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An Olympic medal
Olympic medal
is awarded to successful competitors at one of the Olympic Games. There are three classes of medal: gold, awarded to the winner; silver, awarded to the 1st runner-up; and bronze, awarded to the second runner-up. The granting of awards is laid out in detail in the Olympic protocols. Medal
Medal
designs have varied considerably since the first Olympic Games in 1896, particularly in size and weight. A standard obverse (front) design of the medals for the Summer Olympic Games
Olympic Games
began in 1928 and remained for many years, until its replacement at the 2004 Games as the result of controversy surrounding the use of the Roman Colosseum rather than a building representing the Games' Greek roots. The medals of the Winter Olympic Games
Olympic Games
never had a common design, but regularly feature snowflakes and the event where the medal has been won. In addition to generally supporting their Olympic athletes, some countries provide sums of money and gifts to medal winners, depending on the classes and number of medals won. Total medals won are used to rank competitor nations in medal tables, these may be compiled for a specific discipline, for a particular Games, or over all time. These totals always total event placements rather than actual medals — a victory in a team event (such as relay race) equates to a single gold for such rankings even though each team member would receive a physical medal.

Contents

1 Introduction and early history 2 Production and design

2.1 Trionfo 2.2 Custom reverse designs 2.3 Comparison between Summer and Winter

3 Individual design details

3.1 Summer Olympic medal
Olympic medal
designs 3.2 Winter Olympic medal
Olympic medal
designs

4 Participation medals 5 Gallery 6 Presentation 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Introduction and early history[edit] The olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the Ancient Olympic Games. It was an olive branch, off the wild-olive tree that grew at Olympia,[1] intertwined to form a circle or a horse-shoe. According to Pausanias it was introduced by Heracles
Heracles
as a prize for the winner of the running race to honour Zeus.[2] When the modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
began in 1896 medals started to be given to successful olympian competitors. However, gold medals were not awarded at the inaugural Olympics in 1896 in Athens, Greece.[3] The winners were instead given a silver medal and an olive branch,[4] while runners-up received a laurel branch and a copper or bronze medal.[5] In 1900, most winners received cups or trophies instead of medals. The custom of the sequence of gold, silver, and bronze for the first three places dates from the 1904 Summer Olympics
1904 Summer Olympics
in St. Louis, Missouri in the United States. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has retroactively assigned gold, silver and bronze medals to the three best placed athletes in each event of the 1896 and 1900 Games.[6][7] If there is a tie for any of the top three places all competitors are entitled to receive the appropriate medal according to IOC rules.[8] Some combat sports (such as boxing, judo, taekwondo and wrestling) award two bronze medals per competition, resulting in, overall, more bronze medals being awarded than the other colours. Medals are not the only awards given to competitors; every athlete placed first to eighth receives an Olympic diploma. Also, at the main host stadium, the names of all medal winners are written onto a wall.[8] Finally, as noted below, all athletes receive a participation medal and diploma. Production and design[edit]

A collection of medals won by Polish athletes, at the Museum of Sport and Tourism in Warsaw

The IOC dictates the physical properties of the medals and has the final decision about the finished design. Specifications for the medals are developed along with the National Olympic Committee
National Olympic Committee
(NOC) hosting the Games, though the IOC has brought in some set rules:[8][9]

Recipients: The top three competitors receive medals Shape: Usually circular, featuring an attachment for a chain or ribbon Diameter: A minimum of 60 mm Thickness: A minimum of 3 mm Material:

First place (the Gold
Gold
medal): It is composed of silver of at least .925 grade, plated with 6 grams of gold. Second place (the Silver
Silver
medal): .925 silver.[10] Third place (the Bronze
Bronze
medal): It is 97.0% copper with 0.5% tin and 2.5% zinc; the metal value was about US$3 in 2010.[11]

Event details: The sport for which the medal has been awarded should be written on the medal

The first Olympic medals in 1896 were designed by French sculptor Jules-Clément Chaplain
Jules-Clément Chaplain
and depicted Zeus
Zeus
holding Nike, the Greek goddess of victory, on the obverse and the Acropolis
Acropolis
on the reverse.[3] They were made by the Paris
Paris
Mint, which also made the medals for the 1900 Olympic Games, hosted by Paris. This started the tradition of giving the responsibility of minting the medals to the host city. For the next few Olympiads the host city also chose the medal design. Until 1912 the gold medals were made of solid gold.[12] Trionfo[edit]

The bronze medal from the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
showing Cassioli's obverse design

In 1923 the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) launched a competition for sculptors to design the medals for the Summer Olympic Games. Giuseppe Cassioli's Trionfo
Trionfo
design was chosen as the winner in 1928.[3][13][14] The obverse brought back Nike but this time as the main focus, holding a winner's crown and palm with a depiction of the Colosseum
Colosseum
in the background.[13] In the top right section of the medal a space was left for the name of the Olympic host and the Games numeral. The reverse features a crowd of people carrying a triumphant athlete. His winning design was first presented at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. The competition saw this design used for 40 years until the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
in Munich
Munich
became the first Games with a different design for the reverse side of the medal.[3] Cassioli's design continued to inspire the obverse of the medal for many more years, though recreated each time, with the Olympic host and numeral updated. The obverse remained true to the Trionfo
Trionfo
design until the 1992 Summer Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
in Barcelona, Spain, where the IOC allowed an updated version to be created. For the next few events they mandated the use of the Nike motif but allowed other aspects to change.[9] The trend ended in 2004 due to the negative publicity in reaction to the design of medal for the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
in Sydney. Wojciech Pietranik, the designer of the medal, along with the organisers of the Games were criticised by the Greek press for using the Roman Colosseum rather than the Greek Parthenon.[3][15] Pietranik's original design had featured the Sydney
Sydney
Opera House on the obverse but the IOC concluded that it should be replaced by the Colosseum
Colosseum
and a chariot rider. He made the changes and, despite the criticism, the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
decided to continue with the design as it was, noting that there was insufficient time to complete another version and that it would be too costly.[9] The error had remained for 76 years until a new style depicting the Panathinaiko Stadium was introduced at the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
in Athens.[16] This new obverse design would go on to be used at the 2008, 2012 and 2016 Games. Custom reverse designs[edit] The German Olympic Committee, Nationales Olympisches Komitee für Deutschland, were the first Summer Games organisers to elect to change the reverse of the medal. The 1972 design was created by Gerhard Marcks, an artist from the Bauhaus, and features mythological twins Castor and Pollux.[17] Since then the Organising Committee of the host city has been given the freedom of the design of the reverse, with the IOC giving final approval. Comparison between Summer and Winter[edit] The IOC has the final decision on the specifications of each design for all Olympic medals, including the Summer Games, Winter Games, and Paralympic Games. There has been a greater variety of design for the Winter Games; unlike with the Summer Games, the IOC never mandated one particular design. The medal at the inaugural 1924 Winter Olympics
1924 Winter Olympics
in Chamonix, France
France
did not even feature the Olympic rings. Nike was featured on the medals of the 1932 and 1936 Games but has only appeared on one medal design since then. One regular motif is the use of the snowflake, while laurel leaves and crowns appear on several designs. The Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius features on four Winter Games medals but does not appear on any Summer Games medal. For three events in a row, hosts of the Winter Games included different materials in the medals: glass (1992), sparagmite (1994), and lacquer (1998). It was not until the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing, China
China
that a Summer Olympic host chose to use something different, in this case jade. While every Summer Olympic medal
Olympic medal
except for the 1900 Games has been circular, the shapes of the Winter Games have been considerably more varied. The Winter Games medals are also generally larger, thicker, and heavier than those for the Summer Games. Individual design details[edit] Summer Olympic medal
Olympic medal
designs[edit] Details about the medals from each of the Summer Olympic Games:[17][18]

Games Host Details Designer(s) Mint Diameter (mm) Thickness (mm) Weight (g) image

1896 Athens, Greece Obverse: Zeus
Zeus
holding Nike Reverse: The Acropolis Chaplain, Jules-ClémentJules-Clément Chaplain Paris
Paris
Mint 48 3.8 047

1900 Paris, France Obverse: Winged goddess holding laurel branches; Paris
Paris
in the background Reverse: A victorious athlete holding a laurel branch; the Acropolis in the background Note: The only Summer Olympic medal
Olympic medal
that is not circular Vernon, FrédériqueFrédérique Vernon Paris
Paris
Mint 59 x 41 3.2 053

1904 St. Louis, Missouri, U.S. Obverse: Nike holding a laurel crown and a palm leaf Reverse: An athlete holding a laurel crown; Greek temple in the background Dieges & Clust Dieges & Clust 37.8 3.5 021

1908 London, Great Britain Obverse: An athlete receiving a laurel crown from two female figures Reverse: Saint George
Saint George
atop a horse Edge: "Vaughton", event name and winner Mackennal, BertramBertram Mackennal Vaughton & Sons 33 4.4 021

1912 Stockholm, Sweden Obverse: An athlete receiving a laurel crown from two female figures Reverse: A herald opening the Games with a statue of Pehr Henrik Ling behind him Mackennal, Bertram Bertram Mackennal
Bertram Mackennal
(obverse) Erik Lindberg
Erik Lindberg
(reverse) C.C. Sporrong & Co 33.4 1.5 024

1920 Antwerp, Belgium Obverse: An athlete holding a laurel crown and a palm leaf Reverse: Statue of Silvius Brabo Edge: Name, event, team, "Antwerp", and the date Dupon, JosuéJosué Dupon Coosmans 59 4.4 079

1924 Paris, France Obverse: An athlete helping another to stand Reverse: A harp and various items of sports equipment Rivaud, AndréAndré Rivaud Paris
Paris
Mint 55 4.8 079

1928 Amsterdam, Netherlands Design: Trionfo Note: This obverse design, sometimes recreated, remains until 2004, the reverse design remained until 1972 Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli Dutch State Mint 55 3 066

1932 Los Angeles, U.S. Design: Trionfo Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli Whitehead & Hoag 55.3 5.7 096

1936 Berlin, Germany Design: Trionfo "B.H MAYER PFORZHEIM 990" Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli B.H. Mayer 55 5 071

1948 London, Great Britain Design: Trionfo Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli John Pinches 51.4 5.1 060

1952 Helsinki, Finland Design: Trionfo Edge: 916 M / Y6 (Factory Stamp) Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli Kultakeskus Oy 51 4.8 046.5

1956 Melbourne, Australia Design: Trionfo Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli K.G. Luke 51 4.8 068

1960 Rome, Italy Design: Trionfo Surround: A bronze laurel wreath and laurel leaf chain Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli Artistice Fiorentini 68 6.5 211

1964 Tokyo, Japan Design: Trionfo Cassioli, Giuseppe Giuseppe Cassioli
Giuseppe Cassioli
and Koshiba, ToshikakaToshikaka Koshiba Japan
Japan
Mint 60 7.5 062

1968 Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico Design: Trionfo Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli

60 6 130

1972 Munich, Germany Obverse: Trionfo Reverse: Castor and Pollux, twin sons of Zeus
Zeus
and Leda Edge: Winner's name and sport Cassioli, Giuseppe Giuseppe Cassioli
Giuseppe Cassioli
(obverse) Marcks, Gerhard Gerhard Marcks
Gerhard Marcks
(reverse) Bavarian Mint 66 6.5 102

1976 Montreal, Quebec, Canada Obverse: Trionfo Reverse: A stylised laurel crown and the Montreal
Montreal
Games logo Edge: Name of the sport Cassioli, Giuseppe Giuseppe Cassioli
Giuseppe Cassioli
(obverse) Royal Canadian Mint 60 5.8 154

1980 Moscow, Russia Obverse: Trionfo Reverse: A stylised Olympic flame and the Moscow
Moscow
Games logo Cassioli, Giuseppe Giuseppe Cassioli
Giuseppe Cassioli
(obverse) Postol, IlyaIlya Postol (reverse) Moscow
Moscow
Mint 60 6.8 125

1984 Los Angeles, U.S. Obverse: Trionfo Reverse:An Olympic champion held aloft by a crowd Note: The reverse returns to the Cassioli design Cassioli, GiuseppeGiuseppe Cassioli Jostens, Inc 60 7.9 141

1988 Seoul, South Korea Obverse: Trionfo Reverse: An outline of a dove carrying a laurel branch and the Seoul Olympic logo Cassioli, Giuseppe Giuseppe Cassioli
Giuseppe Cassioli
(obverse) Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation 60 7 152

1992 Barcelona, Spain Obverse: Updated interpretation of Trionfo Reverse: Barcelona
Barcelona
Games logo Corbero, XavierXavier Corbero Royal Mint
Royal Mint
of Spain 70 9.8 231

1996 Atlanta, U.S. Obverse: Updated interpretation of Trionfo Reverse: A stylised olive branch, the Atlanta
Atlanta
Games logo, and "Centennial Olympic Games" Edge: " Atlanta
Atlanta
Committee for the Olympic Games" Malcolm Grear Designers Reed & Barton 70 5 181

2000 Sydney, Australia Obverse: Updated interpretation of Trionfo Reverse: The Sydney
Sydney
Opera House, Olympic Flame, and Olympic rings Edge: Event name Pietranik, WojciechWojciech Pietranik Royal Australian Mint 68 5 180

2004 Athens, Greece Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium
in the background Reverse: The Olympic Flame, the opening lines of Pindar's Eighth Olympic Ode, and the Athens
Athens
Games logo Votsi, ElenaElena Votsi

60 5 135

2008 Beijing, China Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium
in the background Reverse: a jade ring with the Beijing
Beijing
Games logo in the centre and the event details on the outer edge Yong, XiaoXiao Yong[19] China
China
Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation 70 6 200

2012 London, United Kingdom Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium
in the background Reverse: The River Thames
River Thames
and the London
London
Games logo with angled lines in the background Watkins, DavidDavid Watkins Royal Mint 85 8–10 357–412[20]

2016 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Obverse: Nike with Panathinaiko Stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium
in the background Reverse: The Rio 2016 logo and name, surrounded by a laurel leaf design in the form of the wreaths Edge: The name of the event for which the medal was won is engraved by laser along the outside edge. Note: For the first time, the medals are slightly thicker at their central point compared with their edges.[21]

Casa da Moeda do Brasil 85 6-11[22] 500[23]

Winter Olympic medal
Olympic medal
designs[edit] Details about the medals from each of the Winter Olympic Games:[3][24]

Games Host Details Designer(s) Mint[8] Diameter (mm) Thickness (mm) Weight (g) Image

1924 Chamonix, France Obverse: A skier holding skates and skis and the designer's name Reverse: Written information about the Games Bernard, RaoulRaoul Bernard Paris
Paris
Mint 055 04 075

1928 St. Moritz, Switzerland Obverse: A skater surrounded by snowflakes Reverse: Olive
Olive
branches and host details Hunerwadel, ArnoldArnold Hunerwadel Huguenin Frères 050.4 03 051

1932 Lake Placid, U.S. Obverse: Nike with the Adirondack Mountains
Adirondack Mountains
in the background Reverse: Laurel leaves and written host details Shape: Circular but not with a straight edge

Robbins Company 055 03 051

1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany Obverse: Nike atop a horse-drawn chariot traversing an arch over winter sporting equipment Reverse: Large Olympic rings Klein, RichardRichard Klein Deschler & Sohn 100 04 324

1948 St. Moritz, Switzerland Obverse: The Olympic torch with snowflakes in the background and the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius Reverse: A snowflake and written host details Droz, Paul AndrePaul Andre Droz Huguenin Frères 060.2 03.8 103

1952 Oslo, Norway Obverse: The Olympic torch and the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius Reverse: A pictogram of Oslo
Oslo
City Hall with three snowflakes and written host details Falireus, VasosVasos Falireus and Yvan, KnutKnut Yvan Th. Marthinsen 070 03 137.5

1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy Obverse: An "ideal woman" and written host details Reverse: A large snowflake with Pomagagnon
Pomagagnon
in the background, the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius, and further host details Affer, CostanttinoCostanttino Affer Lorioli Bros. 060.2 03 120.5

1960 Squaw Valley, U.S. Obverse: The head of a male and female with host details written around them Reverse: Large Olympic rings, the Olympic motto Citius, Altius, Fortius, and the name of the sport Jones, HerffHerff Jones Herff Jones
Herff Jones
Company 055.3 04.3 095

1964 Innsbruck, Austria Obverse: Torlauf Mountains, " Innsbruck
Innsbruck
1964", and "Torlauf" Reverse: The Olympic rings above the emblem of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
with host details around them Coufal, MarthaMartha Coufal (obverse) Zegler, ArthurArthur Zegler (reverse) Austrian Mint 072 04 110

1968 Grenoble, France Obverse: Three snowflakes and the red rose emblem of Grenoble surrounded by host details Reverse: A stylised image of each sport Excoffon, RogerRoger Excoffon Paris
Paris
Mint 061 03.3 124

1972 Sapporo, Japan Obverse: Pictogram of lines in the snow Reverse: A snowflake, the sun, and the Olympic rings Shape: Square with rounded, wavy lines Kazumi, YagiYagi Kazumi (obverse) Tanaka, Ikko Ikko Tanaka (reverse) Mint Bureau of the Finance Ministry 057.3 x 61.3 05 130

1976 Innsbruck, Austria Obverse: The Olympic rings above the emblem of Innsbruck
Innsbruck
with host details around them Reverse: The Alps, Bergisel, and the Olympic flame Coufal, MarthaMartha Coufal (obverse) Zegler, ArthurArthur Zegler (reverse) Austrian Mint 070 05.4 164

1980 Lake Placid, U.S. Obverse: The Olympic torch held in front of the Adirondack Mountains Reverse: A pine cone sprig and the Lake Placid logo Gladys Gunzer Medallic Art Company 081 06.1 205

1984 Sarajevo, Yugoslavia Obverse: Event logo with host details surrounding it Reverse: An athletes head wearing a laurel crown Shape: Circular but set in a large rounded rectangular shape Mitrić, NebojšaNebojša Mitrić Zlatara Majdanpek and Zavod za izradu novčanica 71.1 x 65.1 03.1 164

1988 Calgary, Alberta, Canada Obverse: Event logo with host details surrounding it Reverse: Two people, one wearing a laurel and the other wearing a headdress made up of winter sports equipment Peter, FridrichFridrich Peter Jostens 069 05 193

1992 Albertville, France Obverse: Glass set into the metal, showing the Olympic rings in front of mountains Reverse: Rear side of glass section Lalique, RenéRené Lalique René Lalique 092 09.1 169

1994 Lillehammer, Norway Sparagmite partially covered in gold, one side showing the Olympic rings and host details, the other depicting the sport in which the medal was won and the Games emblem Hanevold, IngjerdIngjerd Hanevold Th. Marthinsen 080 08.5 131

1998 Nagano, Japan Obverse: Partly lacquered, shows the Games emblem Reverse: Mainly lacquer, containing the Games emblem over the Shinshu mountains Ito, TakeshiTakeshi Ito Kiso Kurashi Craft Center 080 08 261

2002 Salt Lake City, U.S. Obverse: An athlete carrying the Olympic torch steps out of flames Reverse: Nike holding a victory leaf surrounded by event details Shape: Irregular circle, like the rocks in Utah's rivers Given, ScottScott Given, Axiom Design O.C. Tanner 085 10 567

2006 Turin, Italy Obverse: Graphic elements of the Games Reverse: Pictogram of the specific event Shape: Circular with a hole representing a piazza Quatrini, DarioDario Quatrini Ottaviani 107 10 469

2010 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Obverse: An individually cropped section of a large First Nations artwork (orca or raven), making each medal unique Reverse: Emblem of the Games and event details Shape: Circular but with undulations stopping it from being flat Hunt, Corrine Corrine Hunt and Arbel, OmerOmer Arbel Royal Canadian Mint 100 06 500–576

2014 Sochi, Russian Federation Obverse: "Patchwork quilt" design representing different regions of Russia Reverse: Name of the competition in English and the Sochi
Sochi
logo Shape: Circular ADAMAS ADAMAS[25] 100 10 460, 525, 531

2018 Pyeongchang County, South Korea Hangul
Hangul
"symbolising the effort of athletes from around the world"[26] Lee Suk-woo

92.5

586, 580, 493

Participation medals[edit] Since the beginning of the modern Olympics the athletes and their support staffs, event officials, and certain volunteers involved in planning and managing the games have received commemorative medals and diplomas. Like the winners' medals, these are changed for each Olympiad, with different ones issued for the summer and winter games.[27] Gallery[edit]

Reverse of the plaque from the 1900 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in France

James Graves wearing a bronze medal at the 2000 Summer Olympics, the last version of the Trionfo
Trionfo
design

Vincent Hancock
Vincent Hancock
with his gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics, the heaviest Summer Olympics medal prior to the 2016 Rio Olympics[28]

Presentation[edit]

Jim Thorpe
Jim Thorpe
receives his medal at the 1912 Summer Olympics

The presentation of the medals and awards changed significantly until the 1932 Summer Olympics
1932 Summer Olympics
in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
brought in what has now become standard. Before 1932 all the medals were awarded at the closing ceremony, with the athletes wearing evening dress for the first few Games. Originally the presenting dignitary was stationary while the athletes filed past to receive their medals. The victory podium was introduced upon the personal instruction in 1931 of Henri de Baillet-Latour, who had seen one used at the 1930 British Empire Games.[29] The winner is in the middle at a higher elevation, with the silver medallist to the right and the bronze to the left.[29] At the 1932 Winter Olympics, medals were awarded in the closing ceremony, with athletes for each event in turn mounting the first-ever podium. At the Summer Olympics, competitors in the Coliseum received their medals immediately after each event for the first time; competitors at other venues came to the Coliseum next day to receive their medals.[8][29] Later Games have had a victory podium at each competition venue. The 1960 Summer Olympics
1960 Summer Olympics
in Rome, Italy
Italy
were the first in which the medals were placed around the neck of the athletes. The medals hung from a chain of laurel leaves, while they are now hung from a coloured ribbon.[17] When Athens
Athens
hosted the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
the competitors on the podium also received an olive wreath crown. In the 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
in Rio de Janeiro, each medalist received a wooden statuette of the Olympic logo.[30] See also[edit]

Summer Olympic coins Winter Olympic coins Lists of Olympic medalists James Brendan Connolly, recipient of the first winner's medal Pierre de Coubertin medal, a special medal awarded by the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
for sportsmanship or exceptional service to the Olympic movement

References[edit]

^ Theophrastus, Enquiry into Plants, IV.13.2: 'the wild-olive [kotinos] at Olympia near the temple of zeus, from which the wreaths for the games are made". ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.7.7 ^ a b c d e f London
London
2012: Olympic medals timeline, BBC News. Retrieved 27 July 2011. ^ De Coubertin, Pierre; Timoleon J. Philemon; N.G. Politis; Charalambos Anninos (1897). The Olympic Games: BC 776–AD 1896 (PDF). The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1896 - Second Part. Athens: Charles Beck. pp. 232–4.  ^ “After this followed the distribution of the second prizes. The King presented each winner with a bronze medal and a laurel branch.” (English version) But: “Darauf treten die zweiten Sieger einzeln heran und empfangen aus den Händen des Königs einen Lorbeerzweig und eine kupferne Medaille” (German version) Pierre de Coubertin and others, The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
In 1 8 9 6, Athens, London, Leipzig 1897, p.114 and p. 115. In: The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
B.C. 776. — A. D. 1896. Part II ^ " Athens
Athens
1896– Medal
Medal
Table". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-05-05.  ^ Mallon, Bill (1998). The 1900 Olympic Games, Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-0378-0.  ^ a b c d e Report 268. International Olympic Committee. 31 January 2002. Retrieved 11 September 2011. ^ a b c The fine art of victory, Powerhouse Museum. Retrieved 11 September 2011. ^ http://www.dendritics.com/scales/metal-calc.asp ^ Rigel Celeste (2 May 2010). "How Much is a Gold
Gold
Medal
Medal
Really Worth?". Luxist. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2016.  ^ "Olympics 2016: Everything You Need to Know About Gold
Gold
Medals". ABC News. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.  ^ a b Winner's medal for the 1948 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in London, Olympic.org. Retrieved 5 August 2011. ^ Olympic Summer Games Medals, Athens
Athens
Info Guide. Retrieved 27 July 2011. ^ Greek anger at Olympic medal
Olympic medal
design, The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 August 2011. ^ Athens' New Olympic Medal
Medal
Design Win IOC's Nod, People Daily. Retrieved 5 August 2011. ^ a b c Olympic Summer Games Medals From Athens
Athens
1896 to Beijing
Beijing
2008. International Olympic Committee. April 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2011. ^ Magnay, Jacquelin. London
London
2012 Olympics: medal designs unveiled. The Telegraph. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011. ^ Xiao Yong Archived 27 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine.. icograda. Retrieved 11 September 2011. ^ The Making of the London
London
2012 Victory Medals Archived 13 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. The Royal Mint. Retrieved 12 August 2016. ^ Rio 2016 reveals Olympic medals, celebrating nature and sustainability Archived 15 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Rio 2016. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016. ^ Medalhas Olímpicas e Paralímpicas são as mais sustentáveis da história dos Jogos. Casa da Moeda do Brasil. 14 June 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016. ^ Innovative Medal
Medal
Design Unveiled for Rio 2016. International Olympic Committee. 15 June 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016. ^ Olympic Winter Games Medals from Chamonix
Chamonix
1924 to Vancouver
Vancouver
2010. International Olympic Committee. April 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011. ^ The Sochi
Sochi
Olympic medals introduced by the ADAMAS jewellery company on YouTube ^ https://www.olympic.org/pyeongchang-2018-medals ^ Olympic Museum ^ https://www.forbes.com/sites/anthonydemarco/2012/07/26/a-closer-look-at-the-olympic-gold-medal/ ^ a b c Barney, Robert K. (1998). "A Research Note on the Origins of the Olympic Victory Podium" (PDF). International Symposium for Olympic Research. Fourth: Global and Cultural Critique: Problematizing the Olympic Games: 219–226. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-08-17/rio-2016-what-is-the-figurine-athletes-are-receiving-with-medal/7749814

External links[edit]

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Sports Symbols

Torch relays Pierre de Coubertin medal

Women Deaths

WWI

Olympic video games

Summer Games

1896 Athens 1900 Paris 1904 St. Louis 1908 London 1912 Stockholm 1916 Berlin 1920 Antwerp 1924 Paris 1928 Amsterdam 1932 Los Angeles 1936 Berlin 1940 Tokyo 1944 London 1948 London 1952 Helsinki 1956 Melbourne 1960 Rome 1964 Tokyo 1968 Mexico
Mexico
City 1972 Munich 1976 Montreal 1980 Moscow 1984 Los Angeles 1988 Seoul 1992 Barcelona 1996 Atlanta 2000 Sydney 2004 Athens 2008 Beijing 2012 London 2016 Rio de Janeiro 2020 Tokyo 2024 Paris 2028 Los Angeles 2032 TBD

Winter Games

1924 Chamonix 1928 St. Moritz 1932 Lake Placid 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940 Sapporo 1944 Cortina d'Ampezzo 1948 St. Moritz 1952 Oslo 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960 Squaw Valley 1964 Innsbruck 1968 Grenoble 1972 Sapporo 1976 Innsbruck 1980 Lake Placid 1984 Sarajevo 1988 Calgary 1992 Albertville 1994 Lillehammer 1998 Nagano 2002 Salt Lake City 2006 Turin 2010 Vancouver 2014 Sochi 2018 Pyeongchang 2022 Beijing 2026 TBD 2030 TBD

Ancient Olympic Games Intercalated Games

1906

Paralympic Games Youth Olympic Games

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