Oliver Ellsworth (April 29, 1745 – November 26, 1807) was an
American lawyer, judge, politician, and diplomat. He was a drafter of
the United States Constitution, a
United States Senator
United States Senator from
Connecticut, and the third Chief Justice of the United States.
Born in Windsor, Connecticut, Ellsworth attended the College of New
Jersey and helped found the American Whig–Cliosophic Society. In
1777, he became the state attorney for Hartford County, Connecticut
and was selected as a delegate to the Continental Congress, serving
during the American Revolutionary War. He served as a state judge
during the 1780s and was selected as a delegate to the 1787
Philadelphia Convention, which produced the United States
Constitution. While at the convention, Ellsworth played a role in
Connecticut Compromise between the more populous states
and the less populous states. He also served on the Committee of
Detail, which prepared the first draft of the Constitution, but he
left the convention before signing the document.
His influence helped ensure that
Connecticut ratified the
Constitution, and he was elected as one Connecticut's inaugural pair
of Senators, serving from 1789 to 1796. He was the chief author of the
Judiciary Act of 1789, which shaped the federal judiciary of the
United States and established the Supreme Court's power to overturn
state supreme court decisions that were contrary to the United States
Constitution. Ellsworth served as a key Senate ally to Alexander
Hamilton and aligned with the Federalist Party. He led the Senate
passage of Hamiltonian proposals such as the
Funding Act of 1790 and
the Bank Bill of 1791. He also helped ratify the United States Bill of
Rights and the Jay Treaty.
After the Senate rejected the nomination of
John Rutledge to serve as
Chief Justice, President
George Washington nominated Ellsworth to the
position. Ellsworth was unanimously confirmed by the Senate. He served
until 1800, but the
Ellsworth Court handled few influential cases. He
simultaneously served as an envoy to
France from 1799 to 1800, signing
Convention of 1800
Convention of 1800 to settle the hostilities of the Quasi-War. In
the 1796 presidential election, Ellsworth received several electoral
votes. Poor health caused him to retire from the Court in 1800, and he
was succeeded by John Marshall. He served on the Connecticut
Governor's Council until his death in 1807.
1 Youth and family life
2 Service during the Revolutionary War
3 Work on the United States Constitution
4 Achievements as a legislator
Ellsworth Court and later life
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
Youth and family life
Ellsworth was born in Windsor, Connecticut, to Capt. David and Jemima
(née Leavitt) Ellsworth. He entered Yale in 1762, but transferred
to the College of New Jersey (later Princeton) at the end of his
second year. Along with William Paterson and Luther Martin (both of
whom served with him at the Constitutional Convention in 1787) he
founded the "Well Meaning Club," which became the Cliosophic
Society--now part of Whig-Clio, the nation's oldest college debating
club.. He received his A.B. degree in 1766, Phi Beta Kappa after
2 years. Soon afterward, Ellsworth turned to the law. After four years
of study, he was admitted to the bar in 1771 and later became a
successful lawyer and politician.
In 1772, Ellsworth married Abigail Wolcott, the daughter of Abigail
Abbot and William Wolcott, nephew of
Connecticut colonial governor
Roger Wolcott, and granddaughter of Abiah Hawley and William
Wolcott of East Windsor, Connecticut. They had nine children including
the twins William Wolcott Ellsworth, who married Noah Webster's
daughter, served in Congress and became the governor of Connecticut;
and Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, who became the first Commissioner of the
United States Patent Office, the mayor of Hartford, president of Aetna
Life Insurance and a large benefactor of Yale College. Oliver
Ellsworth was the grandfather of Henry L. Ellsworth's son Henry W.
Service during the Revolutionary War
From a slow start, Ellsworth built up a prosperous law practice. In
1777, he became Connecticut's state attorney for Hartford County. That
same year, he was chosen as one of Connecticut's representatives in
the Continental Congress. He served on various committees until 1783,
including the Marine Committee, the Board of Treasury, and the
Committee of Appeals. Ellsworth was also active in his state's efforts
during the Revolution, having served as a member of the Committee of
the Pay Table that supervised Connecticut's war expenditures. In 1777
he joined the Committee of Appeals, which can be described as a
forerunner of the Federal Supreme Court. While serving on it, he
participated in the Olmstead case that first brought state and federal
authority into conflict. In 1779, he assumed greater duties as a
member of the Council of Safety, which, with the governor, controlled
all military measures for the state. His first judicial service was on
the Supreme Court of Errors when it was established in 1785, but he
soon shifted to the
Connecticut Superior Court and spent four years on
Work on the United States Constitution
Oliver and Abigail Ellsworth by Ralph Earl
In May 1787, Ellsworth joined the Constitutional Convention in
Philadelphia as a delegate from
Connecticut along with Roger Sherman
and William Samuel Johnson. More than half of the 55 delegates were
lawyers, eight of whom, including both Ellsworth and Sherman, had
previous experience as judges conversant with legal discourse.
Ellsworth in particular played an important role in having
participated in the exclusion of judicial review from the Constitution
at the Convention and later in having put it into force in the 1789
Judiciary Act[clarification needed]
Ellsworth took an active part in the proceedings beginning on June 20,
when he proposed the use of the name the United States to identify the
government under the authority of the Constitution. The words "United
States" had already been used in the Declaration of Independence and
Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation as well as Thomas Paine's The American
Crisis. It was Ellsworth's proposal to retain the earlier wording to
sustain the emphasis on a federation rather than a single national
entity. Three weeks earlier, on May 30, 1787,
Edmund Randolph of
Virginia had moved to create a "national government" consisting of a
supreme legislative, an executive and a judiciary. Ellsworth accepted
Randolph's notion of a threefold division, but moved to strike the
phrase "national government." From this day forward the "United
States" was the official title used in the Convention to designate the
government, and this usage has remained in effect ever since. The
complete name, "the United States of America," had already been
featured by Paine, and its inclusion in the Constitution was the work
Gouverneur Morris when he made the final editorial changes in the
Ellsworth played a major role in the passage of the Connecticut
Compromise. The Convention was deadlocked over the question of
representation in Congress--the large states wanted proportional
representation while the small states demanded equal representation
for each state. During debate on the Great Compromise, often described
Connecticut Compromise, he joined his fellow Connecticut
Roger Sherman in proposing the bicameral arrangement in which
two members of the Senate would be elected by state legislatures as
indicated in Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution, while the House
of representatives would be proportional to population, as proposed by
Virginia Plan. Ellsworth's version of the compromise was
adopted by the Convention, but it was later revised by Amendment XVII
substituting a popular vote similar to that used for the House of
It is often argued that to gain the passage of the
its proponents courted the support of southern states by backing the
three-fifths compromise--counting slaves as three-fifths of a person
for the purpose of representation and taxing. In fact, the chronology
of the Convention disproves this--the
Great Compromise was passed well
before the three-fifths compromise, and North Carolina was the only
southern state that supported it. North Carolina's reasons appear to
be the same as Ellsworth's reasons for accepting the later compromise:
without these concessions, the Convention would have been dissolved
and no Constitution would have been adopted. Ellsworth voted for
Three-Fifths Compromise on the enumeration of slaves and opposed
the abolition of the foreign slave trade. Stressing that he had no
slaves, Ellsworth spoke twice before the Convention, on August 21 and
22, in favor of slavery being abolished.
Along with James Wilson, John Rutledge, Edmund Randolph, and Nathaniel
Gorham, Ellsworth served on the
Committee of Detail which prepared the
first draft of the Constitution based on resolutions already passed by
the Convention. All Convention deliberations were interrupted from
July 26 to August 6, 1787, while the
Committee of Detail completed its
task. The two preliminary drafts that survive as well as the text of
the Constitution submitted to the Convention were in the handwriting
of Wilson or Randolph. However, Ellsworth's role is made clear by his
53 contributions to the Convention as a whole from August 6 to 23,
when he left for business reasons. As James Madison tabulated in his
Records, only Madison and
Gouverneur Morris spoke more than Ellsworth
during those sixteen days.
Though Ellsworth left the Convention near the end of August and didn't
sign the final document, he wrote the Letters of a Landholder to
promote its ratification. He also played a dominant role in
Connecticut's 1788 ratification convention, when he emphasized that
judicial review guaranteed federal sovereignty. It seems more than a
coincidence that both he and Wilson served as members of the Committee
of Detail without mentioning judicial review in the initial draft of
the Constitution, but then stressed its central importance at their
ratifying conventions just a year preceding its inclusion by Ellsworth
in the Judiciary Act of 1789.
Letter from Ellsworth to
George Washington wishing former president "a
most respectful and most cordial farewell," March 1797
Achievements as a legislator
Along with William Samuel Johnson, Ellsworth served as one of
Connecticut's first two United States senators in the new federal
government, and his service extended from 1789 to 1796. During this
period he played a dominant role in Senate proceedings equivalent to
that of Senate Majority Leaders in later decades. According to John
Adams, he was "the firmest pillar of [Washington's] whole
administration in the Senate."[Brown, 231]
Aaron Burr complained that
if Ellsworth had misspelled the name of the Deity with two D's, "it
would have taken the Senate three weeks to expunge the superfluous
letter." Senator William Maclay, a Republican Senator from
Pennsylvania, offered a more hostile assessment: "He will absolutely
say anything, nor can I believe he has a particle of principle in his
composition," and "I can in truth pronounce him one of the most candid
men I ever knew possessing such abilities." [Brown, 224–25] What
seems to have bothered McClay the most was Ellsworth's emphasis on
private negotiations and tacit agreement rather than public debate.
Significantly, there was no official record of Senate proceedings for
the first five years of its existence, nor was there any provision to
accommodate spectators. The arrangement was essentially the same as
for the 1787 Convention, in contrast to the open sessions of the House
Ellsworth's first project was the Judiciary Act, described as Senate
Bill No. 1, which effectively supplemented Article III in the
Constitution by establishing a hierarchical arrangement among state
and federal courts. Years later Madison stated, "It may be taken for
certain that the bill organizing the judicial department originated in
his [Ellsworth's] draft, and that it was not materially changed in its
passage into law."[Brown, 185] Ellsworth himself probably wrote
Section 25, the most important component of the Judiciary Act. This
gave the Federal Supreme Court the power to veto state supreme court
decisions supportive of state laws in conflict with the U.S.
Constitution. All state and local laws accepted by state supreme
courts could be appealed to the federal Supreme Court, which was given
the authority, if it chose, to deny them for being unconstitutional.
State and local laws rejected by state supreme courts could not be
appealed in this manner; only the laws accepted by these courts could
be appealed. This seemingly modest specification provided the federal
government with its only effective authority over state government at
the time. In effect, judicial review supplanted Congressional Review,
which Madison had unsuccessfully proposed four times at the Convention
to guarantee federal sovereignty. Granting the federal government this
much authority was apparently rejected because its potential misuse
could later be used to reject the Constitution at State Ratifying
Conventions. Upon the completion of these conventions the previous
year, Ellsworth was in the position to render the sovereignty of the
federal government defensible, but through judicial review instead of
Once the Judiciary Act was adopted by the Senate, Ellsworth sponsored
the Senate's acceptance of the Bill of Rights promoted by Madison in
the House of Representatives. Significantly, Madison sponsored the
Judiciary Act in the House at the same time. Combined, the Judiciary
Act and Bill of Rights gave the Constitution the "teeth" that had been
missing in the Articles of Confederation. Judicial Review guaranteed
the federal government's sovereignty, whereas the Bill of Rights
guaranteed the protection of states and citizens from the misuse of
this sovereignty by the federal government. The Judiciary Act and Bill
of Rights thus counterbalanced each other, each guaranteeing respite
from the excesses of the other. However, with the passage of the
Fourteenth Amendment in 1865, seventy-five years later, the Bill of
Rights could be brought to bear at all levels of government as
interpreted by the judiciary with final appeal to the Supreme Court.
Needless to say, this had not been the original intention of either
Madison or Ellsworth.
Ellsworth was the principal exponent in the Senate of Hamilton's
economic program, having served on at least four committees dealing
with budgetary issues. `These issues included the passage of
Hamilton's plan for funding the national debt, the incorporation of
the First Bank of the United States, and the bargain whereby state
debts were assumed in return for locating the capital to the south
(today the District of Columbia). Ellsworth's other achievements
included framing the measure that admitted North Carolina to the
Union, devising the non-intercourse act that forced Rhode Island to
join the union, and drawing up the bill to regulate the consular
service. He also played a major role in convincing President
Washington to send
John Jay to England to negotiate the 1794 Jay
Treaty that prevented warfare with England, settled debts between the
two nations, and gave American settlers better access to the Midwest.
Ellsworth Court and later life
An engraving depicting Ellsworth
On March 3, 1796, Ellsworth was nominated by President George
Washington to be Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, the seat having
been vacated by John Jay. (Jay's replacement, John Rutledge, had been
rejected by the Senate the previous December, and Washington's next
nominee, William Cushing, had declined the office in February.) The
following day, Ellsworth was unanimously confirmed by the United
States Senate, and received his commission.
Ellsworth served until his resignation due to poor health on December
15, 1800, and his brief contribution was overshadowed by the
accomplishments of his successor, John Marshall, who succeeded him in
1801. However, four cases the
Ellsworth Court decided were of lasting
importance in American jurisprudence.
Hylton v. United States
Hylton v. United States (1796)
implicitly addressed the Supreme Court's power of judicial review in
upholding a federal carriage tax (although it would not be until John
Marshall succeeded Ellsworth that the court addressed this issue head
on); Hollingsworth v.
Virginia (1798) affirmed that the President had
no official role in amending the Constitution of the United States,
and that a Presidential signature was therefore unnecessary for
ratification of an amendment;
Calder v. Bull
Calder v. Bull (1798) held that the
Constitution's Ex post facto clause applied only to criminal, not
civil, cases; and New York v.
Connecticut was the first exercise by
the court of its original jurisdiction in cases between two states.
Ellsworth's chief legacy as Chief Justice, however, is his
discouragement of the previous practice of seriatim opinion writing,
in which each Justice wrote a separate opinion in the case and
delivered that opinion from the bench. Ellsworth instead encouraged
the consensus of the Court to be represented in a single written
opinion, a practice which continues to the present day.
Outside the Supreme Court
Ellsworth was a candidate in the 1796 United States presidential
election, receiving eleven votes in the electoral college, sharing
John Adams the distinction of gaining most votes in both New
Hampshire and Rhode Island.
As United States Envoy Extraordinary to the Court of France, Ellsworth
led a delegation there between 1799 and 1800 in order to settle
differences with Napoleon's government regarding restrictions on U.S.
shipping that might otherwise have led to military conflict between
the two nations. The agreement accepted by Ellsworth provoked
indignation among Americans for being too generous to Napoleon.
Moreover, Ellsworth came down with a severe illness resulting from his
travel across the Atlantic (causing him to tender his resignation from
the Supreme Court while still in Europe in 1800), and the Federalist
party had fallen into disarray and was easily defeated by Republicans
led by Jefferson. As a result, Ellsworth retired from national public
life upon his return to America in early 1801. He was nevertheless
able to serve again on the
Connecticut Governor's Council until he
died in Windsor in 1807. He was elected a Fellow of the American
Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1803.
Although many erroneously believe that he is buried on the grounds of
the Ellsworth Homestead in Windsor, Connecticut, his remains are in
the cemetery behind the First Congregational Church of Windsor
overlooking the Farmington River.
In retrospect, Ellsworth's role in helping to establish the United
States as a viable sovereign nation was important but could be easily
overlooked.[original research?] A good part of the reason for this was
that he did not distinguish himself as an orator but worked as much as
possible behind the scenes.[original research?] He was said to have
been dominant in his eloquence at the January 1788, Connecticut
Ratifying Convention, but later as the de facto Senate majority leader
he seems to have kept his arguments relatively short and to the
point.[original research?] His written prose could on occasion be
tortuous, as best illustrated by the operative sentence in Section 25
of the Judiciary Act (the first of only two sentences). Over three
hundred words long, this sentence is almost impossible to decipher as
an explanation how state courts were answerable to federal authority.
But perhaps this opacity was intentional, since the expansion of
federal power specified by Section 25 was mostly overlooked in debate
both in the Senate and House of Representatives despite having been
the most important and potentially controversial portion of the
Judiciary Act.[original research?]
That Ellsworth promoted the federal government as a unified
confederacy without the limitations imposed by the Articles of
Confederation enhanced his popularity during the first several decades
of America's history, especially in the South preceding the Civil
War.[original research?] In 1847, thirteen years before the Civil War,
John Calhoun praised Ellsworth as the first of three Founding Fathers
(including Sherman and Paterson) who gave the United States "the best
government instead of the worst and most intolerable on the
earth." However, rapid industrialization and the centralization of
U.S. national government since the Civil War have led to the almost
complete neglect of Ellsworth's pivotal contribution at the inception
of U.S. government.[original research?] Few today know much of
anything about him.[original research?]
Ellsworth's twin sons followed their father into public service.
William Wolcott Ellsworth married a daughter of lexicographer Noah
Webster and became
Governor of the State of Connecticut, a United
States Congressman and a justice of the
Connecticut Supreme Court. His
twin brother, Henry Leavitt Ellsworth, served as mayor of Hartford,
then was appointed the first commissioner of the U.S. Patent Office.
He later became president of
Aetna Life Insurance Company. Henry
Leavitt Ellsworth was instrumental in the creation of the U.S.
Agriculture Department, and he was appointed by President Andrew
Jackson to oversee the so-called Trail of Tears, the transfer of
Cherokee Indians from Georgia to the
Oklahoma Territory that cost
approximately 4,000 lives. He was a friend and backer of inventors
Samuel Colt and Samuel F.B. Morse, and his daughter Annie Ellsworth
proposed the first message transmitted by Morse over the telegraph,
"What hath God wrought?"
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth was a major
benefactor to Yale College, his alma mater.
Even if Ellsworth was viewed as "a valuable acquisition to the Court,"
and "a great loss to the Senate," he resigned after just four years
due to his "constant, and at times excruciating pains," sufferings
made worse by his Europe travels, as special envoy to France.
Ellsworth, Maine was named in his honor.
John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy authored the Encyclopædia Britannica's article on
Ellsworth. This was Kennedy's only contribution to the
Demographics of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of United States Chief Justices by time in office
List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office
United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court cases during the Ellsworth Court
U.S. Constitution, slavery debate, image: Chief Justices
^ Jemima Leavitt, born at nearby Suffield, was the daughter of Lieut.
Joshua Leavitt and Hannah Devotion, and the sister of
Congregationalist minister Rev. Jonathan Leavitt.
^ "Supreme Court Justices Who Are
Phi Beta Kappa
Phi Beta Kappa Members" (pdf). Phi
Beta Kappa website. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
^ Abigail Wolcott was the cousin of
Wolcott, Jr., for whom Wolcottville, Connecticut, later renamed
Torrington was named.
^ Max Farrand, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (New
Haven: Yale, 1936) 1:460-556
^ The Constitutional Convention and the Formation of the Union,
Solberg, Winton ed. 1990, p. 280
^ "Oliver Ellsworth". Oyez.org. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter E" (PDF). American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
Oliver Ellsworth at Find a Grave.
^ "Christensen, George A. (1983) Here Lies the Supreme Court:
Gravesites of the Justices, Yearbook". Archived from the original on
September 3, 2005. Retrieved April 26, 2010. Supreme Court
^ Christensen, George A., Here Lies the Supreme Court: Revisited,
Journal of Supreme Court History, Volume 33 Issue 1, pp. 17–41 (Feb
19, 2008), University of Alabama.
^ Brown, 164–165
^ Laboratory of Justice, The Supreme Court's 200 Year Struggle to
Integrate Science and the Law, by David L. Faigman, First edition,
2004, p. 34; Smith, Republic of Letters, 15, 501
^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the
United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 118.
^ Kennedy, John F.; Casto, William R. "Oliver Ellsworth, chief justice
of United States".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved February
^ "John F. Kennedy".
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved
February 16, 2016. (Not the entry on him, but the contributor
The Life of Oliver Ellsworth, William Garrott Brown, 1905 – repr. by
Da Capo Press, 1970
The Supreme Court in the Early Republic: The Chief Justiceships of
John Jay and Oliver Ellsworth, William R. Casto, University of South
Carolina Press, 1995
Oliver Ellsworth and the Creation of the Federal Republic, William R.
Casto, Second Circuit Committee on History and Commemorative Events,
The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, ed. by Max Farrand, 4
Yale University Press, 1911, 1966
James Madison's Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787,
James Brown Scott, Oxford University Press, 1918
The United States of America: A study in International Organization,
James Brown Scott, Oxford University Press, 1920.
1787 Constitutional Convention: The First Senate of the United States
1789–1795, Richard Streb, Bronx Historical Society, 1996
Connecticut Families of the Revolution, American Forebears from Burr
to Wolcott, Mark Allen Baker, The History Press, 2014
Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History
of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). Oxford, Oxfordshire:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3.
Buchanan, James M., Oliver Ellsworth, Third Chief Justice, Journal of
Supreme Court History: 1991, Supreme Court Historical Society.
Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated
Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court Historical Society,
Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1-56802-126-7.
Flanders, Henry. The Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the
United States Supreme Court. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co.,
1874 at Google Books.
Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L., eds. The
Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major
Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0-7910-1377-4.
Hall, Kermit L., ed. (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court
of the United States. Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press.
Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court:
A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.:
Congressional Quarterly Books.
Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical
Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. p. 590.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oliver Ellsworth.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Oliver Ellsworth at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a
public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
United States Congress. "
Oliver Ellsworth (id: E000147)". Biographical
Directory of the United States Congress.
Oliver Ellsworth at Michael Ariens.com.
National Archives biography
Oliver Ellsworth Homestead
Oliver Ellsworth at Supreme Court Historical Society.
Oyez Project, U.S. Supreme Court Media: Oliver Ellsworth
Princeton Companion: Oliver Ellsworth
Ellsworth Court at Supreme Court Historical Society.
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Connecticut
Served alongside: William Johnson, Roger Sherman, Stephen Mitchell,
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
United States Senators from Connecticut
R. S. Baldwin
R. E. Baldwin
Chief Justices of the United States
John Jay (1789–1795; cases)
John Rutledge (1795; cases)
Oliver Ellsworth (1796–1800; cases)
John Marshall (1801–1835; cases)
Roger B. Taney
Roger B. Taney (1836–1864; cases)
Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase (1864–1873; cases)
Morrison Waite (1874–1888; cases)
Melville Fuller (1888–1910; cases)
Edward Douglass White
Edward Douglass White (1910–1921; cases)
William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft (1921–1930; cases)
Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes (1930–1941; cases)
Harlan F. Stone
Harlan F. Stone (1941–1946; cases)
Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson (1946–1953; cases)
Earl Warren (1953–1969; cases)
Warren E. Burger
Warren E. Burger (1969–1986; cases)
William Rehnquist (1986–2005; cases)
John Roberts (2005–present; cases)
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
S. P. Chase
Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct
Supreme Court of the United States
The Ellsworth Court
Oliver Ellsworth (1796–1800)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2208 9198
BNF: cb12502193w (data)
US Congress: E000