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The Oldowan
Oldowan
(or Mode I) is the earliest widespread stone tool archaeological industry in prehistory (it is pre-dated by Lomekwian tools at a single site dated to 3.3 mya (million years ago).[1] Oldowan
Oldowan
tools were used during the Lower Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
period, 2.6 million years ago up until 1.7 million years ago, by ancient hominids across much of Africa, South Asia, the Middle East
Middle East
and Europe. This technological industry was followed by the more sophisticated Acheulean
Acheulean
industry. The term Oldowan
Oldowan
is taken from the site of Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
in Tanzania, where the first Oldowan
Oldowan
lithics were discovered by the archaeologist Louis Leakey
Louis Leakey
in the 1930s. However, some contemporary archaeologists and palaeoanthropologists prefer to use the term Mode 1 tools to designate pebble tool industries (including Oldowan), with Mode 2 designating bifacially worked tools (including Acheulean
Acheulean
handaxes), Mode 3 designating prepared-core tools, and so forth.[2] Classification of Oldowan
Oldowan
tools is still somewhat contentious. Mary Leakey was the first to create a system to classify Oldowan assemblages, and built her system based on prescribed use. The system included choppers, scrapers, and pounders.[3][4] However, more recent classifications of Oldowan
Oldowan
assemblages have been made that focus primarily on manufacture due to the problematic nature of assuming use from stone artefacts. An example is Isaac et al.'s tri-modal categories of "Flaked Pieces" (cores/choppers), "Detached Pieces" (flakes and fragments), "Pounded Pieces" (cobbles utilized as hammerstones, etc.) and "Unmodified Pieces" (manuports, stones transported to sites).[5] Oldowan
Oldowan
tools are sometimes called "pebble tools", so named because the blanks chosen for their production already resemble, in pebble form, the final product.[6] It is not known for sure which hominin species created and used Oldowan
Oldowan
tools. Its emergence is often associated with the species Australopithecus
Australopithecus
garhi[7] and its flourishing with early species of Homo
Homo
such as H. habilis and H. ergaster. Early Homo
Homo
erectus appears to inherit Oldowan
Oldowan
technology and refines it into the Acheulean
Acheulean
industry beginning 1.7 million years ago.[8]

Contents

1 Dates and ranges 2 Tools

2.1 Manufacture 2.2 Shapes and uses 2.3 Abbevillian

3 Tool users 4 Sites and archaeologists

4.1 Africa

4.1.1 Ethiopia

4.1.1.1 Afar Triangle 4.1.1.2 Omo River basin

4.1.2 Egypt 4.1.3 Kenya

4.1.3.1 East Turkana

4.1.4 Tanzania

4.1.4.1 Olduvai Gorge

4.1.5 South Africa

4.1.5.1 Swartkrans 4.1.5.2 Sterkfontein

4.2 Europe

4.2.1 Georgia 4.2.2 Bulgaria 4.2.3 Russia 4.2.4 Spain 4.2.5 France 4.2.6 Elsewhere

4.3 Asia

5 Notes 6 Sources 7 External links

Dates and ranges[edit] The oldest known Oldowan
Oldowan
tools have been found in Gona, Ethiopia, and are dated to about 2.6 mya.[9] The use of tools by apes including chimpanzees[10] and orangutans[11] can be used to argue in favour of tool-use as an ancestral feature of the hominin family.[12] Tools made from bone, wood, or other organic materials were therefore in all probability used before the Oldowan.[13] Oldowan
Oldowan
stone tools are simply the oldest recognisable tools which have been preserved in the archaeological record. There is a flourishing of Oldowan
Oldowan
tools in eastern Africa, spreading to southern Africa, between 2.4 and 1.7 mya. At 1.7 mya., the first Acheulean
Acheulean
tools appear even as Oldowan
Oldowan
assemblages continue to be produced. Both technologies are occasionally found in the same areas, dating to the same time periods. This realisation required a rethinking of old cultural sequences in which the more "advanced" Acheulean
Acheulean
was supposed to have succeeded the Oldowan. The different traditions may have been used by different species of hominins living in the same area, or multiple techniques may have been used by an individual species in response to different circumstances. Sometime before 1.8 mya Homo
Homo
erectus had spread outside of Africa, reaching as far east as Java by 1.8 mya[14] and in Northern China by 1.66 mya.[15] In these newly colonised areas, no Acheulean
Acheulean
assemblages have been found. In China, only "Mode 1" Oldowan
Oldowan
assemblages were produced, while in Indonesia stone tools from this age are unknown. By 1.8 mya early Homo
Homo
was present in Europe, as shown by the discovery of fossil remains and Oldowan
Oldowan
tools in Dmanisi, Georgia.[16] Remains of their activities have also been excavated in Spain at sites in the Guadix-Baza basin[17] and near Atapuerca.[18] Most early European sites yield "Mode 1" or Oldowan
Oldowan
assemblages. The earliest Acheulean sites in Europe only appear around 0.5 mya. In addition, the Acheulean tradition does not seem to spread to Eastern Asia.[19] It is unclear from the archaeological record when the production of Oldowon technologies ended. Other tool-making traditions seem to have supplanted Oldowon technologies by 0.25 mya. Tools[edit] Manufacture[edit] To obtain an Oldowan
Oldowan
tool, a roughly spherical hammerstone is struck on the edge, or striking platform, of a suitable core rock to produce a conchoidal fracture with sharp edges useful for various purposes. The process is often called lithic reduction. The chip removed by the blow is the flake. Below the point of impact on the core is a characteristic bulb with fine fissures on the fracture surface. The flake evidences ripple marks. The materials of the tools were for the most part quartz, quartzite, basalt, or obsidian, and later flint and chert. Any rock that can hold an edge will do. The main source of these rocks is river cobbles, which provide both hammer stones and striking platforms. The earliest tools were simply split cobbles. It is not always clear which is the flake. Later tool-makers clearly identified and reworked flakes. Complaints that artifacts could not be distinguished from naturally fractured stone have helped spark careful studies of Oldowon techniques. These techniques have now been duplicated many times by archaeologists and other knappers, making misidentification of archaeological finds less likely. Use of bone tools by hominins also producing Oldowan
Oldowan
tools is known from Swartkrans, where a bone shaft with a polished point was discovered in Member (layer) I, dated 1.8–1.5 mya. The Osteodontokeratic industry, the "bone-tooth-horn" industry hypothesized by Raymond Dart, is less certain. Shapes and uses[edit]

Oldowan-tradition stone chopper.

Mary Leakey
Mary Leakey
classified the Oldowan
Oldowan
tools as Heavy Duty, Light Duty, Utilized Pieces and Debitage, or waste.[20] Heavy-duty tools are mainly cores. A chopper has an edge on one side. It is unifacial if the edge was created by flaking on one face of the core, or bifacial if on two. Discoid tools are roughly circular with a peripheral edge. Polyhedral tools are edged in the shape of a polyhedron. In addition there are spheroidal hammer stones. Light-duty tools are mainly flakes. There are scrapers, awls (with points for boring) and burins (with points for engraving). Some of these functions belong also to heavy-duty tools. For example, there are heavy-duty scrapers. Utilized pieces are tools that began with one purpose in mind but were utilized opportunistically. Oldowan
Oldowan
tools were probably used for many purposes, which have been discovered from observation of modern apes and hunter-gatherers. Nuts and bones are cracked by hitting them with hammer stones on a stone used as an anvil. Battered and pitted stones testify to this possible use. Heavy-duty tools could be used as axes for woodworking. Both choppers and large flakes were probably used for this purpose. Once a branch was separated, it could be scraped clean with a scraper, or hollowed with pointed tools. Such uses are attested by characteristic microscopic alterations of edges used to scrape wood. Oldowan
Oldowan
tools could also have been used for preparing hides. Hides must be cut by slicing, piercing and scraping it clean of residues. Flakes are most suitable for this purpose. Lawrence Keeley, following in the footsteps of Sergei Semenov, conducted microscopic studies (with a high-powered optical microscope) on the edges of tools manufactured de novo and used for the originally speculative purposes described above. He found that the marks were characteristic of the use and matched marks on prehistoric tools. Studies of the cut marks on bones using an electron microscope produce a similar result. Abbevillian[edit]

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Abbevillian
Abbevillian
is a currently obsolescent name for a tool tradition that is increasingly coming to be called Oldowan. The label Abbevillian prevailed until the Leakey family discovered older (yet similar) artifacts at Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
(a.k.a. Oldupai Gorge) and promoted the African origin of man. Oldowan
Oldowan
soon replaced Abbevillian
Abbevillian
in describing African and Asian lithics. The term Abbevillian
Abbevillian
is still used but is now restricted to Europe. The label, however, continues to lose popularity as a scientific designation. In the late 20th century, discovery of the discrepancies in date caused a crisis of definition. If Abbevillian
Abbevillian
did not necessarily precede Acheulean
Acheulean
and both traditions had flakes and bifaces, how was the difference to be defined? It was in this spirit that many artifacts formerly considered Abbevillian
Abbevillian
were labeled Acheulean. In consideration of the difficulty, some preferred to name both phases Acheulean. When the topic of Abbevillian
Abbevillian
came up, it was simply put down as a phase of Acheulean. Whatever was from Africa was Oldowan, and whatever from Europe, Acheulean. The solution to the definition problem is stated in the article on Acheulean. The difference is to be defined in terms of complexity. Simply struck tools are Oldowan. Retouched, or reworked tools are Acheulean. Retouching is a second working of the artifact. The manufacturer first creates an Oldowan
Oldowan
tool. Then he reworks or retouches the edges by removing very small chips so as to straighten and sharpen the edge. Typically but not necessarily the reworking is accomplished by pressure flaking. The pictures in the introduction to this article are mainly labeled Acheulean, but this is the now false Acheulean, which also includes Abbevillian. The artifacts shown are clearly in the Oldowan
Oldowan
tradition. One or two of the more complex bifaces may have edges made straighter by a large percussion or two, but there is no sign of pressure flaking as depicted. The pictures included with this subsection show the difference. Tool users[edit]

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Current anthropological thinking is that Oldowan
Oldowan
tools were made by late Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and early Homo. Homo
Homo
habilis was named "skillful" because it was considered the earliest tool-using human ancestor. Indeed, the genus Homo
Homo
was in origin intended to separate tool-using species from their tool-less predecessors, hence the name of Australopithecus
Australopithecus
garhi, garhi meaning "surprise", a tool-using Australopithecine discovered in 1996 and described as the "missing link" between the Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and Homo
Homo
genera. There is also evidence that some species of Paranthropus
Paranthropus
utilized stone tools.[21]

Artistic interpretation of a female member of the Australopithecus genus. The emergence of Oldowan
Oldowan
tools is often associated with the species Australopithecus
Australopithecus
garhi.[7]

There is presently no evidence to show that Oldowan
Oldowan
tools were the sole creation of members of the Homo
Homo
line or that the ability to produce them was a special characteristic of only our ancestors. Research on tool use by modern wild chimpanzees in West Africa shows there is an operational sequence when chimpanzees use lithic implements to crack nuts. In the course of nut cracking, sometimes they will create unintentional flakes. Although the morphology of chimpanzees' hammer is different from Oldowan
Oldowan
hammer, chimpanzees' ability to use stone tools indicates that the earliest lithic industries were probably not produced by only one kind of hominin species.[22] The makers of Oldowan
Oldowan
tools were mainly right-handed.[23] "Handedness" (lateralization) had thus already evolved, though it is not clear how related to modern lateralization it was, since other animals show handedness as well. In the mid-1970s, Glynn Isaac
Glynn Isaac
touched off a debate by proposing that human ancestors of this period had a "place of origin" and that they foraged outward from this home base, returning with high-quality food to share and to be processed. Over the course of the last 30 years, a variety of competing theories about how foraging occurred have been proposed, each one implying certain kinds of social strategy. The available evidence from the distribution of tools and remains is not enough to decide which theories are the most probable. However, three main groups of theories predominate.

Glynn Isaac's model became the Central Forage Point, as he responded to critics that accused him of attributing too much "modern" behavior to early hominins with relatively free-form searches outward. A second group of models took modern chimpanzee behavior as a starting point, having the hominids use relatively fixed routes of foraging, and leaving tools where it was best to do so on a constant track. A third group of theories had relatively loose bands scouring the range, taking care to move carcasses from dangerous death sites and leaving tools more or less at random.

Each group of models implies different grouping and social strategies, from the relative altruism of central base models to the relatively disjointed search models. (See also central foraging theory, scavenging station model, Lewis Binford) Most models rely on social and communication networks to hold the band together. These social networks range from requiring no more communication than modern primates, to requiring more sophisticated sharing and teaching. At present, no evidence has been found that sharply divides these theories. Hominins
Hominins
probably lived in social groups that had contact with others. This conclusion is supported by the large number of bones at many sites, too large to be the work of one individual, and all of the scatter patterns implying many different individuals. Since modern primates in Africa have fluid boundaries between groups, as individuals enter, become the focus of bands, and others leave, it is also probable that the tools we find are the result of many overlapping groups working the same territories, and perhaps competing over them. Because of the huge expanse of time and the multiplicity of species associated with possible Oldowan
Oldowan
tools, it is difficult to be more precise than this, since it is almost certain that different social groupings were used at different times and in different places. There is also the question of what mix of hunting, gathering and scavenging the tool users employed. Early models focused on the tool users as hunters. The animals butchered by the tools include waterbuck, hartebeest, springbok, pig and zebra. However, the disposition of the bones allows some question about hominin methods of obtaining meat. That they were omnivores is unquestioned, as the digging implement and the probable use of hammer stones to smash nuts indicate. Lewis Binford first noticed that the bones at Olduvai contained a disproportionately high incidence of extremities, which are low in food substance. He concluded other predators had taken the best meat, and the hominins had only scavenged. The counter view is that while hunting many large animals would be beyond the reach of an individual human, groups could bring down larger game, as pack hunting animals are capable of doing. Moreover, since many animals both hunt and scavenge, it is possible that hominins hunted smaller animals, but were not above driving carnivores from larger kills, as they probably were driven from kills themselves from time to time. Sites and archaeologists[edit] A complete catalog of Oldowan
Oldowan
sites would be too extensive for listing here. Some of the better-known sites include the following:

Koobi Fora

Dmanisi

Lézignan-la-Cèbe

Olduvai Gorge

Xiaochangliang

Afar Triangle

Omo River

Nile

Swartkrans

Dagestan

Monte Poggiolo

Vértesszőlős

Kozarnika

Socotra

Homa Bay

Sterkfontein

Riwat

Ubeidiya

Kashafrud

He County

Xihoudu

Map of Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia
showing important sites of the Oldowan
Oldowan
industry (clickable map).

Africa[edit] Ethiopia[edit]

Oldowan
Oldowan
choppers dating to 1.7 million years BP, from Melka Kunture, Ethiopia

Afar Triangle[edit] Sites in the Gona river system in the Hadar region of the Afar triangle, excavated by Helene Roche, J. W. Harris and Sileshi Semaw, yielded some of the oldest known Oldowan
Oldowan
assemblages, dating to about 2.6 million years ago. Raw material analysis done by Semaw showed that some assemblages in this region are biased towards a certain material (e.g.: 70% of the artifacts at sites EG10 and EG12 were composed of trachyte) indicating a selectivity in the quality of stone used.[24] Recent excavations have yielded tools in association with cut-marked bones, indicating that Oldowan
Oldowan
were used in meat-processing or -acquiring activities. Omo River basin[edit] The second oldest known Oldowan
Oldowan
tool site comes from the Shungura formation of the Omo River basin. This formation documents the sediments of the Plio-Pleistocene and provides a record of the hominins that lived there. Lithic assemblages have been classified as Oldowan
Oldowan
in members E and F in the lower Omo basin. Although there have been lithic assemblages found in multiple sites in these areas, only the Omo sites 57 and 123 in member F are accepted as hominin lithic remains. The assemblages at Omo sites 71 and 84 in member E do not show evidence of hominin modification and are therefore classified as natural assemblages.[25] The tools are never found in direct association with the hominins, but archaeologists believe that they would be the strongest candidates for tool manufacture. There are no hominins in those layers, but the same layers elsewhere in the Omo valley contain Paranthropus
Paranthropus
and early Homo fossils. Paranthropus
Paranthropus
occurs in the preceding layers. In the last layer at 1.4 million years ago is only Homo
Homo
erectus. Egypt[edit] Along the Nile
Nile
River, within the 100 foot terrace, evidence of Chellean or Oldowan
Oldowan
cultures has been found.[26] Kenya[edit] Kanjera South, part of the Kanjera site complex, is located on the Homa Peninsula.[27] The site is estimated around 2 million years old.[28] One of the significant excavations, in the area, is Leakey’s expedition in 1932-35.[27] In 1995, Oldowan
Oldowan
and Plio-Pleistocene faunal remains surfaced from the site.[27] There has been fieldwork to understand the geochronology of Kanjera.[27] East Turkana[edit] Main article: Koobi Fora The numerous Koobi Fora
Koobi Fora
sites on the east side of Lake Turkana
Lake Turkana
are now part of Sibiloi National Park. Sites were initially excavated by Richard Leakey, Meave Leakey, Jack Harris, Glynn Isaac
Glynn Isaac
and others. Currently the artifacts found are classified as Oldowan
Oldowan
or KBS Oldowan dated from 1.9–1.7 mya, Karari (or "advanced Oldowan") dated to 1.6–1.4 mya, and some early Acheulean
Acheulean
at the end of the Karari. Over 200 hominins have been found, including Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and Homo. Tanzania[edit] Olduvai Gorge[edit]

Chopper from Olduvai Gorge, some 1.8 million years old

The Oldowan
Oldowan
industry is named after discoveries made in the Olduvai Gorge of Tanzania
Tanzania
in east Africa by the Leakey family, primarily Mary Leakey, but also her husband Louis and their son, Richard. Mary Leakey organized a typology of Early Pleistocene stone tools, which developed Oldowan
Oldowan
tools into three chronological variants, A, B and C.[29] Developed Oldowan
Oldowan
B is of particular interest due to changes in morphology that appear to have been driven mostly by the short term availability of a chert resource from 1.65 mya to 1.53 mya. The flaking properties of this new resource resulted in considerably more core reduction and a higher prevalence of flake retouch.[30] Similar tools had already been found in various locations in Europe and Asia for some time, where they were called Chellean and Abbevillian. The oldest tool sites are in the East African Rift
East African Rift
system, on the sediments of ancient streams and lakes. This is consistent with what we surmise of the evolution of man. Genetic studies tell us that the human line (the hominins) possibly diverged from the chimpanzee line (the hominids), and the native territory of the latter is the forests of Central Africa
Central Africa
nearby. Fossil chimpanzees have been found in Kenya. The forests of central and western Africa are a stable environment containing food in abundance for animals such as chimpanzees, and any species living in such an environment would have been under little pressure to evolve further. Eastern Africa is a land of often harsh and unstable environments, and resources are correspondingly scarcer and more difficult to get. Species living in the latter environment would be under greater pressure to evolve and change as needed to survive. A facility for tool-using would contribute to the species' chances of survival. Even though Olduvai Gorge
Olduvai Gorge
is the type site, Oldowan
Oldowan
tools from here are not the oldest known examples. They occur in Beds I–IV. Bed I, dated 1.85 mya to 1.7 mya, contains Oldowan
Oldowan
and fossils of Paranthropus
Paranthropus
boisei as well as Homo
Homo
habilis, as does Bed II, 1.7–1.2 mya. H. habilis gives way to Homo
Homo
erectus at about 1.6 mya but P. boisei goes on. Oldowan
Oldowan
continues to Bed IV at 800,000 to 600,000 before present (BP). South Africa[edit] Abbé Breuil was the first recognized archaeologist to go on record to assert the existence of Oldowan
Oldowan
tools. While his description was for "Chello-Abbevillean" tools, and post-dated Leakey's finds at Olduvai Gorge by at least ten years, his descriptions nonetheless represented the scholarly acceptance of this technology as legitimate. These findings were cited as being from the location of the Vaal River, at Vereeniging, and Breuil noted the distinct absence of a significant number of cores, suggesting a "portable culture". At the time, this was considered very significant, as portability supported the conclusion that the Oldowan
Oldowan
tool-makers were capable of planning for future needs, by creating the tools in a location which was distant from their use.[31] Swartkrans[edit] The Swartkrans
Swartkrans
site is a cave filled with layered fossil-bearing limestone deposits. Oldowan
Oldowan
is found in Members (layers) I–III, 1.8–.5 mya, in association with Paranthropus
Paranthropus
robustus and Homo habilis. The Member I assemblage also includes a shaft of pointed bone polished at the pointed end. Member I contained a high percentage of primate remains compared to other animal remains, which did not fit the hypothesis that H. habilis or P. robustus lived in the cave. C. K. Brain conducted a more detailed study and discovered the cave had been the abode of leopards, who preyed on the hominins.[32] Sterkfontein[edit] Another site of limestone caves is Sterkfontein, found in South Africa. This site contains a large number of not only Oldowan
Oldowan
tools, but also early Acheulean
Acheulean
technology. [33] Europe[edit] Georgia[edit]

Stone tool
Stone tool
( Oldowan
Oldowan
style) from Dmanisi
Dmanisi
paleontological site (right, 1.8 mya, replica), to be compared with the more "modern" Acheulean style (left)

In 1999 and 2002, two Homo
Homo
erectus skulls (H. georgicus) were discovered at Dmanisi
Dmanisi
in southern Georgia. The archaeological layer in which the human remains, hundreds of Oldowan
Oldowan
stone tools, and numerous animal bones were unearthed is dated approximately 1.6-1.8 million years ago. The site yields the earliest unequivocal evidence for presence of early humans outside the African continent.[34] Bulgaria[edit] At Kozarnika, in the ground layers, dated to 1.4-1.6 Ma, archaeologists have discovered a human molar tooth, lower palaeolithic assemblages that belong to a core-and-flake non-Acheulian industry and incised bones that may be the earliest example of human symbolic behaviour.[citation needed] Russia[edit] Ainikab-1 and Muhkay-2 (North Caucasus, Daghestan) are the extraordinary sites in relation to date and the culture. Geological and geomorphological data, palynological studies and paleomagnetic testing unequivocally point to Early Pleistocene (Eopleistocene), indicating the age of the sites as being within the range of 1.8 – 1.2 Ma.[35][36] Spain[edit]

Extremely archaic handaxe from the Quaternary fluvial terraces of Duero river
Duero river
(Valladolid, Spain) dated to Oldowan/ Abbevillian
Abbevillian
period (Lower Paleolithic).

Typical Acheulean
Acheulean
handaxe with tear form, from a superficial site in the Zamora province (Spain), in the Duero river.

Oldowan
Oldowan
tools have been found at the following sites: Fuente Nueva 3, Barranco del Leon, Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca TD 6. France[edit] Oldowan
Oldowan
tools have been found at: Lézignan-la-Cèbe, 1.5 mya; Abbeville, 1–.5 mya; Vallonnet cave, French Riviera; Soleihac, open-air site in Massif Central. Oldowan
Oldowan
tools have also been found at Tautavel
Tautavel
in the foothills of the Pyrenees. These were discovered by Henry de Lumbley alongside human remains (cranium). The tools are of limestone and quartz. Elsewhere[edit] Oldowan
Oldowan
tools have been found in Italy at the Monte Poggiolo
Monte Poggiolo
open air site dated to approximately 850 kya, making them the oldest evidence of human habitation in Italy. In Germany tools have been found in river gravels at Kärlich dating from 300 kya. In the Czech Republic tools have been found in ancient lake deposits at Przeletice and a cave site at Stranska Skala, dated no later than 500 kya. In Hungary tools have been found at a spring site at Vértesszőlős
Vértesszőlős
dating from 500 kya. Asia[edit]

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Oldowan
Oldowan
tools have been found at sites in South Asia
South Asia
and Southwest Asia. In November 2008 tens of sites of Oldowan
Oldowan
tools industry were found on the island of Socotra
Socotra
(Yemen).[37][38][39] In Pakistan
Pakistan
tools have been found dating from 1.9 mya at Riwat. In Iran
Iran
tools have been found dating from the Late Pliocene[citation needed] or Early Pleistocene at Kashafrud. In Israel
Israel
tools have been found dating from 1.4 mya at el 'Ubeidiya. Notes[edit]

^ Harmand, Sonia; Lewis, Jason E.; Feibel, Craig S.; et, al (21 May 2015). "3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi
Lomekwi
3, West Turkana, Kenya". www.nature.com. Nature(Macmillan Publishers Limited). Retrieved 9 March 2017.  ^ Clark, J. G. D. (1969). World prehistory: a new outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  ^ Clark, J.; de Heinzelin, J.; Schick, K.; Hart, W.; White, T.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Walter, R.; Suwa, G.; Asfaw, B.; Vrba, E.; et al. (1994). "African Homo
Homo
erectus: Old radiometric ages and young Oldowan assemblages in the middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia". Science. 264 (5167): 1907–1909. doi:10.1126/science.8009220. PMID 8009220. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Leakey, Mary (1971). A Summary and Discussion of the Archaeological Evidence from Bed I and Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Human Origins. pp. 431–460.  ^ Isaac, G. Ll., Harris, J. W. K. & Marshall, F. 1981. "Small is informative: the application of the study of mini-sites and least effort criteria in the interpretation of the Early Pleistocene archaeological record at Koobi Fora, Kenya." in "Inter-nacional de Ciencias Prehistoricas Y Protohistoricas", Mexico City. Mexico, pp. 101–119. ^ Napier, John. 1960. "Fossil Hand Bones from Olduvai Gorge". in Nature", December 17 edition. ^ a b De Heinzelin, J; Clark, JD; White, T; Hart, W; Renne, P; Woldegabriel, G; Beyene, Y; Vrba, E (1999). "Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids". Science. 284 (5414): 625–9. doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.625. PMID 10213682.  ^ Richards, M.P. (December 2002). "A brief review of the archaeological evidence for Palaeolithic and Neolithic
Neolithic
subsistence". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 56 (12): 1270–1278. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601646. PMID 12494313  . ^ Semaw, S.; Rogers, M. J.; Quade, J.; Renne, P. R.; Butler, R. F.; Domínguez-Rodrigo, M.; Stout, D.; Hart, W. S.; Pickering, T.; et al. (2003). "2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia". Journal of Human Evolution. 45 (2): 169–177. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00093-9. PMID 14529651. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Whiten, A.; Goodall, J.; McGrew, W. C.; Nishida, T.; Reynolds, V.; Sugiyama, Y.; Tutin, C. E. G.; Wrangham, R. W.; Boesch, C.; et al. (1999). "Cultures in Chimpanzees". Nature. 399 (6737): 682–685. doi:10.1038/21415. PMID 10385119. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Schaik, CP; Ancrenaz, M.; Borgen, G.; Galdikas, B.; Knott, C. D.; Singleton, I.; Suzuki, A.; Utami, S. S.; Merril, M.; et al. (2003). " Orangutan
Orangutan
cultures and the evolution of material culture". Science. 299 (5603): 102–105. doi:10.1126/science.1078004. PMID 12511649. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Ko, Kwang Hyun. "Origins of human intelligence: The chain of tool-making and brain evolution" (PDF). Anthropological Notebooks. 22 (1): 5–22.  ^ Panger, M. A.; Brooks, A. S.; Richmond, B. G.; Wood, B. (2002). "Older than the Oldowan? Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use". Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews. 11 (6): 235–245. doi:10.1002/evan.10094.  ^ Swisher, C. C.; Curtis, G. H.; Jacob, T.; Getty, A. G.; Suprijo, A.; Widiasmoro (1994). "Age of the earliest known hominids in Java, Indonesia". Science. 263 (5150): 1118–1121. doi:10.1126/science.8108729. PMID 8108729.  ^ Zhu, R. X.; Potts, R. R.; Xie, F.; Hoffman, K. A.; Shi, C. D.; Pan, Y. X.; Wang, H. Q.; Shi, R. P.; Wang, Y. C.; et al. (2004). "New evidence on the earliest human presence at high northern latitudes in northeast Asia". Nature. 431 (7008): 559–562. doi:10.1038/nature02829. PMID 15457258. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/07/0703_020704_georgianskull.html ^ Oms, O.; Pares, J. M.; Martinez-Navarro, B.; Agusti, J.; Toro, I.; Martinez-Fernandez, G.; Turq, A. (2000). "Early human occupation of Western Europe: Paleomagnetic dates for two paleolithic sites in Spain". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97 (19): 10666–10670. doi:10.1073/pnas.180319797. PMC 27082 . PMID 10973485.  ^ Pares, J. M.; Perez-Gonzalez, A.; Rosas, A.; Benito, A.; Carbonell, E.; Huguet, R.; Huguet, R (2006). "Atapuerca". Journal of Human Evolution. 50 (2): 163–169. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.08.011. PMID 16249015.  ^ Ambrose, S. H. (2001). " Paleolithic
Paleolithic
technology and human evolution". Science. 291 (5509): 1748–1753. doi:10.1126/science.1059487. PMID 11249821.  ^ There is a good online summary of Mary's classification on Effland's site for Anthropology ASB22 at Mesa Community College in Arizona, apparently written by Effland. ^ Susman, R.L, "Who made the Oldowan
Oldowan
Stone Tools?" 1991 ^ Carvalho, S., Cunha, E., Sousa, C., Matsuzawa, T. 2008.Chaînes opératoire and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking. Journal of Archaeological Science. ^ Klein, Richard G. (22 April 2009). The Human Career: Human Biological and Cultural Origins (Third ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 258–259. ISBN 978-0-226-02752-4. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ Semaw, Sileshi (2000). "The World's Oldest Stone Artefacts from Gona, Ethiopia: Their Implications for Understanding Stone Technology and Patterns of Human Evolution Between 2·6–1·5 Million Years Ago". Journal of Archaeological Science. 27: 1197–1214. doi:10.1006/jasc.1999.0592.  ^ de la Torre, Ignacio; deBeaune, S.; Davidson, I.; Gowlett, J.; Hovers, E.; Kimura, Y.; Mercader, J.; de la Torre, I. (2004). "Omo Revisited: Evaluating the Technological Skills of Pliocene
Pliocene
Hominids". Current Anthropology. 45 (4): 439–465. doi:10.1086/422079.  ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9. ISBN 0-395-13592-3.  ^ a b c d Bishop, L. C.; Plummer, T. W.; Ferraro, J. V.; Braun, D.; Ditchfield, P. W.; Hertel, F.; Kingston, J. D.; Hicks, J.; Potts, R. (Mar–Jun 2006). "Recent Research into Oldowan
Oldowan
Hominin Activities at Kanjera South, Western Kenya". The African Archaeological Review. 23 (1/2): 31–40. doi:10.1007/s10437-006-9006-1. JSTOR 25470615.  ^ Thomas Plummer (2005). Stahl, Ann Brower, ed. African Archaeology. Malden, MA: Blackwee Publishing Ltd. pp. 55–92.  ^ Barham & Mitchell, Lawernce & Peter (2008). The First Africans. Cambridge World Archaeology. pp. 126–127.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Kimura, Yuki (2002). "Examining time trends in the Oldowan technology at Beds I and II, Olduvai Gorge". Journal of Human Evolution. 43: 291–321. doi:10.1006/jhev.2002.0576.  ^ Breuil, Abbé Henri; "A Preliminary Survey of Work in South Africa"; The South African Archaeological Bulletin; v.1, no.1, Dec. 1945, pp. 5-7 ^ Many scientists had drawn the erroneous conclusion that Homo
Homo
habilis was the predator responsible for these remains, using Oldowan
Oldowan
tools. The higher percentage of primate bones was interpreted as a kind of cannibalism, feeding the imagination of Raymond Dart. Brain examined the bones and concluded that the marks resulting from stripping and chewing the bones were made by a leopard. ^ Petraglia, edited by Michael D.; Korisettar, Ravi (1998). Early human behaviour in global context the rise and diversity of the Lower Palaeolithic record. London: Routledge. ISBN 0203203275. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Vekua, A.; Lordkipanidze, D.; Rightmire, G. P.; Agusti, J.; Ferring, R.; Maisuradze, G.; et al. (2002). "A new skull of early Homo
Homo
from Dmanisi, Georgia". Science. 297 (5578): 85–9. doi:10.1126/science.1072953. PMID 12098694.  ^ Taymazov A.I. (2011) Main characteristics of the industry at Ainikab I multilayer Early Paleolithic
Paleolithic
site (based on the data from the 2005–2009 investigations). Russian Archaeology, #1, 1-9. ^ Chepalyga A.L., Amirkhanov Kh.A., Trubikhin V.M., Sadchikova T.A., Pirogov A.N., Taimazov A.I. Geoarchaeology of the earliest paleolithic sites (Oldowan) in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
and the East (2012). International Conference GEOMORPHIC PROCESSES AND GEOARCHAEOLOGY: From Landscape Archaeology to Archaeotourism. Moscow-Smolensk, 20–24 August. ^ Амирханов Х.А., Жуков В.А., Наумкин В.В., Седов А.В. "Эпоха олдована открыта на острове Сокотра"."Природа", № 7/2009 ^ http://www.ihae.ru/konfer/simpozium.htm ^ Zhukov, Valery A. (2014) The Results of Research of the Stone Age Sites in the Island of Socotra
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Sources[edit]

Braidwood, Robert J., Prehistoric Men, many editions.

Domínguez-Rodrigo, M.; Pickering, T. R.; Semaw, S.; Rogers, M. J. (2005). "Cutmarked bones from Pliocene
Pliocene
archaeological sites at Gona, Afar, Ethiopia: Implications for the function of the world's oldest stone tools". Journal of Human Evolution. 48 (2): 109–121. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.09.004. PMID 15701526. 

Edey, Maitland A., The Missing Link, Time-Life Books, 1972.

Schick, Kathy D.; Toth, Nicholas, Making Silent Stones Speak', Simon & Schuster, 1993, ISBN 0-671-69371-9

Semaw, Sileshi (2000). "The worlds oldest stone artefacts from Gona Ethiopia: Their implications for understanding stone technology and patterns of human evolution between 2.6–1.5 million years ago". Journal of Archaeological Science. 27 (12): 1197–1214. doi:10.1006/jasc.1999.0592. 

Isaac, Glynn and Harris, JWK The Scatter between the Patches 1975

Isaac, Glynn (1978). "The Food Sharing Behavior of Protohuman Hominids". Scientific American. 238 (4): 90–108. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0478-90. PMID 418504. 

Binford, Lewis (1987) Searching for Camps and Missing the Evidence: Another Look at the Lower Paleolithic

Toth, Nicholas (1985) The Oldowan
Oldowan
reassessed: a close look at early stone artifacts Journal of Archaeological Science

Susman, Randall L, Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 47, No. 2, A Quarter Century of Paleoanthropology: Views from the U.S.A. (Summer, 1991), pp. 129–151

External links[edit]

Oldowan
Oldowan
Pebble Tools of Europe

Oldowan
Oldowan
Pebble Tools of Africa

Oldowan
Oldowan
Flake Tool

Stone Age
Stone Age
Hand-axes at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived February 4, 2007)

Early Palaeolithic

Stone Age
Stone Age
Reference Collection

Microwear polishes on early stone tools from Koobi Fora, Kenya, article in Nature 293, 464–465 (8 October 1981). The summary and the references are displayed at no charge at the Nature site.

Geoarchaeology of the earliest paleolithic sites (Oldowan) in the north Caucasus and the East Europe

An Ape's View of the Oldowan
Oldowan
at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived May 21, 2008), T. Wynn and W.C. McGrew, Man 24:383–398; 1989.

Flaked Stones and Old Bones: Biological and Cultural Evolution at the Dawn of Technology, Thomas Plummer, Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 47:118–164 (2004).

v t e

Prehistoric technology

Prehistory

timeline outline Stone Age subdivisions New Stone Age

Technology

history

Tools

Farming

Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution

founder crops New World crops

Ard / plough Celt Digging stick Domestication Goad Irrigation Secondary products Sickle Terracing

Food processing

Fire Basket Cooking

Earth oven

Granaries Grinding slab Ground stone Hearth

Aşıklı Höyük Qesem Cave

Manos Metate Mortar and pestle Pottery Quern-stone Storage pit

Hunting

Arrow Boomerang

throwing stick

Bow and arrow

history

Nets Spear

Spear-thrower baton harpoon woomera Schöningen Spears

Projectile points

Arrowhead Bare Island Cascade Clovis Cresswell Cumberland Eden Folsom Lamoka Manis Site Plano Transverse arrowhead

Systems

Game drive system

Buffalo jump

Toolmaking

Earliest toolmaking

Oldowan Acheulean Mousterian

Clovis culture Cupstone Fire hardening Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Hafting Hand axe

Grooves

Langdale axe industry Levallois technique Lithic core Lithic reduction

analysis debitage flake

Lithic technology Magdalenian
Magdalenian
culture Metallurgy Microblade technology Mining Prepared-core technique Solutrean
Solutrean
industry Striking platform Tool stone Uniface Yubetsu technique

Other tools

Adze Awl

bone

Axe Bannerstone Blade

prismatic

Bone tool Bow drill Burin Canoe

Oar Pesse canoe

Chopper

tool

Cleaver Denticulate tool Fire plough Fire-saw Hammerstone Knife Microlith Quern-stone Racloir Rope Scraper

side

Stone tool Tally stick Weapons Wheel

illustration

Architecture

Ceremonial

Göbekli Tepe Kiva Standing stones

megalith row Stonehenge

Pyramid

Dwellings

Neolithic
Neolithic
architecture British megalith architecture Nordic megalith architecture Burdei Cave Cliff dwelling Dugout Hut

Quiggly hole

Jacal Longhouse Mud brick

Mehrgarh

Neolithic
Neolithic
long house Pit-house Pueblitos Pueblo Rock shelter

Blombos Cave Abri de la Madeleine Sibudu Cave

Stone roof Roundhouse Stilt house

Alp pile dwellings

Wattle and daub

Water management

Check dam Cistern Flush toilet Reservoir Water well

Other architecture

Archaeological features Broch Burnt mound

fulacht fiadh

Causewayed enclosure

Tor enclosure

Circular enclosure

Goseck

Cursus Henge

Thornborough

Oldest buildings Megalithic architectural elements Midden Timber circle Timber trackway

Sweet Track

Arts and culture

Material goods

Baskets Beadwork Beds Chalcolithic Clothing/textiles

timeline

Cosmetics Glue Hides

shoes Ötzi

Jewelry

amber use

Mirrors Pottery

Cardium Grooved ware Linear Jōmon Unstan ware

Sewing needle Weaving Wine

Winery wine press

PrehistArt

Art of the Upper Paleolithic Art of the Middle Paleolithic

Blombos Cave

List of Stone Age
Stone Age
art Bird stone Bradshaw rock paintings Cairn Carved Stone Balls Cave
Cave
paintings

painting pigment

Cup and ring mark Geoglyph Golden hats Guardian stones Megalithic art Petroform Petroglyph Petrosomatoglyph Pictogram Rock art

Stone carving

Sculpture Statue menhir Stone circle

list British Isles and Brittany

Venus figurines

Burial

Burial mounds

Bowl barrow Round barrow

Mound Builders
Mound Builders
culture

U.S. sites

Chamber tomb

Severn-Cotswold

Cist

Dartmoor kistvaens

Clava cairn Court tomb Cremation Dolmen

Great dolmen

Funeral pyre Gallery grave

transepted wedge-shaped

Grave goods Jar burial Long barrow

unchambered Grønsalen

Megalithic tomb Mummy Passage grave Rectangular dolmen Ring cairn Simple dolmen Stone box grave Tor cairn Tumulus Unchambered long cairn

Other cultural

Astronomy

sites lunar calendar

Behavioral modernity Origin of language

trepanning

Prehistoric medicine Evolutionary musicology

music archaeology

Prehistoric music

Alligator drum flutes Divje Babe flute gudi

Prehistoric numerals Origin of religion

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
religion Prehistoric religion Spiritual drug use

Prehistoric warfare Symbols

symbolism

Coordinates: 36°12′03″N 5°39′16″E / 36.2009°N 5.6544°E / 36.2009; 5.6544

v t e

Neogene
Neogene
Period

Miocene
Miocene
Epoch Pliocene
Pliocene
Epoch

Aquitanian Burdigalian Langhian Serravallian Tortonian Messinian

Zanclea

.