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The modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
or Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques[1][2]) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.[3] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, Greece, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC
IOC
is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter
Olympic Charter
defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for ice and winter sports, the Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
for athletes with a disability, and the Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
for teenage athletes. The Deaflympics
Deaflympics
and Special Olympics
Special Olympics
are also endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but many of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.[4][5] As a result, the Olympics has shifted away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War
Cold War
limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games. The latter, however, attracted 140 National Olympic Committees, which was a record at the time.[6] The Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, and organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC
IOC
also determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag
Olympic flag
and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively. The Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and a terrorist attack in 1972. Every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide unknown athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games also constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world.

Contents

1 Ancient Olympics 2 Modern Games

2.1 Forerunners 2.2 Revival 2.3 1896 Games 2.4 Changes and adaptations

2.4.1 Winter Games 2.4.2 Paralympics 2.4.3 Youth Games

2.5 21st-century games 2.6 Cost of the Games 2.7 Economic and social impact on host cities and countries

3 International Olympic Committee

3.1 Criticism

4 Commercialisation

4.1 Under national organising committees 4.2 Under IOC
IOC
control 4.3 Budget 4.4 Effect of television 4.5 Olympic marketing

5 Symbols 6 Ceremonies

6.1 Opening 6.2 Closing 6.3 Medal presentation

7 Sports

7.1 Amateurism and professionalism

7.1.1 Team Canada

8 Controversies

8.1 Boycotts 8.2 Politics 8.3 Use of performance-enhancing drugs

8.3.1 Russian doping scandal

8.4 Sex discrimination 8.5 Terrorism and violence 8.6 Colonialism

9 Citizenship

9.1 IOC
IOC
rules for citizenship 9.2 Reasons for changing citizenship 9.3 Citizenship changes and disputes

10 Champions and medallists 11 Nations

11.1 Nations at the Summer Olympics 11.2 Nations at the Winter Olympics 11.3 Host nations and cities

12 See also 13 Footnotes 14 References 15 Sources 16 Further reading 17 External links

Ancient Olympics Main article: Ancient Olympic Games

Stadium in Olympia, Greece

The Ancient Olympic Games
Ancient Olympic Games
were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus
Zeus
in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several city-states and kingdoms of Ancient Greece. These Games featured mainly athletic but also combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration, horse and chariot racing events. It has been widely written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce.[7] This idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus.[8] The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend;[9] one of the most popular myths identifies Heracles
Heracles
and his father Zeus
Zeus
as the progenitors of the Games.[10][11][12] According to legend, it was Heracles
Heracles
who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years.[13] The myth continues that after Heracles
Heracles
completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium
Olympic Stadium
as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion" (Greek: στάδιον, Latin: stadium, "stage"), which later became a unit of distance. The most widely accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC; this is based on inscriptions, found at Olympia, listing the winners of a footrace held every four years starting in 776 BC.[14] The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon (consisting of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a foot race, and wrestling), boxing, wrestling, pankration, and equestrian events.[15][16] Tradition has it that Coroebus, a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion.[17] The Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus
Zeus
(whose famous statue by Phidias
Phidias
stood in his temple at Olympia) and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia. Pelops
Pelops
was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus
Oenomaus
of Pisatis.[18] The winners of the events were admired and immortalised in poems and statues.[19] The Games were held every four years, and this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, and the Isthmian Games.[20] The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but then gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Greece. While there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Games officially ended, the most commonly held date is 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I decreed that all pagan cults and practices be eliminated.[21] Another date commonly cited is 426 AD, when his successor, Theodosius II, ordered the destruction of all Greek temples.[22] Modern Games See also: List of Olympic Games
Olympic Games
host cities Forerunners

Baron Pierre de Coubertin

Various uses of the term "Olympic" to describe athletic events in the modern era have been documented since the 17th century. The first such event was the Cotswold Games
Cotswold Games
or "Cotswold Olimpick Games", an annual meeting near Chipping Campden, England, involving various sports. It was first organised by the lawyer Robert Dover between 1612 and 1642, with several later celebrations leading up to the present day. The British Olympic Association, in its bid for the 2012 Olympic Games
2012 Olympic Games
in London, mentioned these games as "the first stirrings of Britain's Olympic beginnings".[23] L'Olympiade de la République, a national Olympic festival held annually from 1796 to 1798 in Revolutionary France
France
also attempted to emulate the ancient Olympic Games.[24] The competition included several disciplines from the ancient Greek Olympics. The 1796 Games also marked the introduction of the metric system into sport.[24] In 1834 and 1836 olympic games was held in Ramlösa (Sweden) and an additional in Stockholm
Stockholm
(Sweden) 1843, all organized by Gustaf Johan Schartau and others. At most 25 000 spectators saw the games.[25] In 1850 an Olympian Class was started by William Penny Brookes
William Penny Brookes
at Much Wenlock, in Shropshire, England. In 1859, Brookes changed the name to the Wenlock Olympian Games. This annual sports festival continues to this day.[26] The Wenlock Olympian Society
Wenlock Olympian Society
was founded by Brookes on 15 November 1860.[27] Between 1862 and 1867, Liverpool
Liverpool
held an annual Grand Olympic Festival. Devised by John Hulley
John Hulley
and Charles Melly, these games were the first to be wholly amateur in nature and international in outlook, although only 'gentlemen amateurs' could compete.[28][29] The programme of the first modern Olympiad
Olympiad
in Athens
Athens
in 1896 was almost identical to that of the Liverpool
Liverpool
Olympics.[30] In 1865 Hulley, Brookes and E.G. Ravenstein founded the National Olympian Association in Liverpool, a forerunner of the British Olympic Association. Its articles of foundation provided the framework for the International Olympic Charter.[31] In 1866, a national Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Great Britain was organised at London's Crystal Palace.[32] Revival

Evangelos Zappas

Greek interest in reviving the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
began with the Greek War of Independence from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1821. It was first proposed by poet and newspaper editor Panagiotis Soutsos
Panagiotis Soutsos
in his poem "Dialogue of the Dead", published in 1833.[33] Evangelos Zappas, a wealthy Greek-Romanian philanthropist, first wrote to King Otto of Greece, in 1856, offering to fund a permanent revival of the Olympic Games.[34] Zappas sponsored the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1859, which was held in an Athens
Athens
city square. Athletes
Athletes
participated from Greece
Greece
and the Ottoman Empire. Zappas funded the restoration of the ancient Panathenaic Stadium so that it could host all future Olympic Games.[34] The stadium hosted Olympics in 1870 and 1875.[35] Thirty thousand spectators attended that Games in 1870, though no official attendance records are available for the 1875 Games.[36] In 1890, after attending the Olympian Games of the Wenlock Olympian Society, Baron Pierre de Coubertin was inspired to found the International Olympic Committee (IOC).[37] Coubertin built on the ideas and work of Brookes and Zappas with the aim of establishing internationally rotating Olympic Games that would occur every four years.[37] He presented these ideas during the first Olympic Congress
Olympic Congress
of the newly created International Olympic Committee. This meeting was held from 16 to 23 June 1894, at the University of Paris. On the last day of the Congress, it was decided that the first Olympic Games
Olympic Games
to come under the auspices of the IOC would take place in Athens
Athens
in 1896.[38] The IOC
IOC
elected the Greek writer Demetrius Vikelas
Demetrius Vikelas
as its first president.[39] 1896 Games Main article: 1896 Summer Olympics

Opening ceremony in the Panathinaiko Stadium

The first Games held under the auspices of the IOC
IOC
was hosted in the Panathenaic Stadium
Panathenaic Stadium
in Athens
Athens
in 1896. The Games brought together 14 nations and 241 athletes who competed in 43 events.[40] Zappas and his cousin Konstantinos Zappas
Konstantinos Zappas
had left the Greek government a trust to fund future Olympic Games. This trust was used to help finance the 1896 Games.[41][42][43] George Averoff
George Averoff
contributed generously for the refurbishment of the stadium in preparation for the Games.[44] The Greek government also provided funding, which was expected to be recouped through the sale of tickets and from the sale of the first Olympic commemorative stamp set.[44] Greek officials and the public were enthusiastic about the experience of hosting an Olympic Games. This feeling was shared by many of the athletes, who even demanded that Athens
Athens
be the permanent Olympic host city. The IOC
IOC
intended for subsequent Games to be rotated to various host cities around the world. The second Olympics was held in Paris.[45] Changes and adaptations Main article: Summer Olympic Games After the success of the 1896 Games, the Olympics entered a period of stagnation that threatened their survival. The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
held at the Paris
Paris
Exposition in 1900 and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
at St. Louis
St. Louis
in 1904 were side shows. The Games in Paris
Paris
did not have a stadium, but were notable for being the first time women took part in the Games. When the St. Louis
St. Louis
Games were celebrated roughly 650 athletes participated, but 580 were from the United States. The homogeneous nature of these celebrations was a low point for the Olympic Movement.[46] The Games rebounded when the 1906 Intercalated Games (so-called because they were the second Games held within the third Olympiad) were held in Athens. These Games were, but are not now, officially recognised by the IOC
IOC
and no Intercalated Games
Intercalated Games
have been held since. The Games attracted a broad international field of participants and generated great public interest. This marked the beginning of a rise in both the popularity and the size of the Olympics.[47] Winter Games Main article: Winter Olympic Games

Ice hockey
Ice hockey
game during the 1928 Winter Olympics
1928 Winter Olympics
at St. Moritz

The Winter Olympics was created to feature snow and ice sports that were logistically impossible to hold during the Summer Games. Figure skating (in 1908 and 1920) and ice hockey (in 1920) were featured as Olympic events at the Summer Olympics. The IOC
IOC
desired to expand this list of sports to encompass other winter activities. At the 1921 Olympic Congress
Olympic Congress
in Lausanne, it was decided to hold a winter version of the Olympic Games. A winter sports week (it was actually 11 days) was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France, in connection with the Paris
Paris
Games held three months later; this event became the first Winter Olympic Games.[48] Although it was intended that the same country host both the Winter and Summer Games in a given year, this idea was quickly abandoned. The IOC
IOC
mandated that the Winter Games be celebrated every four years on the same year as their summer counterpart.[49] This tradition was upheld until the 1992 Games in Albertville, France; after that, beginning with the 1994 Games, the Winter Olympics were held every four years, two years after each Summer Olympics.[50] Paralympics Main article: Paralympic Games

1964 Summer Paralympics
1964 Summer Paralympics
in Tokyo

In 1948, Sir Ludwig Guttmann, determined to promote the rehabilitation of soldiers after World War II, organised a multi-sport event between several hospitals to coincide with the 1948 London
London
Olympics. Guttmann's event, known then as the Stoke Mandeville Games, became an annual sports festival. Over the next twelve years, Guttmann and others continued their efforts to use sports as an avenue to healing. For the 1960 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Rome, Guttmann brought 400 athletes to compete in the "Parallel Olympics", which became known as the first Paralympics. Since then, the Paralympics have been held in every Olympic year. Since the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
in Seoul, South Korea, the host city for the Olympics has also played host to the Paralympics.[51][D] In 2001 the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee
International Paralympic Committee
(IPC) signed an agreement guaranteeing that host cities would be contracted to manage both the Olympic and Paralympic Games.[52][53] The agreement came into effect at the 2008 Summer Games in Beijing, and the 2010 Winter Games in Vancouver. Chairman of the London
London
organising committee, Lord Coe, said about the 2012 Summer Paralympics
2012 Summer Paralympics
and Olympics in London
London
that,

We want to change public attitudes towards disability, celebrate the excellence of Paralympic sport and to enshrine from the very outset that the two Games are an integrated whole.[54]

Youth Games Main article: Youth Olympic Games In 2010, the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
were complemented by the Youth Games, which give athletes between the ages of 14 and 18 the chance to compete. The Youth Olympic Games
Youth Olympic Games
were conceived by IOC
IOC
president Jacques Rogge
Jacques Rogge
in 2001 and approved during the 119th Congress of the IOC.[55][56] The first Summer Youth Games were held in Singapore from 14–26 August 2010, while the inaugural Winter Games were hosted in Innsbruck, Austria, two years later.[57] These Games will be shorter than the senior Games; the summer version will last twelve days, while the winter version will last nine days.[58] The IOC
IOC
allows 3,500 athletes and 875 officials to participate at the Summer Youth Games, and 970 athletes and 580 officials at the Winter Youth Games.[59][60] The sports to be contested will coincide with those scheduled for the senior Games, however there will be variations on the sports including mixed NOC and mixed gender teams as well as a reduced number of disciplines and events.[61] 21st-century games From 241 participants representing 14 nations in 1896, the Games have grown to about 10,500 competitors from 204 nations at the 2012 Summer Olympics.[62] The scope and scale of the Winter Olympics is smaller. For example, Sochi
Sochi
hosted 2,873 athletes from 88 nations competing in 98 events during the 2014 Winter Olympics. During the Games most athletes and officials are housed in the Olympic Village. This village is intended to be a self-contained home for all the Olympic participants, and is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression.[63] The IOC
IOC
allowed the formation of National Olympic Committees representing nations that did not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organisations demand. As a result, colonies and dependencies are permitted to compete at Olympic Games. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico, Bermuda, and Hong Kong, all of which compete as separate nations despite being legally a part of another country.[64] The current version of the Charter allows for the establishment of new National Olympic Committees to represent nations which qualify as "an independent State recognised by the international community".[65] Therefore, it did not allow the formation of National Olympic Committees for Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
and Curaçao
Curaçao
when they gained the same constitutional status as Aruba
Aruba
in 2010, although the IOC
IOC
had recognised the Aruban Olympic Committee in 1986.[66][67] After 2012, Netherlands
Netherlands
Antilles athletes can choose to represent either the Netherlands
Netherlands
or Aruba.[68] Cost of the Games See also: Cost of the Olympic Games The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 found that sports-related costs for the Summer Games since 1960 is on average USD 5.2 billion and for the Winter Games USD 3.1 billion. This does not include wider infrastructure costs like roads, urban rail, and airports, which often cost as much or more than the sports-related costs. The most expensive Summer Games are Beijing
Beijing
at USD 40-44[69] billion and the most expensive Winter Games are Sochi
Sochi
2014 at USD 51 billion.[70][71] Costs per athlete is on average USD 0.6 million for the Summer Games and USD 1.3 million for the Winter Games. For London
London
2012, cost per athlete was USD 1.4 million; for Sochi
Sochi
2014, USD 7.9 million. Where ambitious construction for the 1976 games in Montreal
Montreal
and 1980 games in Moscow
Moscow
had saddled organisers with expenses greatly in excess of revenues, 1984 host Los Angeles
Los Angeles
strictly controlled expenses by using existing facilities except a swim stadium and a velodrome that were paid for by corporate sponsors. The Olympic Committee led by Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
used some of the profits to endow the LA84 Foundation to promote youth sports in Southern California, educate coaches and maintain a sports library. The 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
are often considered the most financially successful modern Olympics.[72] Budget overruns are common for the Games. Average overrun for Games since 1960 is 156% in real terms,[73] which means that actual costs turned out to be on average 2.56 times higher than the budget that was estimated at the time of winning the bid to host the Games. Montreal 1976 had the highest cost overrun for Summer Games, and for any Games, at 720%; Lake Placid 1980 had the highest cost overrun for Winter Games, at 324%. London
London
2012 had a cost overrun of 76%, Sochi
Sochi
2014 of 289%.[74] Economic and social impact on host cities and countries Many economists are sceptical about the economic benefits of hosting the Olympic Games, emphasising that such "mega-events" often have large costs while yielding relatively few tangible benefits in the long run.[75] Conversely hosting (or even bidding for) the Olympics appears to increase the host country's exports, as the host or candidate country sends a signal about trade openness when bidding to host the Games.[76] Moreover, research suggests that hosting the Summer Olympics has a strong positive effect on the philanthropic contributions of corporations headquartered in the host city, which seems to benefit the local nonprofit sector. This positive effect begins in the years leading up to the Games and might persist for several years afterwards, although not permanently. This finding suggests that hosting the Olympics might create opportunities for cities to influence local corporations in ways that benefit the local nonprofit sector and civil society.[77] The Games have also had significant negative effects on host communities; for example, the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions reports that the Olympics displaced more than two million people over two decades, often disproportionately affecting disadvantaged groups.[78] The 2014 Winter Olympics
2014 Winter Olympics
in Sochi
Sochi
were the most expensive Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in history, costing in excess of US$50 billion. According to a report by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development that was released at the time of the games, this cost will not boost Russia's national economy, but may attract business to Sochi and the southern Krasnodar region of Russia
Russia
in the future as a result of improved services.[79] But by December 2014, The Guardian
The Guardian
stated that Sochi
Sochi
"now feels like a ghost town", citing the spread-out nature of the stadiums and arenas, the still-unfinished construction, and the overall effects of Russia's political and economic turmoil.[80] Furthermore, at least four cities withdrew their bids for the 2022 Winter Olympics, citing the high costs or the lack of local support,[81] resulting in only a two-city race between Almaty, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Beijing, China. Thus in July 2016, The Guardian
The Guardian
stated that the biggest threat to the future of the Olympics is that very few cities want to host them.[82] Bidding for the 2024 Summer Olympics also became a two-city race between Paris
Paris
and Los Angeles, so the IOC took the unusual step of simultaneously awarding both the 2024 Games to Paris
Paris
and the 2028 Games to Los Angeles.[83] International Olympic Committee Main article: International Olympic Committee

I.O.C. headquarters at Lausanne

The Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
encompasses a large number of national and international sporting organisations and federations, recognised media partners, as well as athletes, officials, judges, and every other person and institution that agrees to abide by the rules of the Olympic Charter.[84] As the umbrella organisation of the Olympic Movement, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
(IOC) is responsible for selecting the host city, overseeing the planning of the Olympic Games, updating and approving the sports program, and negotiating sponsorship and broadcasting rights.[85] The Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
is made of three major elements:

International Federations (IFs) are the governing bodies that supervise a sport at an international level. For example, the International Federation of Association Football
Football
(FIFA) is the IF for association football, and the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball
Volleyball
is the international governing body for volleyball. There are currently 35 IFs in the Olympic Movement, representing each of the Olympic sports.[86] National Olympic Committees (NOCs) represent and regulate the Olympic Movement within each country. For example, the United States
United States
Olympic Committee (USOC) is the NOC of the United States. There are currently 205 NOCs recognised by the IOC.[87] Organising Committees for the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
(OCOGs) are temporary committees responsible for the organisation of each Olympic Games. OCOGs are dissolved after each Games once the final report is delivered to the IOC.[88]

French and English are the official languages of the Olympic Movement. The other language used at each Olympic Games
Olympic Games
is the language of the host country (or languages, if a country has more than one official language apart from French or English). Every proclamation (such as the announcement of each country during the parade of nations in the opening ceremony) is spoken in these three (or more) languages, or the main two depending on whether the host country is an English or French speaking country.[89] Criticism The IOC
IOC
has often been criticised for being an intractable organisation, with several members on the committee for life. The presidential terms of Avery Brundage
Avery Brundage
and Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch
were especially controversial. Brundage was president for over 20 years, and during his tenure he protected the Olympics from political involvement and the influence of advertising.[90] He was accused of both racism, for resisting exclusion of apartheid South Africa, and antisemitism.[91] Under the Samaranch presidency, the office was accused of both nepotism and corruption.[92] Samaranch's ties with the Franco regime in Spain
Spain
were also a source of criticism.[93] In 1998, it was reported that several IOC
IOC
members had taken bribes from members of the Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
bid committee for the hosting of the 2002 Winter Olympics. Although nothing strictly illegal had been done, it was felt that the acceptance of the gifts was morally dubious. The IOC
IOC
pursued an investigation which led to the resignation of four members and expulsion of six others. The scandal set off further reforms that changed the way host cities were selected, to avoid similar cases in the future.[94] The 1999, it was reported that the Nagano Olympic bid committee had spent approximately $14 million to entertain the 62 IOC
IOC
members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC
IOC
asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records.[95][96] A BBC
BBC
documentary entitled Panorama: Buying the Games, aired in August 2004, investigated the taking of bribes in the bidding process for the 2012 Summer Olympics.[97] The documentary claimed it was possible to bribe IOC
IOC
members into voting for a particular candidate city. After being narrowly defeated in their bid for the 2012 Summer Games,[98] Parisian mayor Bertrand Delanoë
Bertrand Delanoë
specifically accused the British prime minister Tony Blair
Tony Blair
and the London Bid Committee
London Bid Committee
(headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe) of breaking the bid rules. He cited French president Jacques Chirac
Jacques Chirac
as a witness; Chirac gave guarded interviews regarding his involvement.[99] The allegation was never fully explored. The Turin
Turin
bid for the 2006 Winter Olympics
2006 Winter Olympics
was also shrouded in controversy. A prominent IOC
IOC
member, Marc Hodler, strongly connected with the rival bid of Sion, Switzerland, alleged bribery of IOC
IOC
officials by members of the Turin
Turin
Organising Committee. These accusations led to a wide-ranging investigation. The allegations also served to sour many IOC
IOC
members against Sion's bid and potentially helped Turin
Turin
to capture the host city nomination.[100] In July 2012, the Anti-Defamation League
Anti-Defamation League
called the continued refusal by the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
to hold a moment of silence at the opening ceremony for the eleven Israeli athletes killed by Palestinian terrorists at the 1972 Munich
Munich
Olympics, "a continuing stubborn insensitivity and callousness to the memory of the murdered Israeli athletes."[101] Commercialisation Under national organising committees The Olympics have been commercialised to various degrees since the initial 1896 Summer Olympics
1896 Summer Olympics
in Athens, when a number of companies paid for advertising,[102] including Kodak.[103][104] In 1908, Oxo, Odol mouthwash and Indian Foot Powder became official sponsors of the London
London
Olympic Games.[105][106][107] Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
sponsored the 1928 Summer Olympics, and has subsequently remained a sponsor to the current time.[102] Before the IOC
IOC
took control of sponsorship, national organising committees were responsible for negotiating their own contracts for sponsorship and the use of the Olympic symbols.[108] Under IOC
IOC
control The IOC
IOC
originally resisted funding by corporate sponsors. It was not until the retirement of IOC
IOC
president Avery Brundage, in 1972, that the IOC
IOC
began to explore the potential of the television medium and the lucrative advertising markets available to them.[108] Under the leadership of Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch
the Games began to shift toward international sponsors who sought to link their products to the Olympic brand.[109] More than half of the Olympic committee’s global sponsors are American companies.[110] Budget During the first half of the 20th century the IOC
IOC
ran on a small budget.[109][111] As president of the IOC
IOC
from 1952 to 1972, Avery Brundage rejected all attempts to link the Olympics with commercial interest.[108] Brundage believed the lobby of corporate interests would unduly impact the IOC's decision-making.[108] Brundage's resistance to this revenue stream meant the IOC
IOC
left organising committees to negotiate their own sponsorship contracts and use the Olympic symbols.[108] When Brundage retired the IOC
IOC
had US$2 million in assets; eight years later the IOC
IOC
coffers had swelled to US$45 million.[108] This was primarily due to a shift in ideology toward expansion of the Games through corporate sponsorship and the sale of television rights.[108] When Juan Antonio Samaranch was elected IOC
IOC
president in 1980 his desire was to make the IOC
IOC
financially independent.[111] The 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
became a watershed moment in Olympic history. The Los Angeles-based organising committee, led by Peter Ueberroth, was able to generate a surplus of US$225 million, which was an unprecedented amount at that time.[112] The organising committee had been able to create such a surplus in part by selling exclusive sponsorship rights to select companies.[112] The IOC
IOC
sought to gain control of these sponsorship rights. Samaranch helped to establish The Olympic Programme (TOP) in 1985, in order to create an Olympic brand.[109] Membership in TOP was, and is, very exclusive and expensive. Fees cost US$50 million for a four-year membership.[111] Members of TOP received exclusive global advertising rights for their product category, and use of the Olympic symbol, the interlocking rings, in their publications and advertisements.[113] Effect of television

A cartoon from the 1936 Olympics imagines the year 2000 when spectators will have been replaced by television and radio, their cheers coming from loudspeakers.

The 1936 Summer Olympics
1936 Summer Olympics
in Berlin
Berlin
were the first Games to be broadcast on television, though only to local audiences.[114] The 1956 Winter Olympics were the first internationally televised Olympic Games,[115] and the following Winter Games had their broadcasting rights sold for the first time to specialised television broadcasting networks— CBS
CBS
paid US$394,000 for the American rights,[116] and the European Broadcasting Union
European Broadcasting Union
(EBU) allocated US$660,000.[109] In the following decades the Olympics became one of the ideological fronts of the Cold War. Superpowers jockeyed for political supremacy, and the IOC
IOC
wanted to take advantage of this heightened interest via the broadcast medium.[116] The sale of broadcast rights enabled the IOC
IOC
to increase the exposure of the Olympic Games, thereby generating more interest, which in turn created more appeal to advertisers time on television. This cycle allowed the IOC
IOC
to charge ever-increasing fees for those rights.[116] For example, CBS
CBS
paid US$375 million for the American broadcast rights of the 1998 Nagano Games,[117] while NBC spent US$3.5 billion for the American rights of all the Olympic Games from 2000 to 2012.[109] In 2011, NBC
NBC
agreed to a $4.38 billion contract with the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
to broadcast the Olympics through the 2020 games, the most expensive television rights deal in Olympic history.[118] NBC
NBC
then agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on May 7, 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 games.[119] NBC
NBC
also acquired the American television rights to the Youth Olympic Games, beginning in 2014,[120] and the Paralympic Games for the 2014 and 2016 editions.[121] NBC
NBC
is one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC.[122] Viewership increased exponentially from the 1960s until the end of the century. This was due to the use of satellites to broadcast live television worldwide in 1964, and the introduction of colour television in 1968.[123] Global audience estimates for the 1968 Mexico City Games was 600 million, whereas at the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Games of 1984, the audience numbers had increased to 900 million; that number swelled to 3.5 billion by the 1992 Summer Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
in Barcelona.[124] However, at the 2000 Summer Games in Sydney, NBC
NBC
drew the lowest U.S. ratings for any Summer or Winter Olympics since 1968.[125] This was attributed to two factors: one was the increased competition from cable channels, the second was the internet, which was able to display results and video in real time. Television companies were still relying on tape-delayed content, which was becoming outdated in the information era.[126] A drop in ratings meant that television studios had to give away free advertising time.[127] With such high costs charged to broadcast the Games, the added pressure of the internet, and increased competition from cable, the television lobby demanded concessions from the IOC
IOC
to boost ratings.[128] The IOC
IOC
responded by making a number of changes to the Olympic program. At the Summer Games, the gymnastics competition was expanded from seven to nine nights, and a Champions Gala was added to draw greater interest.[129] The IOC
IOC
also expanded the swimming and diving programs, both popular sports with a broad base of television viewers.[129] Finally, the American television lobby, namely NBC, was able to dictate when certain events were held so that they could be broadcast live during prime time in the United States, such as swimming and figure skating.[130] The results of these efforts were mixed: ratings for the 2006 Winter Games were significantly lower than those for the 2002 Games, while there was a sharp increase in viewership for the 2008 Summer Olympics, and the 2012 Summer Games, where live broadcast in prime time on NBC
NBC
were little, became the most watched event in US television history.[127][131][132] Olympic marketing The sale of the Olympic brand has been controversial. The argument is that the Games have become indistinguishable from any other commercialised sporting spectacle.[113] Specific criticism was levelled at the IOC
IOC
for market saturation during the 1996 Atlanta
Atlanta
and 2000 Sydney
Sydney
Games. The cities were awash in corporations and merchants attempting to sell Olympic-related wares.[133] The IOC
IOC
indicated that they would address this to prevent spectacles of over-marketing at future Games.[133] Another criticism is that the Games are funded by host cities and national governments; the IOC
IOC
incurs none of the cost, yet controls all the rights and profits from the Olympic symbols. The IOC
IOC
also takes a percentage of all sponsorship and broadcast income.[113] Host cities continue to compete ardently for the right to host the Games, even though there is no certainty that they will earn back their investments.[134] Research has shown that trade is around 30 percent higher for countries that have hosted the Olympics.[135] Symbols Main article: Olympic symbols

The Olympic flag

The Olympic Movement
Olympic Movement
uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Olympic Charter. The Olympic symbol, better known as the Olympic rings, consists of five intertwined rings and represents the unity of the five inhabited continents (Africa, America, Asia, Australia
Australia
and Europe). The coloured version of the rings—blue, yellow, black, green, and red—over a white field forms the Olympic flag. These colours were chosen because every nation had at least one of them on its national flag. The flag was adopted in 1914 but flown for the first time only at the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
in Antwerp, Belgium. It has since been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.[136][137] The Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius, a Latin
Latin
expression meaning "Faster, Higher, Stronger" was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
in 1894 and has been official since 1924. The motto was coined by Coubertin's friend, the Dominican priest Henri Didon OP, for a Paris
Paris
youth gathering of 1891.[138] Coubertin's Olympic ideals are expressed in the Olympic creed:

The most important thing in the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.[136]

Months before each Games, the Olympic Flame
Olympic Flame
is lit in Olympia in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals. A female performer, acting as a priestess, ignites a torch by placing it inside a parabolic mirror which focuses the sun's rays; she then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Olympic torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city's Olympic stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony.[139] Though the flame has been an Olympic symbol since 1928, the torch relay was only introduced at the 1936 Summer Games to promote the Third Reich.[136][140] The Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the Games' identity promotion since the 1980 Summer Olympics, when the Russian bear cub Misha
Misha
reached international stardom. The mascot of the Summer Olympics in London
London
was named Wenlock after the town of Much Wenlock
Much Wenlock
in Shropshire. Much Wenlock still hosts the Wenlock Olympian Games, which were an inspiration to Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
for the Olympic Games.[141] Ceremonies Main article: Olympic Games
Olympic Games
ceremony Opening

Opening ceremony of the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
in London

As mandated by the Olympic Charter, various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games. This ceremony takes place before the events have occurred.[142][143] Most of these rituals were established at the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
in Antwerp.[144] The ceremony typically starts with the hoisting of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem.[142][143] The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theatre representative of its culture.[144] The artistic presentations have grown in scale and complexity as successive hosts attempt to provide a ceremony that outlasts its predecessor's in terms of memorability. The opening ceremony of the Beijing
Beijing
Games reportedly cost $100 million, with much of the cost incurred in the artistic segment.[145] After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. Greece
Greece
is traditionally the first nation to enter in order to honour the origins of the Olympics. Nations then enter the stadium alphabetically according to the host country's chosen language, with the host country's athletes being the last to enter. During the 2004 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Athens, Greece, the Greek flag entered the stadium first, while the Greek delegation entered last. Speeches are given, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Olympic torch is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final torch carrier, often a successful Olympic athlete from the host nation, who lights the Olympic flame in the stadium's cauldron.[142][143] Closing

Athletes
Athletes
gather in the stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.

The closing ceremony of the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
takes place after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction.[146] Three national flags are hoisted while the corresponding national anthems are played: the flag of the current host country; the flag of Greece, to honour the birthplace of the Olympic Games; and the flag of the country hosting the next Summer or Winter Olympic Games.[146] The president of the organising committee and the IOC
IOC
president make their closing speeches, the Games are officially closed, and the Olympic flame is extinguished.[147] In what is known as the Antwerp
Antwerp
Ceremony, the mayor of the city that organised the Games transfers a special Olympic flag to the president of the IOC, who then passes it on to the mayor of the city hosting the next Olympic Games.[148] The next host nation then also briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of its culture.[146] As is customary since 2004, the men's marathon medals (at the Summer Olympics) or the men's 50 km cross-country skiing freestyle mass start medals (at the Winter Olympics) are presented as part of the Closing Ceremony, which take place later that day, in the Olympic Stadium, and are thus the last medal presentation of the Games. Medal presentation

Medal ceremony with the Danish flag, the Union Jack
Union Jack
of the United Kingdom, and the New Zealand flag
New Zealand flag
from left to right during the 2008 Summer Olympics

A medal ceremony is held after each Olympic event is concluded. The winner, second and third-place competitors or teams stand on top of a three-tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective medals.[149] After the medals are given out by an IOC
IOC
member, the national flags of the three medallists are raised while the national anthem of the gold medallist's country plays.[150] Volunteering citizens of the host country also act as hosts during the medal ceremonies, as they aid the officials who present the medals and act as flag-bearers.[151] While in the Summer Olympics this ceremony is held on the ground where the event is played, in the Winter on it is usually held in a special "plaza". Sports Main article: Olympic sports The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
programme consists of 35 sports, 30 disciplines and 408 events. For example, wrestling is a Summer Olympic sport, comprising two disciplines: Greco-Roman and Freestyle. It is further broken down into fourteen events for men and four events for women, each representing a different weight class.[152] The Summer Olympics programme includes 26 sports, while the Winter Olympics programme features 15 sports.[153] Athletics, swimming, fencing, and artistic gymnastics are the only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic programme. Cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and speed skating have been featured at every Winter Olympics programme since its inception in 1924. Current Olympic sports, like badminton, basketball, and volleyball, first appeared on the programme as demonstration sports, and were later promoted to full Olympic sports. Some sports that were featured in earlier Games were later dropped from the programme.[154] Olympic sports
Olympic sports
are governed by international sports federations (IFs) recognised by the IOC
IOC
as the global supervisors of those sports. There are 35 federations represented at the IOC.[155] There are sports recognised by the IOC
IOC
that are not included on the Olympic program. These sports are not considered Olympic sports, but they can be promoted to this status during a programme revision that occurs in the first IOC
IOC
session following a celebration of the Olympic Games.[156][157] During such revisions, sports can be excluded or included in the programme on the basis of a two-thirds majority vote of the members of the IOC.[158] There are recognised sports that have never been on an Olympic programme in any capacity, including chess and surfing.[159] In October and November 2004, the IOC
IOC
established an Olympic Programme Commission, which was tasked with reviewing the sports on the Olympic programme and all non-Olympic recognised sports. The goal was to apply a systematic approach to establishing the Olympic programme for each celebration of the Games.[160] The commission formulated seven criteria to judge whether a sport should be included on the Olympic programme.[160] These criteria are history and tradition of the sport, universality, popularity of the sport, image, athletes' health, development of the International Federation that governs the sport, and costs of holding the sport.[160] From this study five recognised sports emerged as candidates for inclusion at the 2012 Summer Olympics: golf, karate, rugby union, roller sports and squash.[160] These sports were reviewed by the IOC
IOC
Executive Board and then referred to the General Session in Singapore in July 2005. Of the five sports recommended for inclusion only two were selected as finalists: karate and squash.[160] Neither sport attained the required two-thirds vote and consequently they were not promoted to the Olympic programme.[160] In October 2009 the IOC
IOC
voted to instate golf and rugby union as Olympic sports
Olympic sports
for the 2016 and 2020 Summer Olympic Games.[161] The 114th IOC
IOC
Session, in 2002, limited the Summer Games programme to a maximum of 28 sports, 301 events, and 10,500 athletes.[160] Three years later, at the 117th IOC
IOC
Session, the first major programme revision was performed, which resulted in the exclusion of baseball and softball from the official programme of the 2012 London
London
Games. Since there was no agreement in the promotion of two other sports, the 2012 programme featured just 26 sports.[160] The 2016 and 2020 Games will return to the maximum of 28 sports given the addition of rugby and golf.[161] Amateurism and professionalism Further information: Amateur sports

Professional NHL players were allowed to participate in ice hockey starting in 1998 (1998 Gold medal game between Russia
Russia
and the Czech Republic pictured).

The ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public school greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin.[162] The public schools subscribed to the belief that sport formed an important part of education, an attitude summed up in the saying mens sana in corpore sano, a sound mind in a sound body. In this ethos, a gentleman was one who became an all-rounder, not the best at one specific thing. There was also a prevailing concept of fairness, in which practising or training was considered tantamount to cheating.[162] Those who practised a sport professionally were considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby.[162] The exclusion of professionals caused several controversies throughout the history of the modern Olympics. The 1912 Olympic pentathlon and decathlon champion Jim Thorpe
Jim Thorpe
was stripped of his medals when it was discovered that he had played semi-professional baseball before the Olympics. His medals were posthumously restored by the IOC
IOC
in 1983 on compassionate grounds.[163] Swiss and Austrian skiers boycotted the 1936 Winter Olympics
1936 Winter Olympics
in support of their skiing teachers, who were not allowed to compete because they earned money with their sport and were thus considered professionals.[164] As class structure evolved through the 20th century, the definition of the amateur athlete as an aristocratic gentleman became outdated.[162] The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage.[165] Beginning in the 1970s, amateurism requirements were gradually phased out of the Olympic Charter. After the 1988 Games, the IOC
IOC
decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the Olympics, subject to the approval of the IFs.[166] Team Canada Near the end of the 1960s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey
Hockey
Association (CAHA) felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams. They pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues but met opposition from the IIHF and IOC. Avery Brundage, president of the IOC
IOC
from 1952 to 1972, was opposed to the idea of amateur and professional players competing together. At the IIHF Congress in 1969, the IIHF decided to allow Canada
Canada
to use nine non-NHL professional hockey players[167] at the 1970 World Championships in Montreal
Montreal
and Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.[168] The decision was reversed in January 1970 after Brundage said that ice hockey's status as an Olympic sport would be in jeopardy if the change was made.[167] In response, Canada
Canada
withdrew from international ice hockey competition and officials stated that they would not return until "open competition" was instituted.[167][169] Günther Sabetzki became president of the IIHF in 1975 and helped to resolve the dispute with the CAHA. In 1976, the IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships. However, NHL players were still not allowed to play in the Olympics until 1988, because of the IOC's amateur-only policy.[170] Controversies Main article: Olympic Games
Olympic Games
scandals and controversies Boycotts Main article: List of Olympic Games
Olympic Games
boycotts

Countries boycotting the 1956 Games are shaded blue

1964 Summer Olympics
1964 Summer Olympics
boycotting countries are shaded red

Countries boycotting the 1976 Games are shaded blue

Countries boycotting the 1980 Games are shaded blue

Countries boycotting the 1984 Games are shaded blue

Countries boycotting the 1988 Games are shaded blue

Greece, Australia, France, and United Kingdom
United Kingdom
are the only countries to be represented at every Olympic Games
Olympic Games
since their inception in 1896. While countries sometimes miss an Olympics due to a lack of qualified athletes, some choose to boycott a celebration of the Games for various reasons. The Olympic Council of Ireland
Olympic Council of Ireland
boycotted the 1936 Berlin
Berlin
Games, because the IOC
IOC
insisted its team needed to be restricted to the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
rather than representing the entire island of Ireland.[171] There were three boycotts of the 1956 Melbourne
Melbourne
Olympics: the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland
Switzerland
refused to attend because of the repression of the Hungarian uprising by the Soviet Union, but did send an equestrian delegation to Stockholm; Cambodia, Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon
Lebanon
boycotted the Games because of the Suez Crisis; and China
China
(the "People's Republic of China") boycotted the Games because Taiwan
Taiwan
was allowed to compete in the Games as the "Republic of China".[172] In 1972 and 1976 a large number of African countries threatened the IOC
IOC
with a boycott to force them to ban South Africa
Africa
and Rhodesia, because of their segregationist regimes. New Zealand
New Zealand
was also one of the African boycott targets, because its national rugby union team had toured apartheid-ruled South Africa. The IOC
IOC
conceded in the first two cases, but refused to ban New Zealand
New Zealand
on the grounds that rugby was not an Olympic sport.[173] Fulfilling their threat, twenty African countries were joined by Guyana
Guyana
and Iraq
Iraq
in a withdrawal from the Montreal
Montreal
Games, after a few of their athletes had already competed.[173][174] Taiwan
Taiwan
was excluded from the 1976 games by order of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the Prime Minister of Canada. Trudeau's action was widely condemned as having brought shame on Canada
Canada
for having succumbed to political pressure to keep the delegation from the Republic of China (ROC) from competing under that name.[175] The ROC refused a proposed compromise that would have still allowed them to use the ROC flag and anthem as long as the name was changed.[176] Taiwan
Taiwan
did not participate again until 1984, when it returned under the name of Chinese Taipei and with a special flag and anthem.[177] In 1980 and 1984, the Cold War
Cold War
opponents boycotted each other's Games. The United States
United States
and sixty-five other countries boycotted the Moscow Olympics in 1980 because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This boycott reduced the number of nations participating to 80, the lowest number since 1956.[178] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and 15 other nations countered by boycotting the Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Olympics of 1984, contending that they could not guarantee the safety of their athletes. Although a boycott led by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
depleted the field in certain sports, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.[6] The fact that Romania, a Warsaw Pact country, opted to compete despite Soviet demands led to a warm reception of the Romanian team by the United States. When the Romanian athletes entered during the opening ceremonies, they received a standing ovation from the spectators, which comprised mostly U.S. citizens. The boycotting nations of the Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
staged their own alternate event, the Friendship Games, in July and August.[179][180] There had been growing calls for boycotts of Chinese goods and the 2008 Olympics in Beijing
Beijing
in protest of China's human rights record, and in response to Tibetan disturbances. Ultimately, no nation supported a boycott.[181][182] In August 2008, the government of Georgia called for a boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympics, set to be held in Sochi, Russia, in response to Russia's participation in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[183][184] Politics

Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
on the podium after winning the long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics

The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
have been used as a platform to promote political ideologies almost from its inception. Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
wished to portray the National Socialist Party as benevolent and peace-loving when they hosted the 1936 Games, though they used the Games to display Aryan superiority.[185] Germany
Germany
was the most successful nation at the Games, which did much to support their allegations of Aryan
Aryan
supremacy, but notable victories by African American Jesse Owens, who won four gold medals, and Hungarian Jew Ibolya Csák, blunted the message.[186] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
did not participate until the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
in Helsinki. Instead, starting in 1928, the Soviets organised an international sports event called Spartakiads. During the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s, communist and socialist organisations in several countries, including the United States, attempted to counter what they called the "bourgeois" Olympics with the Workers Olympics.[187][188] It was not until the 1956 Summer Games that the Soviets emerged as a sporting superpower and, in doing so, took full advantage of the publicity that came with winning at the Olympics.[189] Soviet Union's success might be attributed to a heavy state's investment in sports to fulfill its political agenda on an international stage.[190][191][192] Individual athletes have also used the Olympic stage to promote their own political agenda. At the 1968 Summer Olympics
1968 Summer Olympics
in Mexico
Mexico
City, two American track and field athletes, Tommie Smith
Tommie Smith
and John Carlos, who finished first and third in the 200 metres, performed the Black Power salute on the victory stand. The second-place finisher, Peter Norman of Australia, wore an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge in support of Smith and Carlos. In response to the protest, IOC
IOC
president Avery Brundage
Avery Brundage
told the United States Olympic Committee
United States Olympic Committee
(USOC) to either send the two athletes home or withdraw the track and field team. The USOC opted for the former.[193] During the same Olympics, Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská
Věra Čáslavská
announced her protest to the Soviet-led invasion of her home country after controversially receiving silver on the beam and a shared gold on the floor. During the Soviet anthem, Čáslavská turned her head down and to the right of the Soviet flag in order to make a statement over the invasion and the Soviet influence of the sport of gymnastics. Returning home, Čáslavská was made an outcast by the Soviet government and was banned from competition and travelling. Currently, the government of Iran has taken steps to avoid any competition between its athletes and those from Israel. An Iranian judoka, Arash Miresmaeili, did not compete in a match against an Israeli during the 2004 Summer Olympics. Although he was officially disqualified for being overweight, Miresmaeli was awarded US$125,000 in prize money by the Iranian government, an amount paid to all Iranian gold medal winners. He was officially cleared of intentionally avoiding the bout, but his receipt of the prize money raised suspicion.[194] Use of performance-enhancing drugs Main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games

Thomas Hicks running the marathon at the 1904 Summer Olympics

In the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes began using drugs to improve their athletic abilities. For example, in 1904, Thomas Hicks, a gold medallist in the marathon, was given strychnine by his coach.[195] The only Olympic death linked to performance enhancing occurred at the 1960 Rome
Rome
games. A Danish cyclist, Knud Enemark Jensen, fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines.[196] By the mid-1960s, sports federations started to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs; in 1967 the IOC
IOC
followed suit.[197] According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB
KGB
colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".[198] On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow
Moscow
Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow
Moscow
Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."[198] Documents obtained in 2016 revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.[199] The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Dr. Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping program prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[199] The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.[200] One of the most publicised doping-related disqualifications occurred after the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
where Canadian sprinter, Ben Johnson (who won the 100-metre dash) tested positive for stanozolol. His gold medal was later stripped and awarded to the American runner-up Carl Lewis, who himself had tested positive for banned substances prior to the Olympics.[201] In 1999 the IOC
IOC
formed the World Anti-Doping Agency
World Anti-Doping Agency
(WADA) in an effort to systematise the research and detection of performance-enhancing drugs. There was a sharp increase in positive drug tests at the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
and 2002 Winter Olympics. Several medallists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified because of doping offences. During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the Olympic Standard) has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.[202] During the Beijing
Beijing
games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC
IOC
under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood tests were used to detect banned substances. Several athletes were barred from competition by their National Olympic Committees prior to the Games; only three athletes failed drug tests while in competition in Beijing.[196][203] In London
London
over 6,000 Olympic and Paralympic athletes were tested. Prior to the Games 107 athletes tested positive for banned substances and were not allowed to compete.[204][205] During and after the Games eight athletes tested positive for a banned substance and were suspended, including shot putter Nadzeya Ostapchuk, who was stripped of her gold medal.[206] Russian doping scandal Further information: Doping in Russia, McLaren Report, Russia
Russia
at the 2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Olympics
§ Russian doping scandal, Russia
Russia
at the 2014 Winter Olympics, Russia
Russia
at the 2016 Summer Olympics, Olympic Athletes
Athletes
from Russia
Russia
at the 2018 Winter Olympics, and Oswald Commission Russia
Russia
has been partially banned from the 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
and completely banned from the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
due to the state-sponsored doping program. Sex discrimination Main article: Women at the Olympics

Charlotte Cooper of the United Kingdom, first woman Olympic champion, in the 1900 Games

Women were first allowed to compete at the 1900 Summer Olympics
1900 Summer Olympics
in Paris, but at the 1992 Summer Olympics
1992 Summer Olympics
35 countries were still fielding all-male delegations.[207] This number dropped rapidly over the following years. In 2000, Bahrain
Bahrain
sent two women competitors for the first time: Fatema Hameed Gerashi and Mariam Mohamed Hadi Al Hilli.[208] In 2004, Robina Muqimyar and Fariba Rezayee became the first women to compete for Afghanistan
Afghanistan
at the Olympics.[209] In 2008, the United Arab Emirates sent female athletes (Maitha Al Maktoum competed in taekwondo, and Latifa Al Maktoum
Al Maktoum
in equestrian) to the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
for the first time. Both athletes were from Dubai's ruling family.[210] By 2010, only three countries had never sent female athletes to the Games: Brunei, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. Brunei had taken part in only three celebrations of the Games, sending a single athlete on each occasion, but Saudi Arabia and Qatar had been competing regularly with all-male teams. In 2010, the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
announced it would "press" these countries to enable and facilitate the participation of women for the 2012 Summer Olympics. Anita DeFrantz, chair of the IOC's Women and Sports Commission, suggested that countries be barred if they prevented women from competing. Shortly thereafter, the Qatar Olympic Committee
Qatar Olympic Committee
announced that it "hoped to send up to four female athletes in shooting and fencing" to the 2012 Summer Games in London. In 2008, Ali Al-Ahmed, director of the Institute for Gulf Affairs, likewise called for Saudi Arabia to be barred from the Games, describing its ban on women athletes as a violation of the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
charter. He noted: "For the last 15 years, many international nongovernmental organisations worldwide have been trying to lobby the IOC
IOC
for better enforcement of its own laws banning gender discrimination. ... While their efforts did result in increasing numbers of women Olympians, the IOC
IOC
has been reluctant to take a strong position and threaten the discriminating countries with suspension or expulsion."[207] In July 2010, The Independent reported: "Pressure is growing on the International Olympic Committee to kick out Saudi Arabia, who are likely to be the only major nation not to include women in their Olympic team for 2012. ... Should Saudi Arabia ... send a male-only team to London, we understand they will face protests from equal rights and women's groups which threaten to disrupt the Games".[211] At the 2012 Olympic Games
2012 Olympic Games
in London, Great Britain, for the first time in Olympic history, every country competing included female athletes.[212] Saudi Arabia included two female athletes in its delegation; Qatar, four; and Brunei, one (Maziah Mahusin, in the 400m hurdles). Qatar made one of its first female Olympians, Bahiya al-Hamad (shooting), its flagbearer at the 2012 Games,[213] and runner Maryam Yusuf Jamal
Maryam Yusuf Jamal
of Bahrain
Bahrain
became the first Gulf female athlete to win a medal when she won a bronze for her showing in the 1500 m race.[214] The only sport on the Olympic programme that features men and women competing together is the equestrian disciplines. There is no "Women's Eventing", or 'Men's Dressage'. As of 2008, there were still more medal events for men than women. With the addition of women's boxing to the programme in the 2012 Summer Olympics, however, female athletes were able to compete in all the same sports as men.[215] In the winter Olympics, women are still unable to compete in the Nordic Combined. There are currently two Olympic events in which male athletes may not compete: synchronised swimming and rhythmic gymnastics. Terrorism and violence Three Olympiads had to pass without a celebration of the Games because of war: the 1916 Games were cancelled because of World War I, and the summer and winter games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled because of World War II. The Russo-Georgian War
Russo-Georgian War
between Georgia and Russia erupted on the opening day of the 2008 Summer Olympics
2008 Summer Olympics
in Beijing. Both President Bush and Prime Minister Putin were attending the Olympics at that time and spoke together about the conflict at a luncheon hosted by Chinese president Hu Jintao.[216] When Nino Salukvadze of Georgia won the bronze medal in the 10 metre air pistol competition, she stood on the medal podium with Natalia Paderina, a Russian shooter who had won the silver. In what became a much-publicised event from the Beijing
Beijing
Games, Salukvadze and Paderina embraced on the podium after the ceremony had ended.[217] Terrorism most directly affected the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in 1972. When the Summer Games were held in Munich, Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is now known as the Munich
Munich
massacre. The terrorists killed two of the athletes soon after they had taken them hostage and killed the other nine during a failed liberation attempt. A German police officer and five terrorists also perished.[218] Terrorism affected the last two Olympic Games
Olympic Games
held in the United States. During the Summer Olympics in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, a bomb was detonated at the Centennial Olympic Park, which killed two and injured 111 others. The bomb was set by Eric Rudolph, an American domestic terrorist, who is currently serving a life sentence for the bombing.[219] The 2002 Winter Olympics
2002 Winter Olympics
in Salt Lake City, Utah, took place just five months after the September 11 attacks, which meant a higher level of security than ever before provided for an Olympic Games. The opening ceremonies of the Games featured symbols of the day's events. They included the flag that flew at Ground Zero, NYPD officer Daniel Rodríguez singing "God Bless America", and honour guards of NYPD and FDNY members. The events of that day have made security at the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
an increasing concern for Olympic planners.[220] Colonialism Main article: Colonialism
Colonialism
and the Olympic Games The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
have been criticised as upholding (and in some cases increasing) the colonial policies and practices of some host nations and cities either in the name of the Olympics by associated parties or directly by official Olympic bodies, such as the International Olympic Committee, host organising committees and official sponsors. Critics have argued that the Olympics have engaged in or caused erroneous anthropological and colonial knowledge production, erasure, commodification[221] and appropriation of indigenous ceremonies and symbolism, theft and inappropriate display of indigenous objects, further encroachment on and support of the theft of indigenous lands, and neglect and/or intensification of poor social conditions for indigenous peoples. Such practices have been observed at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. Louis, Missouri; the 1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
in Montreal, Quebec; the 1988 Winter Olympics
1988 Winter Olympics
in Calgary, Alberta; and the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
in Vancouver, British Columbia. Citizenship IOC
IOC
rules for citizenship The Olympic Charter
Olympic Charter
requires that an athlete be a national of the country for which they compete. Dual nationals may compete for either country, as long as three years have passed since the competitor competed for the former country. However, if the NOCs and IF involved agree, then the IOC
IOC
Executive Board may reduce or cancel this period.[222] This waiting period exists only for athletes who previously competed for one nation and want to compete for another. If an athlete gains a new or second nationality, then they do not need to wait any designated amount of time before participating for the new or second nation. The IOC
IOC
is only concerned with issues of citizenship and nationality after individual nations have granted citizenship to athletes.[223] Reasons for changing citizenship Athletes
Athletes
will sometimes become citizens of a different nation so they are able to compete in the Olympics. This is often because they are drawn to sponsorships or training facilities in such places as the United States. It could also be because an athlete is unable to qualify from within their original country. The athlete may not qualify because there are already qualified athletes in the athlete's home country. Between 1992 and 2008, about fifty athletes emigrated to the United States
United States
to compete on the US Olympic team after having previously competed for another nation.[224] Citizenship changes and disputes One of the most famous cases of changing nationality for the Olympics was Zola Budd, a South African runner who emigrated to the United Kingdom because there was an apartheid-era ban on the Olympics in South Africa. Budd was eligible for British citizenship because her grandfather was born in Britain, but British citizens accused the government of expediting the citizenship process for her.[225] Other notable examples include Kenyan runner Bernard Lagat, who became a United States
United States
citizen in May 2004. The Kenyan constitution requires that one renounce their Kenyan citizenship when they become a citizen of another nation. Lagat competed for Kenya in the 2004 Athens Olympics even though he had already become a United States
United States
citizen. According to Kenya, he was no longer a Kenyan citizen, jeopardising his silver medal. Lagat said he started the citizenship process in late 2003 and did not expect to become an American citizen until after the Athens
Athens
games.[226] Champions and medallists Further information: Lists of Olympic medallists
Lists of Olympic medallists
and List of multiple Olympic gold medalists The athletes or teams who place first, second, or third in each event receive medals. The winners receive gold medals, which were solid gold until 1912, then made of gilded silver and now gold-plated silver. Every gold medal however must contain at least six grams of pure gold.[227] The runners-up receive silver medals and the third-place athletes are awarded bronze medals. In events contested by a single-elimination tournament (most notably boxing), third place might not be determined and both semifinal losers receive bronze medals. At the 1896 Olympics only the first two received a medal; silver for first and bronze for second. The current three-medal format was introduced at the 1904 Olympics.[228] From 1948 onward athletes placing fourth, fifth, and sixth have received certificates, which became officially known as victory diplomas; in 1984 victory diplomas for seventh- and eighth-place finishers were added. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, the gold, silver, and bronze medal winners were also given olive wreaths.[229] The IOC
IOC
does not keep statistics of medals won on a national level (except for team sports), but NOCs and the media record medal statistics as a measure of success.[230] Nations Nations at the Summer Olympics Main article: List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games As of the 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro, all of the current 206 NOCs and 19 obsolete NOCs have participated in at least one edition of the Summer Olympics. Competitors from Australia, France,[A] Great Britain,[B] Greece, and Switzerland[C] have competed in all twenty-eight Summer Olympic Games. Athletes
Athletes
competing under the Olympic Flag, Mixed Teams and the Refugee Team have between them competed at six Games. Nations at the Winter Olympics Main article: List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games 119 NOCs (110 of the current 206 NOCs and 9 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one Winter Games, and athletes from fournteen nations (Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have participated in all twenty-two Winter Games to date. Host nations and cities

Map of Summer Olympics locations. Countries that have hosted one Summer Olympics are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.

Map of Winter Olympics locations. Countries that have hosted one Winter Olympics are shaded green, while countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue.

Main article: List of Olympic Games
Olympic Games
host cities See also: List of Olympic medals by host nation The host city for an Olympic Games
Olympic Games
is usually chosen seven to eight years ahead of their celebration.[231] The process of selection is carried out in two phases that span a two-year period. The prospective host city applies to its country's National Olympic Committee; if more than one city from the same country submits a proposal to its NOC, the national committee typically holds an internal selection, since only one city per NOC can be presented to the International Olympic Committee for consideration. Once the deadline for submission of proposals by the NOCs is reached, the first phase (Application) begins with the applicant cities asked to complete a questionnaire regarding several key criteria related to the organisation of the Olympic Games.[232] In this form, the applicants must give assurances that they will comply with the Olympic Charter
Olympic Charter
and with any other regulations established by the IOC
IOC
Executive Committee.[231] The evaluation of the filled questionnaires by a specialised group provides the IOC
IOC
with an overview of each applicant's project and their potential to host the Games. On the basis of this technical evaluation, the IOC
IOC
Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed to the candidature stage.[232] Once the candidate cities are selected, they must submit to the IOC
IOC
a bigger and more detailed presentation of their project as part of a candidature file. Each city is thoroughly analysed by an evaluation commission. This commission will also visit the candidate cities, interviewing local officials and inspecting prospective venue sites, and submit a report on its findings one month prior to the IOC's final decision. During the interview process the candidate city must also guarantee that it will be able to fund the Games.[231] After the work of the evaluation commission, a list of candidates is presented to the General Session of the IOC, which must assemble in a country that does not have a candidate city in the running. The IOC
IOC
members gathered in the Session have the final vote on the host city. Once elected, the host city bid committee (together with the NOC of the respective country) signs a Host City Contract with the IOC, officially becoming an Olympic host nation and host city.[231] By 2016, the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
will have been hosted by 44 cities in 23 countries, but by cities outside Europe
Europe
and North America
North America
on only eight occasions. Since the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
in Seoul, South Korea, the Olympics have been held in Asia
Asia
or Oceania
Oceania
four times, a sharp increase compared to the previous 92 years of modern Olympic history. The 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
were the first Olympics for a South American country. No bids from countries in Africa
Africa
have succeeded. The United States
United States
has hosted eight Olympic Games, four Summer and four Winter, more than any other nation. The British capital London
London
holds the distinction of hosting three Olympic Games, all Summer, more than any other city. The other nations hosting the Summer Games twice are Germany, Australia, France
France
and Greece. The other cities hosting the Summer Games twice are Los Angeles, Paris
Paris
and Athens. With the 2020 Summer Olympic Games, Japan
Japan
and Tokyo, respectively, will hold these statuses. In addition to the United States, nations hosting multiple Winter Games are France
France
with three, while Switzerland, Austria, Norway, Japan, Canada
Canada
and Italy
Italy
have hosted twice. Among host cities, Lake Placid, Innsbruck
Innsbruck
and St. Moritz
St. Moritz
have played host to the Winter Olympic Games
Olympic Games
more than once, each holding that honour twice. The most recent Winter Games were held in Sochi
Sochi
in 2014, Russia's first Winter Olympics and second Olympics overall (including Soviet Union's 1980 Summer Olympics). See also

Olympics portal

All-time Olympic Games
Olympic Games
medal table Art competitions at the Summer Olympics List of multi-sport events Paralympic Games Youth Olympic Games Olympic Cup
Olympic Cup
and Olympic Order Olympic Day Run Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
medal Special Olympics
Special Olympics
and Deaflympics SportAccord World Games

Footnotes

a Sources are inconsistent regarding Albert Corey's participation for France
France
in 1904. Although the Games report refers to Corey as a "Frenchman wearing the colors of the Chicago Athletic Association",[233] the IOC
IOC
attributes his medal in the marathon to the United States
United States
instead of France, and in contradiction, the medal in the four mile team race to a mixed team composed of athletes from multiple nations instead of just the United States.[234] a All three 'British' athletes in 1904 were from Ireland, which at the time was part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. No athletes from modern Great Britain
Great Britain
took part. The British Olympic Association was not founded until 1905.[235] a Switzerland
Switzerland
participated in the equestrian events of the 1956 Games held in Stockholm
Stockholm
in June,[236] but did not attend the Games in Melbourne
Melbourne
later that year.[237] a The 1988 Winter Paralympics
1988 Winter Paralympics
were in Innsbruck, Austria, whereas the 1988 Winter Olympics
1988 Winter Olympics
were in Calgary, Canada.[238]

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2014 Winter Games are threatened by a looming international boycott, environmental concerns, and public protests against local development". Archived from the original on 22 August 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 18 August 2008. ^ Bernas, Frederick (5 December 2009). "Olympic challenge for Sochi Games". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ Findling & Pelle 2004, p. 107. ^ Findling & Pelle 2004, pp. 111–112. ^ "Spartakiads". Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya. 24 (part 1). Moscow. 1976. p. 286.  ^ Roche 2000, p. 106. ^ "The USSR and Olympism" (PDF). Olympic Review. International Olympic Committee (84): 530–557. October 1974. Retrieved 4 May 2009.  ^ http://blogs.bu.edu/guidedhistory/russia-and-its-empires/tyler-benson/ ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP80-00810A005600130009-0.pdf ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/readingroom/docs/CIA-RDP80-00810A005600130009-0.pdf ^ "1968: Black athletes make silent protest". BBC. 17 October 1968. Retrieved 7 February 2009.  ^ "Iranian Judoka
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Sport
in Ancient Times. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-275-98739-8.  Darling, Janina K. (2004). "Panathenaic Stadium, Athens". Architecture of Greece. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-32152-8. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  Eassom, Simon (1994). Critical Reflections on Olympic Ideology. Ontario: The Centre for Olympic Studies. ISBN 978-0-7714-1697-2.  Findling, John E.; Pelle, Kimberly D. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32278-5. Retrieved 30 March 2009.  Gershon, Richard A. (2000). Telecommunications Management:Industry structures and planning strategies. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 978-0-8058-3002-6. Retrieved 21 March 2009.  Girginov, Vassil; Parry, Jim (2005). The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
Explained: A Student Guide to the Evolution of the Modern Olympic Games. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-34604-7. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  Golden, Mark (2009). "Helpers, Horses, and Heroes". Greek Sport
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and Social Status. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71869-2.  International Olympic Committee. "All Games since 1896". Retrieved 20 February 2013.  Krüger, Arnd; Murray, William J. (2003). The Nazi Olympics: sport, politics and appeasement in the 1930s. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02815-1. Retrieved 3 July 2012.  Lee, Jeff (24 November 2007). "Hyper-Hush Surrounds 2010 Games Mascots 'Til Tuesday". The Vancouver
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Sun. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.  Maraniss, David (2008). Rome
Rome
1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-3407-5.  Matthews, George R. (2005). America's first Olympics: the St. Louis games of 1904. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-1588-8.  "Olympic Charter" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2012.  Olympic Museum (2007). "The Olympic Games
Olympic Games
in Antiquity" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2009. Retrieved 2 February 2009.  Pausanias (1 January 1926). " Elis
Elis
1". Description of Greece. Loeb Classical Library. Vol. 2. translated by W. H. S. Jones and H. A. Ormerud. London: W. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-674-99207-8. OCLC 10818363. Retrieved 9 January 2009.  Pindar
Pindar
(1997). "Olympian 10". Olympian Odes. Loeb Classical Library. translated by William H. Race. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-99564-2. Retrieved 25 March 2009.  Porterfield, Jason (2008). Doping: Athletes
Athletes
and Drugs. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4042-1917-5.  Richardson, N.J. (1992). "Panhellenic Cults and Panhellenic Poets". In Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, John; Davies, J.K. The Fifth Century BC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23347-7. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  Roche, Maurice (2000). Mega-Events and Modernity. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-15711-7. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  Schaffer, Kay; Smith, Sidonie (2000). Olympics at the Millennium. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2819-9. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  Schantz, Otto J. (2008). "Pierre de Coubertin's Concepts of Race, Nation, and Civilization". In Susan Brownell. The 1904 Anthropology Days and Olympic Games: Sport, Race, and American Imperialism. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-1098-1.  Shachar, Ayelet (2011). "Picking Winners: Olympic Citizenship and the Global Race for Talent". Yale Law Journal. 120 (8): 2088–2139.  Slack, Trevor (2004). The Commercialisation of sport. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-8078-1. Retrieved 31 March 2009.  Spivey, Nigel Jonathan (2004). "Olympia: the Origins". The Fifth Century BC. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280433-4.  Swaddling, Judith (1999). The Ancient Olympic Games. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-77751-4.  Swaddling, Judith (2000). The Ancient Olympic Games
Ancient Olympic Games
(2 ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70373-5. OCLC 10759486. Retrieved 6 June 2009.  Tomlinson, Alan (2005). Sport
Sport
and leisure cultures. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3382-1. Retrieved 2 April 2009.  Vancouver
Vancouver
Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (27 November 2007). " Vancouver
Vancouver
2010 Mascots Introduced to the World". Canadian NewsWire. Retrieved 10 March 2014.  Weiler, Ingomar (2004). "The predecessors of the Olympic movement, and Pierre de Coubertin". European Review. Cambridge University Press. 12 (3).  Woods, Ron (2007). Social Issues in Sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5872-8. Retrieved 2 April 2009.  Young, David C. (2004). "The Beginnings". A Brief History of the Olympic Games. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-1130-0.  Young, David C. (1996). The Modern Olympics: A Struggle for Revival. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7207-5. 

Further reading

Boykoff, Jules (2016). Power Games: A Political History of the Olympics. New York and London: Verso. ISBN 978-1-784-78072-2.  Buchanan, Ian (2001). Historical dictionary of the Olympic movement. Lanham: Scarecrow Presz. ISBN 978-0-8108-4054-6.  Kamper, Erich; Mallon, Bill (1992). The Golden Book of the Olympic Games. Milan: Vallardi & Associati. ISBN 978-88-85202-35-1.  Preuss, Holger; Marcia Semitiel García (2005). The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games 1972–2008. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84376-893-7.  Simson, Vyv; Jennings, Andrew (1992). Dishonored Games: Corruption, Money, and Greed at the Olympics. New York: S.P.I. Books. ISBN 978-1-56171-199-4.  Wallechinsky, David (2004). The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics, Athens
Athens
2004 Edition. SportClassic Books. ISBN 978-1-894963-32-9.  Wallechinsky, David (2005). The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics, Turin
Turin
2006 Edition. SportClassic Books. ISBN 978-1-894963-45-9. 

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1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020

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1896 1904 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020

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1896 1904 1908 1912 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 2020

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Sport

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Winter Games

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Sport

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See also Category Olympics

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Summer Olympic Games
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host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

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1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

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Arafura Games CSIT World Sports Games Dew Tour Mind Sports Olympiad World Mind Sports Games SportAccord
SportAccord
World Mind Games TAFISA World Games World Combat Games World Games World Masters Games X Games World Beach
Beach
Games

Intercommunity

Commonwealth Games CPLP Games Croatian World Games Gay Games Invictus Games Islamic Solidarity Games Jeux de la Francophonie Lusophony Games Maccabiah Games Pan Arab Games Pan-Armenian Games Transplant Games World Eskimo Indian Olympics World Indigenous Games World Nomad Games World Outgames

Regional

Africa

African Youth Games African Games All- Africa
Africa
University Games

Americas

Pan American

Pan American Games Parapan American Games

Central American and the Caribbean

Central American and Caribbean
Caribbean
Games Central American Games

Latin
Latin
American

ALBA Games Bolivarian Games

North American

CANUSA Games North American Indigenous Games North American Outgames

South American

South American Games South American Beach
Beach
Games South American Youth Games

Asia

Pan Asian

Asian Games Asian Beach
Beach
Games Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games Asian Para Games Asian Winter Games Asian Youth Games

Southeast Asian

Southeast Asian Games ASEAN School Games ASEAN University Games ASEAN Para Games

Central Asian Games East Asian Youth Games South Asian Games West Asian Games

Europe

Black Sea Games European Games European Masters Games European Sports Championships European Youth Olympic Festival Games of the Small States of Europe Jeux des îles EuroGames

Oceania

Australian Youth Olympic Festival Micronesian Games Pacific Games

Intercontinental

Arctic Winter Games Asia
Asia
Pacific Deaf Games Indian Ocean Island Games Island Games Mediterranean Games Pan Arab Games

National

Africa

South African Games1

Americas

Canada

British Columbia Quebec Western

Colombia United States

amateur juniors seniors Warrior Games

NCSG, United States3

Alabama California Florida Massachusetts Missouri Montana Nebraska New York North Carolina North Dakota1 Lakota Nation Texas Wisconsin

Asia

Bangladesh China

All- China
China
Games National Games National Peasants' Games National Youth Games

India Indonesia Japan Malaysia

Para

Mongolia Pakistan Philippines

National Games Batang Pinoy Palaro

Singapore South Korea

Summer Winter

Thailand

youth

Vietnam

Europe

Netherlands Poland
Poland
(youth) All-Union Spartakiad1 Spartakiad
Spartakiad
of Albania1 Spartakiad
Spartakiad
of Peoples of the USSR1

youth1

WheelPower

Historical1

Pre-Modern Olympics (in order, from 1900 BC to 1859 AD)

Tailteann Games (ancient) Panhellenic Games

Ancient Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games Heraean Games

Panathenaic Games Roman Games Cotswold Olimpick Games Gog Magog Games Wenlock Olympian Society
Wenlock Olympian Society
Annual Games Zappas Olympics

Alternatives to the Modern Olympics

Aryan
Aryan
Games Friendship Games GANEFO Goodwill Games Inter-Allied Games Islamic Games Liberty Bell Classic People's Olympiad Workers' Olympiads

Defunct regional or community events

Afro-Asian Games Asian Indoor Games Asian Martial Arts Games Central African Games East Asian Games Far Eastern Championship Games FESPIC Games Games of the New Emerging Forces Nordic Games Pacific Ocean Games Spartakiad
Spartakiad
of Peoples of the USSR Tailteann Games (modern) Women's Islamic Games World Youth Games

Winter games

International

Olympics Paralympics Winter Universiade Commonwealth1 World Scout Arctic Winter Games Kennedy Memorial1 New Zealand
New Zealand
Winter Games

Regional

National Winter Games of China Asian Winter Games European Youth Olympic Festival Winter X Games
X Games
Europe

1 Defunct 2 Sub-national 3 51 component games in 36 U.S. states

Category List WikiProject

v t e

Team sports

Sport Governing bodies Sportspeople National sport

Basket sports

Basketball

beach deaf 3x3 water wheelchair

Cestoball Korfball Netball

Fast5 indoor wheelchair

Rezball Ringball Slamball

Football
Football
codes

Association football

amputee beach freestyle Futsal indoor Jorkyball paralympic powerchair roller street walking

Australian rules football

AFLX Lightning football Metro footy Nine-a-side Rec footy

Gaelic football

Ladies'

Circle rules football

Gridiron codes

American football

eight-man flag nine-man six-man sprint touch wheelchair

Canadian football Indoor American football

Arena football

Hybrid codes

Austus Eton wall game International rules football Samoa rules Speedball Swedish football Universal football Volata

Medieval football
Medieval football
codes

Ba game Caid Calcio fiorentino Camping Cnapan Cornish hurling Cuju Harpastum Kemari Ki-o-rahi Jegichagi La soule Lelo burti Marn grook Pasuckuakohowog Royal Shrovetide Uppies and downies Yubi lakpi

Rugby codes

Beach Rugby league

masters mod nines sevens tag wheelchair

Rugby union

American flag mini sevens snow tag touch tens

Touch Wheelchair

Bat-and-ball games

Baseball Brännboll British baseball Corkball Cricket

One Day Test Twenty20

Danish longball Indoor cricket Kickball Lapta Matball Oină Over-the-line Pesäpallo Rounders Softball

Fastpitch

Stickball Stoolball Town ball Vigoro Vitilla Wiffle ball Wireball

Stick and ball sports

Bando Cammag Hurling

Camogie Super11s Shinty–Hurling

Indigenous North American stickball Iomain Knattleikr Knotty Lacrosse

box/indoor field intercrosse women's

Ritinis Shinty

Shinty–Hurling

Hockey
Hockey
sports

Ball hockey Bandy

rink

Broomball

Moscow

Field hockey

indoor

Floor hockey Floorball Ice hockey

pond power ice sledge underwater

Ringette Rinkball Roller hockey

in-line quad

Rossall hockey Shinny Street hockey Underwater hockey Unicycle hockey

Polo
Polo
sports

Auto polo Cowboy polo Cycle polo Elephant polo Horseball Motoball Pato Polo

Arena polo chovgan snow polo

Polocrosse Segway polo Yak polo

Net sports

Ball badminton Beach
Beach
tennis Biribol Bossaball Fistball Footbag net Football
Football
tennis Footvolley Jianzi Jokgu Newcomb ball Peteca Sepak takraw Throwball Volleyball

beach paralympic

Other sports

Airsoft Angleball Balle à la main Ballon au poing Basque pelota

frontenis jai alai xare

Bo-taoshi Boules

Bocce Bocce
Bocce
volo Boccia Bowls Jeu provençal Pétanque Raffa

Buzkashi Combat (juggling) Curling

wheelchair

Cycle ball Digor Dodgeball Flickerball Gateball Goalball Guts Handball

beach Czech field

Hornussen Ice stock sport Jereed Kabaddi

indoor beach

Kho kho Kin-Ball Lagori Longue paume Makura-Nage Mesoamerican ballgame Paintball Pelota mixteca Prisonball Pushball Quidditch Rollball Roller derby Slahal Snow snake Synchronized skating Synchronized swimming Tamburello Tchoukball

beach

Tejo Tug of war Ulama Ultimate Underwater football Underwater rugby Valencian pilota

Llargues

Water polo

canoe inner tube beach

Waboba Whirlyball Woodball Yukigassen

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127994918 LCCN: n94004448 GND: 2021059-0 SELIBR: 218023 SUDOC: 052611736 BNF: cb13568581t (data) HDS:

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