometimes referred to as a
"tribunician" role, and has been traditionally fulfilled by elected
representatives – the term refers to the ancient Roman "tribunes of
the plebeians " (tribuni plebis), whose role was to intercede in the
political process on behalf of common citizens.
The major advantage of an ombudsman is that he or she examines
complaints from outside the offending state institution, thus avoiding
the conflicts of interest inherent in self-policing. However, the
ombudsman system relies heavily on the selection of an appropriate
individual for the office, and on the cooperation of at least some
effective official from within the apparatus of the state.
Many private companies, universities, non-profit organisations and
government agencies also have an ombudsman (or an ombuds office) to
serve internal employees, and managers and/or other constituencies.
These ombudsman roles are structured to function independently, by
reporting to the CEO or board of directors, and according to
International Ombudsman Association (IOA) Standards of Practice they
do not have any other role in the organisation. Organisational
ombudsmen often receive more complaints than alternative procedures
such as anonymous hot-lines.
Since the 1960s, the profession has grown in the United States, and
Canada, particularly in corporations, universities and government
agencies. The organizational ombudsman works as a designated neutral
party, one who is high-ranking in an organization, but who is not part
of executive management. Using an alternative dispute resolution (ADR)
or appropriate dispute resolution approach, an organisational
ombudsman can provide options to whistleblowers or employees and
managers with ethical concerns; provide coaching, shuttle diplomacy,
generic solutions (meaning a solution which protects the identity of
one individual by applying to a class of people, rather than just for
the one individual) and mediation for conflicts; track problem areas;
and make recommendations for changes to policies or procedures in
support of orderly systems change.
OMBUDSMAN SERVICES BY COUNTRY
The PEOPLE\'S ADVOCATE (Ombudsman) of the Republic of Albania
(Albanian : Avokati i Popullit) was envisaged in Chapter VI of the
Albanian Constitution approved in November 1998 (articles 60–63 and
134). Article 60 states that "The People’s Advocate defends the
rights, freedoms and lawful interests of individuals from unlawful or
improper actions or failures to act of the organs of public
administration." The Parliament passed the Law on the People’s
Advocate, Law No. 8454, in February 1999. The People’s Advocate is
elected by three-fifths of all members of the Assembly for a five-year
period, with the right of re-election. The Law has since been amended
by Law No. 8600, of 10 April 2000, and Law No. 9398, of 12 May 2005.
Ombudsman is Erinda Ballanca, elected on 22 May 2017,
succeeding Igli Totozani, elected on 23 December 2011, and Dr Emir
Dobjani who had served since February 2000.
Principality of Andorra , the ombudsman is called Raonador del
The DEFENSOR DEL PUEBLO DE LA NACIóN ARGENTINA (The People's
Defender of The Nation of
Argentina ), established in Article 86 of
the Constitution , is an independent body related to the Argentine
National Congress with functional autonomy, as it does not receive
instructions from any authority and enjoys same immunities and
privileges as a legislator.
The principal functions are, first, the defense of human rights and
other rights, guarantees and interests protected by the Constitution,
to acts or omissions of public administration , and secondly, the
control of public administrative functions. The Defender is elected by
the vote of 2/3 of the members present in each branch of Congress for
a period of five years and may be reappointed.
The office of HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDER, or Ombudsman, of the Republic of
Armenia was created by law in October 2003. The official website
describes the goal of the office as the protection and restoration of
human rights and fundamental freedoms. It receives complaints against
state and local officials. In February 2004 Larisa Alaverdyan was
appointed to the office by presidential decree. The second ombudsman
Armen Harutyunyan , who was elected by the National Assembly under
article 83.1 of the Constitution on 17 February 2006, obtaining more
than 3/5 votes of deputies, for what was intended to be a six-year
term commencing on 20 February. The 2003 law governing the office was
amended later in 2006, 2008 and 2010.
The current Human Rights Defender,
Karen Andreasyan , was elected by
the National Assembly on 2 March 2011, with 83 votes in favour to 13
against. A lawyer, journalist and broadcaster, he has worked with
several human rights non-governmental organisations.
Ombudsmen in Australia
The COMMONWEALTH OMBUDSMAN in
Australia was established in 1976. The
Ombudsman can investigate complaints about the actions and decisions
of Australian Government departments and agencies, the services
delivered by most private contractors for the Australian Government,
and oversee complaint investigations conducted by the Australian
There are also ombudsman agencies in each state, a number of industry
based ombudsmen, children\'s commissioners and many other
complaint-handling and review agencies, as detailed in the main
The three-member OMBUDSMAN BOARD (German : Volksanwaltschaft,
literally People's Representative) was created in 1977 as an
independent authority monitoring
Austria ’s entire public
administration. It checks the legality of decisions by authorities and
examines possible cases of maladministration. The members are
appointed by parliament for six-year terms.
There are also children\'s ombudsman offices.
The COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (Ombudsman) of the Republic of
Azerbaijan is also the country's national human rights institution ,
accredited with A status by the International Co-ordinating Committee
of NHRIs . The first ombudsman, Elmira Suleymanova, was elected by the
Parliament on 2 July 2002, and was reappointed in 2010 for a second
term. Suleymanova (born 1937), formerly a professor of chemistry, had
been active in the women’s movement in Azerbaijan.
Ombudsman Act 1980, the OMBUDSMAN OF BARBADOS is appointed
by the Governor-General with the approval of both houses of the
legislature. The current
Barbados is Valton Bend, a
Ombudsman (Arabic: الأمانة العامة
للتظلمات ) is an independent secretariat, financially and
administratively, in the Ministry of Interior Bahrain established to
ensure compliance with professional standards of policing set forth in
the Code of Conduct for the Police, as well as in the administrative
regulations governing the performance of civil servants. It operates
within a general framework that includes respect for human rights and
the consolidation of justice, the rule of law and the public
confidence, in line with Recommendation 1717 and Recommendation 1722
Paragraph (d) in the report by the Bahrain Independent Commission of
Inquiry (BICI). The
Ombudsman assumes its authority and mission in
full independence with respect to the complaints it receives against
any civilian or public security personnel in the Ministry of Interior
Bahrain for alleged criminal offense because of, during or as result
of their scope of responsibilities. In addition, the
the competent authority in the Ministry of Interior to take
disciplinary action against violators employed by the ministry. It
also informs the public prosecutor in the cases that constitute
criminal offenses. It updates both the complainant and the defendant
about the steps taken to investigate the complaints and the
conclusions of the investigations. http://www.ombudsman.bh/en/about/
Belgium has one federal and four regional statutory ombudsman
agencies, all covering the normal range of complaint-handling,
investigation and mediation within the respective jurisdictions of
their founding legislature.
* The office dealing with complaints against the federal authorities
is the FEDERAL OMBUDSMAN (Dutch : de federale Ombudsman, French : le
Médiateur fédéral, German : der föderale Ombudsmann). The office
was established in 1997.
* The Vlaamse Ombudsdienst (Vlaamse Ombudsdienst) was established by
Flemish Parliament by decree of 7 July 1998 (the Ombudsdecreet).
* The WALLOON OMBUDSMAN (Médiateur de la Région Wallonne),
established by decree of the
Walloon Parliament of 22 December 1994,
seeks to help any person, natural or legal, who is experiencing
difficulties with the Walloon regional authorities to arrive at a
solution without litigation.
* The FRENCH COMMUNITY OMBUDSMAN (Médiateur de la Communauté
française), created by the
Parliament of the French Community by
decree of 20 June 2002, is responsible for handling complaints of
citizens who encounter a problem with any administrative unit of the
French Community. Its mission is to promote dialogue between the
citizen and the administration concerned.
* In the smallest linguistic region, the OMBUDSMAN OF THE
GERMAN-SPEAKING COMMUNITY (Ombudsmann der Deutchsprachigen
Gemeinschaft) was created by decree of 26 May 2009. This requires the
Ombudsman to mediate between citizens and administrative authorities
and seek alternative way to resolve conflicts, to settle disputes and,
in some cases, to avoid litigation. In its plenary session of 17 May
Parliament of the German-speaking Community appointed Cedric
Langer for a term of six years as the first Ombudsman.
Belgium also has separate children\'s commissioners for the French
and Flemish communities. There is a PENSIONS OMBUDSMAN service
(Ombudsdienst Pensioenen, Service de médiation Pensions, Ombudsmann
für Pensionen) at the federal level.
The OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN FOR BERMUDA was established by the
Bermuda Constitution and is governed by the
Ombudsman Act 2004. The
National Ombudsman for Bermuda, Arlene Brock, was appointed on 1
August 2005 by the Governor after consultation with the Premier who
first consulted with the Opposition Leader. The
complaints about the administrative actions of
including Government Departments, Boards and Bodies established or
funded by the Legislature.
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
The INSTITUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS OMBUDSMAN/OMBUDSMEN of Bosnia and
Herzegovina is also the country's UN-accredited national human rights
institution . It was created by law in 2004.
While the ombudsman's Child Rights Section is a member of the
Ombudsman network, there is a separate children's
Republika Srpska .
Brazil the nearest equivalent to the office of ombudsman is the
PROCURADORIA FEDERAL DOS DIREITOS DO CIDADãO, part of Public
Brazil , which is independent. Government agencies have
HEARING OFFICER (Portuguese : Ouvidor), usually heading a service
called Ouvidoria, and each government agency defines its own service.
These HEARING OFFICER usually lack full independence. Examples of
public service ombudsmen are the Ouvidoria da Polícia do Estado de
São Paulo — São Paulo State Police
Ombudsman — and the
Ouvidoria da Secretaria de Defesa Social do Estado do Rio Grande do
Ombudsman of the Social Security Ministry of the State of
Rio Grande do Norte.
The OMBUDSMAN of the
Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian :
Омбудсман на Република България) is the
national human rights institution, in addition to the normal range of
functions in relation to maladministration. The institution was
created as the 'Citizen's Defender' (Граждански
защитник) in 1998 but the first
Ombudsman was elected in April
2005. Since October 2010 the office has been held by Konstantin
Penchev, formerly Chair of Supreme Administrative Court. There are
also regional ombudsmen (Citizen's Mediators, Граждански
посредници) in most parts of the country.
Canada , ombudsman offices are present in most departments of the
federal government, in many provincial and municipal governments as
well as in
Crown Corporations such as CBC and
Canada Post . There is
Ombudsman for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian
Forces, an Office of the Procurement Ombudsman, an Office for the
Ombudsman for the Victims of Crimes, an Office of the Taxpayers
Ombudsman and an Office of the Veterans Ombudsman.
There are also several independent ombuds offices in Canada,
Ombudsman for Banking Services and Investments and
various child advocate offices.
Provincial And Territorial Ombudsmen
Canada has no single national legislative ombudsman, nine
Canadian provinces and one territory have parliamentary ombudsmen
(sometimes called "citizens' protector" or "citizens' representative")
in the classical/legislative tradition, who oversee the provincial
government and receive and investigate public complaints. They are:
* ALBERTA OMBUDSMAN, established 1967;
* OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSPERSON, British Columbia;
* OMBUDSMAN MANITOBA, established 1970;
* New Brunswick OMBUDSMAN\'S OFFICE, established 1967;
* CITIZENS\' REPRESENTATIVE of Newfoundland and Labrador;
* Nova Scotia OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN, established 1970;
Ontario Ombudsman , established 1975
* Quebec OMBUDSMAN (French : Le Protecteur du citoyen), established
* OMBUDSMAN SASKATCHEWAN, established 1972; and
* OFFICE OF THE YUKON OMBUDSMAN AND INFORMATION constitutional law ;
the rights of inmates in correction facilities; and access to
information . The ombudsman is appointed by the Parliament of Denmark
* The CONSUMER OMBUDSMAN (Forbrugerombudsmanden) was established in
1974 to ensure that the consumer protection and marketing rules are
complied with by private undertakings. The ombudsman can ultimately
institute legal proceedings before the Copenhagen Maritime and
* The highest representative of the Danish government in Greenland
is called the ROYAL OMBUDSMAN (Rigsombudsmanden) since 1979.
* In February 2011 the Danish government turned down a request from
a United Nations committee to create the position of
Ecuador , the officer known as PEOPLE\'S DEFENDER (Spanish :
Defensor del Pueblo) performs the functions of an ombudsman.
The country of
El Salvador has a HUMAN RIGHTS PROCURATOR, also
referred to as ombudsman (Spanish : Procurador para la Defensa de los
Chancellor of Justice
Chancellor of Justice (Estonian : Õiguskantsler) of
an independent supervisor of the basic principles of the Constitution
Estonia and the protector of individual rights. The function of
ombudsman was entrusted to the
Chancellor of Justice in 1999. The
Chancellor of Justice monitors whether state agencies comply with
people’s fundamental rights and freedoms and with the principles of
good governance. In 2004 the ombudsman functions expanded to cover
local governments, legal persons in public law and private persons who
exercise public functions.
European Ombudsman was established by the
Maastricht treaty , the
treaty establishing the
European Union . The current European
Ombudsman, holding office since October 1, 2013, is Emily O\'Reilly ,
former national ombudsman of
Ireland . The
European Union Ombudsman
investigates claims by individuals or companies which reside or have
their interests within the
European Union against incidents of bad
administration by bodies or institutions of the European Union.
Finland the office of
Parliamentary Ombudsman (Finnish :
Eduskunnan oikeusasiamies, Swedish : Riksdagens justitieombudsman),
modelled after the Swedish Ombudsman, was established by the
Constitution of 1919 . The
Ombudsman is appointed by Parliament, and
has the task of ensuring that all government departments and officials
follow the law. The
Parliamentary Ombudsman shares many duties with
Chancellor of Justice . The
Ombudsman has wide-ranging oversight
and investigative powers, has access to all government facilities,
documents and information systems and can order a police investigation
if necessary. If the
Ombudsman determines that a government official
has not acted in accordance with the law she or he can advise on the
proper application of the law, reprimand the official or in extreme
cases order a criminal prosecution. Partly because of the
prosecutorial powers, the office enjoys considerable respect and the
Ombudsman's legal opinions are usually strictly followed, carrying a
lot of weight in the absence of a court precedent.
There are also special ombudsmen for gender equality
(Tasa-arvovaltuutettu/Jämställdhetsombudman), children\'s welfare
(Lapsiasiavaltuutettu/Barnombudsman), rights of ethnic minorities
(Vähemmistövaltuutettu/Minoritetsombudsman), data protection, and
consumer protection, operating under the auspices of various
ministries and other government agencies. Every health care provider
Finland is legally obliged to have a patients' rights ombudsman.
In 1973, the
French Government created an office of
: Médiateur de la République). A reform in May 2011 merged that
office with the Children\'s
Ombudsman (Défenseur des enfants), the
equality authority (Haute autorité de lutte contre les
discriminations et pour l’égalité, HALDE) and the body supervising
the conduct of police and other security agencies, the Commission
nationale de déontologie de la sécurité (CNDS), creating a new body
named the DEFENDER OF RIGHTS (Défenseur des droits). In July 2011
Dominique Baudis was appointed to the office by the Council of State
on the nomination of the Prime Minister, for a single six-year term
but died in April 2014. In June 2014, former minister Jacques Toubon
was chosen for the following six years.
The PUBLIC DEFENDER (Ombudsman) of Georgia (Georgian :
აპარატის) is a national human rights institution. The
office was established by Parliament in 1997. The
Public Defender is
elected for a five-year term by a parliamentary majority, and must
follow the Constitution and the law, as well as the universally
recognized principles and rules of international law, and
international treaties and agreements concluded by Georgia.
Public Defender supervises the protection of human rights and
fundamental freedoms, investigates violation of human rights and
assists in securing redress. The office supervises the activities of
national or local public authorities, public officials and legal
persons, evaluates all acts passed by them and gives recommendations
and proposals. The office also conducts human rights education . The
Public Defender, George Tugushi, was elected in 2009. His
mandate expires in 2014.
The nearest equivalent to a federal ombudsman service in
the PARLIAMENTARY PETITIONS COMMITTEE (German : Petitionsausschuss
Deutscher Bundestag), which receives and investigates complaints of
maladministration. There are a number of sectoral ombudsmen,
including the PARLIAMENTARY MILITARY-OMBUDSMAN (Wehrbeauftragter des
Deutschen Bundestages) and the OMBUDSMAN INSTITUTION FOR PUBLIC
TRANSPORT (Schlichtungsstelle für den öffentlichen Personenverkehr
The GIBRALTAR PUBLIC SERVICES OMBUDSMAN is an independent authority
whose functions are to investigate complaints received from the
general public about acts of maladministration by the Government of
Gibraltar and certain public bodies and contractors. The Office of the
Ombudsman came into being in April 1999 with the appointment of Henry
Pinna as Gibraltar's first
Public Services Ombudsman.
The CITIZEN\'S ADVOCATE (Ombudsman) of
Greece (Greek :
Συνήγορος του Πολίτη) was created in 1998 as an
Independent Authority. Following the resignation of Professor Georgios
Kaminis in September 2010, the duties of the Citizen's Advocate passed
Ombudsman Kalliopi Spanou. The Advocate is assisted by six
Assistant Advocates, who coordinate the activities of the Advocate's
office in the six thematic areas in which the office has authority: i)
civil rights , ii) social protection , iii) quality of life , iv)
state-citizen relationships, v) children\'s rights , and vi) gender
The OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN , known as the Commission for
Administrative Complaints until 1994, is an independent statutory
authority, established in 1989 under the Commissioner for
Administrative Complaints Ordinance 1988, to redress grievances
arising from maladministration in the public sector through
independent and impartial investigations to improve the standard of
After 1989, the end of the communist era multiple Parliamentary
Commissioner (Hungarian : Országgyűlési biztos), or ombudsman,
posts were created:
* Commissioner for Civil Rights (Állampolgári jogok biztosa)
* Privacy Commissioner (Adatvédelmi biztos)
* Commissioner for Minority Rights (Kisebbségi jogok biztosa)
Ombudsman for Future Generations (A jövő nemzedékek
ombudsmanja, from 2008)
As of 1 January 2012, the four ombudsmen merged into one office of
COMMISSIONER FOR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS (Alapvető jogok biztosa).
The post of ALTHING OMBUDSMAN (Icelandic : Umboðsmaður Alþingis)
was set up in 1987 under the terms of law number 13/1987, which deals
with complaints against the government. The ombudsman's authority was
expanded to local government levels in the 1997 law number 85/1997.
The ombudsman is appointed for a four-year term by the parliament
Althing or Alþingi). The
Ombudsman aims to safeguard the rights of
the citizens vis-à-vis the State and local authorities, and to
promote equality and good administrative practice.
Government of India
Government of India has designated several ombudsmen (sometimes
called Chief Vigilance Officer (CVO)) for the redress of grievances
and complaints from individuals in the banking, insurance and other
sectors being serviced by both private and public bodies and
corporations. The CVC (
Central Vigilance Commission ) was set up on
the recommendation of the Santhanam Committee (1962–64).
In India, the
Ombudsman is known as the
Lokayukta . An
Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was set up on 5 January 1966
under the Chairmanship of
Morarji Desai . It recommended a
Lokpal at the Centre (parliamentary commissioner,
as in New Zealand) and one
Lokayukta each at the State level for
redress of people's grievances. However, the jurisdiction of the
Lokpal did not extend to the judiciary (as in case of New Zealand).
The central Government introduced the first
Lokpal Bill ,
Lokayuktas Bill in 1968, and further legislation was introduced in
2005. Final bill, after all the amendments, has been passed in Rajya
Sabha on 17 December 2013 and passed in Loksabha on 18 December 2013.
Lokayukta institution has developed gradually. Orissa
was the first state to present a bill on establishment of
1970, but Maharashtra was the first to establish the institution, in
1972. Other states followed: Bihar (1974), Uttar Pradesh (1977),
Madhya Pradesh (1981), Andhra Pradesh (1983), Himachal Pradesh (1983),
Karnataka (1984), Assam (1986), Gujarat (1988), Delhi (1995), Punjab
(1996), Kerala (1998), Chhattishgarh (2002), Uttaranchal (2002), West
Bengal (2003) and Haryana (2004). The structure of the
not uniform across all the states. Some states have Upa
Lokayukta and in some states, the
Lokayukta does not have suo moto
powers of instigating an enquiry.
Kerala State has an
Ombudsman for Local Self Government institutions
like Panchayats, Municipalities and Corporations. He can
enquire/investigate into allegations of action, inaction, corruption
and maladministration. A retired Judge of the High Court is appointed
by the Governor for a term of three years, under the Kerala Panchayat
In the State of Rajasthan, the
Lokayukta institution was established
in 1973 after the Rajasthan
Lokayukta and Up-
Lokayuktas Act, 1973 was
passed by the State Legislature.
2011 Indian anti-corruption movement and 2012 Indian
2011 Indian anti-corruption movement led by social activist Anna
Hazare includes in its demands the creation of a stronger ombudsman
agency (with jurisdiction over all state institutions) through the
enactment of a Jan
Lokpal Bill , as an alternative to the
proposed by the government in 2010.
Iran is General Inspection Office . This
office was the one of Founding Members of AOA (Asian Ombudsman
Association) and hosted 4th and 13th Annual conferences of AOA at 1999
The OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN was set up under the terms of the
Ombudsman Act 1980. The
Ombudsman is appointed by the President of
Ireland upon the nomination of both
Houses of the Oireachtas , and is
a civil servant of the State . The
Ombudsman deals with complaints
against Departments of State , local authorities , the Health Service
Executive (Ireland) , private and public nursing homes and direct
provision accommodation services.
There are other ombudsmen established in
Ireland . The first PENSIONS
OMBUDSMAN, Paul Kenny, was appointed in 2003. Emily Logan became
Ombudsman for Children in March 2004. The FINANCIAL
SERVICES OMBUDSMAN incorporated the older offices of the Insurance
Credit Institutions in 2005. Also
established in 2005 was the OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN FOR THE DEFENCE
FORCES, the first holder being Paulyn Marrinan Quinn, formerly the
Insurance Ombudsman. An Act of 2005 created a three-person
tribunal, the Garda Síochána
Ombudsman Commission , to investigate
complaints about the country's police force. All these offices are
statutory and their holders are public servants.
A (non-statutory) PRESS OMBUDSMAN began work in January 2008 and
legislation has been published to establish a LEGAL SERVICES
Ombudsman (Amendment) Bill of 2008 provided for the
statutory protection of the title of Ombudsman. This was passed as the
Ombudsman (Amendment) Act 2012, which increased the number of State
agencies under the Ombudsman's remit, and also designated the
Ombudsman as Director (Chief Executive) of the Office of the
Public Service Appointments.
Irish Ombudsmen to date have been Michael Mills from 1984 to 1994,
Kevin Murphy from 1994 to 2003, Emily O\'Reilly from 2003 to 2013, and
Peter Tyndall , who was appointed in December 2013.
The STATE COMPTROLLER also serves, by law, as Ombudsman. She or he
discharges this function by way of a special unit in the Office of the
State Comptroller, known as the OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN. The Ombudsman
investigates complaints against bodies that are statutorily subject to
audit by the State Comptroller, including government ministries, local
authorities, state enterprises and institutions and government
companies, as well as their employees.
There is no generic national ombudsman office, but by Law no. 112 of
12 July 2011, an
Ombudsman for childhood and adolescence was set up as
an independent institute. Many units of sub-national government
(regions , provinces and communes ) have their own ombudsman (Italian
: difensore civico), who are elected by regional, provincial or
The OFFICE OF THE PUBLIC DEFENDER was created in 2000 by the Public
Defender Act 1999, replacing the Office of the Parliamentary Ombudsman
which had existed since 1978. The
Public Defender (currently Earl
Witter) has the typical ombudsman function of investigating and
remedying maladministration, with additional jurisdiction to
investigate alleged violations of constitutional rights.
The COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (Kazakh : Адам
құқықтары жөніндегі Уәкіл), or National
Ombudsman of the Republic of Kazakhstan, is Askar Shakirov, appointed
in 2007. The office was created by presidential decree in 2002 as a
national human rights institution, with support from the OSCE.
The Commission on Administrative Justice was established by the
Commission on Administrative Justice Act 2011(hereafter referred to as
the Act) pursuant to Article 59 (4) of the Constitution of Kenya. CAJ
is a Commission within the meaning of chapter 15 of the constitution
and has the status and powers of a commission under that chapter.
The OMBUDSPERSON INSTITUTION IN KOSOVO (OIK) accepts and investigates
complaints of human rights violations or abuses of authority by any
public authority in Kosovo. The institution is currently led by
Ombudsperson Sami Kurteshi, a former opposition activist, political
prisoner and human rights activist, who was elected to the post by the
Assembly of Kosovo on 4 June 2009. In October 2011 the Assembly
elected five deputy Ombudspersons: Isa Hasani, Bogoljub Staletovic ,
Shqipe Malaj-Ibra, Ibrahim Arslan (from the Turkish community) and
The first Ombudsperson, Marek Antoni Nowicki, was appointed in July
2000 by the then
Special Representative of the United Nations
Bernard Kouchner ; Nowicki's appointment was
renewed in 2002, 2004 and 2005 by subsequent SRSGs
Michael Steiner ,
Harri Holkeri and
Søren Jessen-Petersen . With effect from 1 January
2006 Jessen-Petersen appointed a Kosovar lawyer, Hilmi Jashari, as
Acting Ombudsperson and he remained in post until Kurteshi took
The OIK has several offices throughout Kosovo, and participates
(although not yet accredited) in the global network of national human
rights institutions , as well as in the European ombudsman network.
Ombudsman of the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz : Акыйкатчы -
Akyikatchy) carry out parliamentary control over the observance of the
rights and freedoms of man and citizen.
Since 2007, the Latvian ombudsman is a personalized institution
literally called RIGHTS DEFENDER (Latvian : Tiesībsargs). Previously,
similar functions were carried by National Human Rights Office
In Lithuania, the nearest equivalent to the position of ombudsman is
that of PARLIAMENTARY CONTROLLER (Lithuanian : Seimo kontrolierius),
an office appointed by the
Seimas (Parliament of Lithuania).
There is also a children\'s ombudsman .
Since 1997 Macedonia has an OMBUDSMAN FOR PROTECTION OF CITIZENS
RIGHTS (Macedonian : Naroden pravobranitel). The ombudsman is
appointed by the Parliament and performs her or his work under the
Constitution and the Law of the Ombudsman.
Article 78 of the
Constitution of the Netherlands , as revised in
1983, established an office of
National Ombudsman . The
investigate, suo motu or on foot of a complaint, the actions of State
bodies or other public entities. The ombudsman and deputy are
appointed by the House of Representatives for a fixed period or until
reaching retirement age. The office includes a children\'s ombudsman .
Office of the Ombudsman (New Zealand)
The post of
Ombudsman was established in New Zealand in 1962, to
investigate complaints against government departments. In 1975 the
post was expanded, with a Chief
Ombudsman and several other ombudsmen.
In 1983 his responsibilities were extended to include investigation
of agencies that fail to provide information requested in accordance
with the Official Information Act. The
Ombudsman also has
responsibility to protect 'whistleblowers' and investigate the
administration of prisons and other places of detention.
There is also a Children\'s Commissioner . New Zealand also has three
industry ombudsmen – the NEW ZEALAND BANKING OMBUDSMAN, the
INSURANCE AND SAVINGS OMBUDSMAN, and the ELECTRICITY AND GAS
COMPLAINTS COMMISSIONER who is an ombudsman in all but name.
Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud (Norwegian :
Likestillings- og diskrimineringsombudet) was established in 1978 as
the Gender Equality Ombud (Likestillingsombudet), the first of its
kind in the world. In 2006, the Ombud was reorganised to include
discrimination in general. The Ombud's task is to enforce the
Norwegian Gender Equality Act and the act relating to prohibition of
discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, national origin, ancestry,
skin colour, language, religious and ethical orientation, and sexual
orientation (Discrimination Act). The Ombud shall also enforce the
anti-discrimination regulations in the Working Environment Act. The
mandate of the Ombud also includes to actively promote equality for
discriminated groups, and to develop new knowledge through
documentation and monitoring.
Parliamentary Ombudsman for
Public Administration (no)
(Sivilombudsmannen) investigates complaints from citizens or may take
up issues on its own initiative: complaints from citizens concerning
injustice or maladministration from central government or local
Parliamentary Ombudsman for the Norwegian Armed Forces
(Ombudsmannen for Forsvaret) shall safeguard the rights of all members
and former members of the Armed Forces as well as contribute to an
effective military defence. Anyone who feels that they have been
wrongly, unjustly or unreasonably treated can bring their case before
Ombudsman and request an investigation of the matter to determine
whether an injustice has been done, and to secure any appropriate
corrective action. Issues and circumstances arising before, during or
after military service can be brought to the attention of the
Ombudsman for Children (Barneombudet) has statutory rights to
protect children and their rights. Since 1981, the
Children in Norway has worked continuously to improve national and
international legislation affecting children's welfare. Norway was the
first country in the world to establish an ombudsman for children.
* There is also an ombudsman for consumer affairs; see Norwegian
* Local and regional authorities often have ombudsmen. Examples of
this are ombudsmen for health and social affairs, ombudsmen for the
elderly and ombudsmen for school students and apprentices at the upper
Pakistan , the establishment of an ombudsman institution had been
advocated for some time before Article 276 of the Interim Constitution
of 1972 provided for the appointment of a FEDERAL OMBUDSMAN (Urdu :
Wafaqi Mohtasib) and Provincial Ombudsmen. The Constitution of 1973
also provided for a Federal Ombudsman, and the institution was
eventually created through the Establishment of the Office of Wafaqi
Mohtasib (Ombudsman) Order, 1983 (President’s Order No. 1 of 1983),
which is now a part of the Constitution of
Pakistan by virtue of
Article 270-A. It started functioning on 8 August 1983. The office of
Ombudsman is currently held by Salman Farooqi. The
headquarters in Islamabad and Regional Offices in
Dera Ismail Khan ,
Peshawar and Karachi
Other ombudsman agencies in
Pakistan include PROVINCIAL OMBUDSMAN
(Mohtasib-e-Aala) offices in Punjab ,
Sindh ; a
banking ombudsman, the BANKING MOHTASIB PAKISTAN; a FEDERAL INSURANCE
OMBUDSMAN and a FEDERAL TAX OMBUDSMAN. The disputed region of Azad
Jammu and Kashmir also has an OMBUDSMAN office. Under the Protection
of Women against Harassment at Workplace Act 2010, Musarrat Hilali was
appointed in the same year to be the first FEDERAL OMBUDSPERSON FOR
PROTECTION OF WOMEN AGAINST HARASSMENT AT WORKPLACE. The Act provides
for similar offices at the provincial level.
The various ombudsman agencies participate in a Forum of Pakistan
Ombudsman (FPO), and the federal bodies are affiliated to the Asian
Ombudsman Association (AOA) and the International
The Peruvian ombudsman agency is called the PUBLIC DEFENDER (Spanish
: Defensoría del Pueblo). The functions of the institution, which
was envisaged by the 1993 Constitution and was created in 1996,
include combating maladministration, human rights violations and
discrimination. It has 36 offices throughout the country. The current
Defensora (ombudsman), Beatriz Merino, was elected by Congress on 29
September 2005 for a five-year term. The Defensoría is accredited
with 'A' status as the national human rights institution . There is
also a specialised Police
Ombudsman (Defensoría de la Policia).
The Office of the
Ombudsman of the Philippines is empowered by the
1987 Constitution to safeguard both the government and
government-related institutions and corporations from corruption and
dispense justice in the case of such offenses.
Ombudsman of the Philippines is Conchita Carpio-Morales
Polish Ombudsman is called the
Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich ,
usually translated as the Commissioner for Protection of Civil Rights,
or Commissioner for Human Rights. The office also functions as the
national human rights institution , and is accredited with A status by
the ICC . The holder of the office from 2006, Dr Janusz Bogumił
Kochanowski , died in the April 2010 Smolensk air disaster . He was
succeeded by Irena Lipowicz.
Ombudsman is called the Provedor de Justiça (pt)
(lit. Justice Provider), and its role is defined in article 23 of the
Constitution of Portugal :
1. Citizens may submit complaints against actions or omissions by the
public authorities to the Ombudsman, who shall assess them without the
power to take decisions and shall send the competent bodies such
recommendations as may be necessary in order to prevent or make good
2. The Ombudsman’s work shall be independent of any acts of grace
or legal remedies provided for in this Constitution or the law.
3. The Ombudsman’s office shall be an independent body and the
Assembly of the Republic shall appoint the
Ombudsman for such time as
the law may determine.
4. The bodies and agents of the
Public Administration shall cooperate
Ombudsman in the fulfilment of his mission.
Besides the traditional routes, complaints can be filed online and
there are toll-free lines for children and one for senior citizens .
The ombudsman office is the PEOPLE\'S ADVOCATE (Romanian : Avocatul
Poporului). Since 15 April 2014, the current ombudsman is Victor
The Russian Federation's COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS (ombudsman)
position is currently held by Tatyana Moskalkova. The Commissioner is
appointed for a fixed term by the Parliament . The ombudsman cannot be
dismissed before the end of his term, and is not subordinate to any
body of power, including the President or the Government .
Russia’s 83 administrative regions have the right to elect a local
ombudsman whose authority is limited to that region. Fewer than half
have done so.
There is also a Children\'s Rights Commissioner post, appointed by
the President, currently held by Anna Kuznetsova.
In June 2012 Vladimir Putin signed Executive Order on the
Presidential Commissioner for Entrepreneurs’ Rights – Boris Titov.
In Serbia, the Protector of Citizens of the Republic of Serbia
(Ombudsman) is an independent state authority, mandated to protect
human rights and freedoms. It was introduced into the legal system in
2005 by the Law on
Ombudsman and confirmed by the Constitution of
Serbia in 2006.
Ombudsman is elected by the National Assembly of the
Republic of Serbia for a five-year-term and is accountable to the
Assembly for his work. The
Ombudsman enjoys the same immunity as a
member of the parliament.
The first Serbian Ombudsman,
Saša Janković , was elected by the
National Assembly in July 2007. He has four deputies, who are
specialized in several fields, especially the protection of rights of
persons deprived of liberty, gender equality, children rights,
minority rights and rights of people with disabilities.
Ombudsman has competence to oversee the work of government
agencies, the bodies authorized for legal protection of property
rights and interests of the Republic of Serbia and other bodies and
organizations, enterprises and institutions which have been delegated
public authority. He has no jurisdiction over the National Assembly,
the President, the Government, the Constitutional Court, courts and
Public Prosecutor’s Office. The
Ombudsman initiates proceedings
following the complaint of a citizen or on his own initiative. State
administration bodies are legally obliged to cooperate with the
Ombudsman and to provide him access to their premises and all data in
their possession, regardless of the degree of secrecy, when of
interest to the investigation in process or the Ombudsman’s
preventive actions. As a result of an investigation, the
recommend dismissal of an official considered responsible for
violation of the rights of citizens, may initiate disciplinary
procedures against public administration employees, and may require
initiation of penal, offence or other adequate procedure.
Ombudsman can also act preemptively, by offering advice and
opinion on issues within his competence, to enhance the operation of
the administration authorities and strengthen the protection of human
liberties and rights. The
Ombudsman is entitled to propose laws within
its scope of competence, give opinions to the Government and the
National Assembly on regulations under preparation and address the
Constitutional Court to challenge the constitutionality of laws.
Ombudsman provides the National Assembly with an annual report on
his work and findings as well as with other special reports.
Ombudsman has full membership in the
European Ombudsman Institute
International Ombudsman Association (IOA), the European
Network of Ombudspersons for Children (ENOC) and the Association of
Mediterranean Ombudsmen (AMO). In May 2010, it was accredited with
'A' status as the national human rights institution .
The institution of the Human Rights
Ombudsman of the Republic of
Slovenia was introduced into the Slovenian constitutional order
through the new Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, which was
adopted in December 1991. The Human Rights
Ombudsman is defined in
Article 159 of the Constitution, which provides that in order to
protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in relation to state
authorities, local self-government authorities and bearers of public
authority, the office of the
Ombudsman for the rights of citizens
shall be established by law.
The Human Rights
Ombudsman of the Republic of Slovenia is a
constitutional category that does not fall under the executive,
judicial or legislative branch of authority. The
therefore not part of any mechanism of authority, but rather acts as
an overseer of authority since as an institution it restricts its
capricious encroachment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Ombudsman is in his work not only limited to handling direct
violations defined as human rights and freedoms in the constitution,
moreover, he may act in any case whatsoever dealing with a violation
of any right of an individual arising from a holder of authority. He
can intervene also in the case if unfair and poor state administration
in relation to the individual. If the aforementioned is considered, it
can have a significant impact on the development and increase in legal
and administrative culture between holders of authority and the
Human rights ombudsman is in relation towards the state bodies,
autonomous and independent agency.
Ombudsman can caution violators that they should put right their
violation or eliminate irregularities committed, or can even propose
compensation. On your behalf, and with your authorisation, he can
lodge with the Constitutional Court a request for assessment of the
constitutionality and legality of regulations or official documents,
or he may submit a constitutional complaint owing to the violation of
some right. He may submit to the government or parliament initiatives
for the amendment of laws and other regulations. He may also suggest
to all bodies that fall within his competence that they improve their
dealings and relations with clients. The
Ombudsman may also
communicate his opinion to anyone regarding cases that are linked to
the violation of rights and freedoms. Here it is not important what
kind of procedure is involved, nor the stage of processing it has
reached at the body in question.
Ombudsman cannot perform work or remove violations or
irregularities in place of the specific state body, local community
body or holder of public authorisation. Those that committed the
violation or irregularity are bound also themselves to putting right
the violation or irregularity. Equally, the
Ombudsman cannot deal with
cases that are subject to court proceedings, except in exceptional
The state ombudsman of
Spain is the DEFENSOR DEL PUEBLO (Defender of
the People), dealing with complaints of maladministration and having
the capacity to bring cases at the Constitutional Court . The office
is prominent in the international networks of ombudsmen and national
human rights institutions, particularly through the Ibero-American
Ombudsman Federation (FIO).
There are comparable offices in the autonomous communities of
* Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz (
* Justicia de Aragón (
* Procuradora General del Principado de Asturias/Procuradora Xeneral
del Principáu d'Asturies
* Ararteko (full name on website: Herriaren Defendatzailea:
Ararteko) (Basque Country )
* Diputado del Común (
Canary Islands )
* Procurador del Común (
Castile and León
Castile and León )
* Síndic de Greuges de Catalunya (
* Personero del Común (
* Valedor do Pobo (Galicia )
* Síndic de Greuges de les Illes Balears (
Balearic Islands )
* Defensor del Pueblo de la Región de
* Defensor del Pueblo de Navarra / Nafarroako Arartekoa (
* Síndic de Greuges de la Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian
Syndic for more uses of the word síndic in the Catalan
The office of the
Parliamentary Ombudsman (Swedish : Riksdagens
ombudsmän, or Justitieombudsmannen) was established with the
Instrument of Government in 1809 , originally under the title of
Ombudsmannen för Riksens ständer.
The office was modelled after
Chancellor of Justice (Swedish :
Justitiekanslern), and according to the principle of separation of
powers . The
Chancellor of Justice was installed in 1714 as a proxy
for King Charles XII of
Sweden , to act as a representative for the
Royal Government. Today it acts as an ombudsman, mainly to oversee
that that Swedish authorities comply with laws on behalf of the
Government , but also to handle indemnity claims from persons suffered
from imprisonment but later acquitted, or other damages caused by
Parliamentary Ombudsman was in turn appointed to represent the
parliament; to oversee that all public authorities comply with the
laws and decrees. The latter had the specific duty to protect the
citizens and as a public attorney prosecute unlawful government or
actions by authorities and criticise problematic laws, to ensure
equality in the court of law, with inspections and handling of
With growing attention to discrimination issues in the latter part of
the 20th century a number of new anti-discriminatory Ombudsmen was
appointed, to later be gathered under one roof, with the establishment
Equality Ombudsman (Swedish : Diskrimineringsombudsmannen) in
Ombudsman for Children (Swedish : Barnombudsmannen) was
established in 1993, and is tasked with matters affecting the rights
and interests of children and young people.
Director-General of the
Swedish Consumer Agency is the designated
Ombudsman (Swedish : Konsumentombudsmannen).
Non-government appointed entities are the
supervising compliance with the code of ethics of the Swedish printed
media industry, and Sameombudsmannen, an advocate for the rights of
the native Sami minority in Sweden, appointed by the Saami Council
The OFFICE OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS OMBUDSMAN was established in 2009, and
receives support from the OSCE . The current
Ombudsman is Zarif
Alizoda, appointed by President
Emomalii Rahmon and approved by
Parliament in May 2009. The functions of his office include human
rights education, on which it co-operates with other public bodies and
NGOs. It also works with a coalition of NGOs on monitoring places of
This section needs to be UPDATED. Please update this article to
reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2015)
The OFFICE OF THE OMBUDSMAN THAILAND (Thai :
rtgs : Phu Truat Kan Phaen Din Khong Ratthasapha) was created in the
1997 Constitution of Thailand or the "people's constitution". The name
was shortened to the OMBUDSMEN (Thai :
ผู้ตรวจการแผ่นดิน; rtgs : Phu Truat
Kan Phaen Din) by the
2007 Constitution of Thailand . The idea for
such an office first appeared in the 1974 constitution . However it
was not until 1997 that the concept was acted upon.
Ombudsmen are appointed by the
King of Thailand upon the advice of
Senate of Thailand
Senate of Thailand . The ombudsmen investigate complaints by the
public against public officials and agencies. They have the power to
prosecute, but not to enforce judgments.
Ombudsmen are appointed to a six-year non-renewable term. As of March
2017 Thailand's ombudsmen are:
* General Viddhavat Rajatanun
* Mr Boon Tapanadul
The Ombudsman's Office was created after the constitutional
referendum of 2010 was approved. The Ombudsman's Office is responsible
for examining and investigating all manner of administrative acts,
actions, attitudes and behavior in terms of respect for human rights
and freedoms, conformity with the law and fairness and appropriateness
within the framework of the character of the Republic of
enshrined in its Constitution . It performs its functions as part of
the Parliament Speaker's Office. The Ombudsman's Office is called the
PUBLIC MONITORING INSTITUTION (KDK) and has an independent and
Turkey was elected the first ombudsman of the country on 27 November
2012 by the Parliament, and was sworn in on 5 December. His selection
was somewhat controversial since he had been involved, as a judge in
the Court of Cassation , in upholding the 2006 conviction of the
Hrant Dink for the offence of "insulting
Turkishness" – a finding subsequently condemned by the European
Court of Human Rights , although Dink had in the interim been
The office of ombudsman, or Commissioner for Human Rights, in Ukraine
was instituted in 1998. Valeriya Lutkovska was elected to the office
for a five-year term by secret ballot in the Ukrainian Parliament on
24 April 2012. Under Article 55 of the 1996 Constitution , "Everyone
has the right to appeal for the protection of his her rights to the
Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights". Article 101
provides "The Ukrainian Parliament Commissioner for Human Rights
exercises parliamentary control over the observance of constitutional
human and citizens’ rights and freedoms." The legal basis of the
office, which is also Ukraine's national human rights institution , is
set out in Law 767/97, which refers to the office as the "Authorised
Human Rights Representative" of the Parliament.
In the United Kingdom a post of
Ombudsman is attached to the
Westminster Parliament , jurisdiction extending to all departments of
the central government and other government institutions. The office
of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration was created in
1967, covering the activities of central government departments. A
separate (National) Health Service ombudsman was subsequently created,
but this office has to date always been held by the same person and
the two offices are usually referred to as the Parliamentary and
Ombudsman . This
Ombudsman will usually investigate
complaints referred to him or her by a Member of Parliament where
there has been evidence of "maladministration " having occurred which
has resulted in an "unremedied injustice". Complaints to the Ombudsman
are subject to a "time bar" – this means that the
determine a complaint to be out of jurisdiction if too much time has
passed between the event or course of events being complained about
and the complaint being received by the Ombudsman.
Separate agencies exist to handle complaints relating to departments
and agencies of the devolved administrations . These are the Northern
Ombudsman , the
Ombudsman for Wales and the
Ombudsman , answerable respectively to the
Ireland Assembly , the
Welsh Assembly and the Scottish
Local Government Ombudsman (formally the Commission for Local
Government Administration – there are two Commissioners) for England
and Wales was created in 1973, and a similar office for Scotland in
1974; since then, a variety of other public and private
sector-specific ombudsmen have been created, along with the Northern
Ombudsman Services In The United Kingdom
* Children\'s commissioners exist in England, Northern Ireland,
Wales and Scotland.
* Communications and Internet Services Adjudication Scheme (CISAS)
provides free, independent dispute resolution with communications
Financial Ombudsman Service provides consumers and small
businesses with a free, independent service for resolving disputes
Insurance and other financial organisations (includes
private medical insurance)
* Financial Services
Ombudsman Scheme for the Isle of Man
Ombudsman Service (HOS): An independent service dealing
with complaints against landlords -webkit-column-width: 30em;
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* ^ Park, S. (2008). "Korean Preaching, Han, and Narrative
(American University Studies. Series VII. Theology and Religion)".
* ^ Pickl, V. (1987). "Islamic Roots of
Ombudsman Systems". The
* ^ A B ombudsmän, Riksdagens. "Historik". Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ The
Public Complaint's Commission (Amendment) Act No 21 of 1979
* ^ Charles L. Howard, The Organizational Ombudsman: Origins, Roles
and Operations, a Legal Guide, ABA, 2010.
* ^ "Article 60, Albanian Constitution". Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ "Avokati i Popullit - Ne mbrojtje te qytetarit".
www.avokatipopullit.gov.al. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ Raonador del Ciutadà del Principat d\'Andorra, official
website of the
* ^ Raonador del Ciutadà /
Ombudsman Office at the
* ^ "Defensor del Pueblo de la Nación Argentina".
www.defensor.gov.ar. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ One, Studio. "Գլխավոր - Human Rights Defender of the
Republic of Armenia". Human Rights Defender of the Republic of
Armenia. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ Australian Commonwealth
* ^ "Startseite". Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ @Nasir. "Azərbaycan Respublikasının İnsan Hüquqları
üzrə Müvəkkili". /. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ "le Médiateur fédéral - Frontpage". www.federalombudsman.be.
Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ jno. "Vlaamse Ombudsdienst: welkom op onze site".
www.vlaamseombudsdienst.be. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ "Walloon
Ombudsman website". Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ "Le Médiateur". www.mediateurcf.be. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ German-Speaking Community
* ^ "Pensions Ombudsman". www.mediateurpensions.be. Retrieved 19
* ^ "
Ombudsman - Welcome". www.ombudsman.bm. Retrieved 19
* ^ "
Ombudsman Act 2004" (PDF). Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ Buzadzic, Dzenan. "Izbor jezika - Institucija
ombudsmena/ombudsmana za ljudska prava Bosne i Hercegovine".
www.ombudsmen.gov.ba. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
* ^ "
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Look up OMBUDSMAN in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to OMBUDSMAN .
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* Transparency.org – 'What is an Ombudsman'
Ombudsman Institutions for the Armed Forces Handbook – 'A
practical guide to the role of military ombudsman', Geneva Centre for
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