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Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(German pronunciation: [ˈɔldn̩bʊʁk] ( listen)) is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. The city is officially named Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Oldb) ( Oldenburg
Oldenburg
in Oldenburg) to distinguish from Oldenburg
Oldenburg
in Holstein. During the French annexation (1811–1813) in the wake of the Napoleonic war against Britain, it was also known as Le Vieux-Bourg in French. The city is situated at the Rivers Hunte
Hunte
and Haaren, in the northwestern region between the cities of Bremen
Bremen
in the east and Groningen
Groningen
(Netherlands) in the west. It has a population of 167,633 (November 2016).[2] Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is part of the Bremen/Oldenburg Metropolitan Region, with 2.37 million people. The city is the place of origin of the House of Oldenburg. Before the end of the German Empire
German Empire
(1918), it was the administrative centre and residence of the monarchs of Oldenburg.

Contents

1 History 2 Demography 3 City government 4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Transport 4.2 Agriculture

5 Cultural life

5.1 Recurring cultural events 5.2 Points of interest 5.3 Lutheran community 5.4 Jewish community

6 Media

6.1 Print 6.2 Radio and television 6.3 Online

7 Education

7.1 Tertiary education 7.2 Primary and secondary education

8 Events 9 International relations 10 Notable natives of Oldenburg 11 Notable personalities associated with Oldenburg 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

History[edit] Archaeological finds point to a settlement dating back to the 8th century. The place was first mentioned in 1108 as Aldenburg in connection with Elimar I (also known as Egilmar I) who is now commonly seen as the first count of Oldenburg. The town gained importance due to its location at a ford of the navigable Hunte
Hunte
river. Oldenburg became the capital of the County of Oldenburg
County of Oldenburg
(later Duchy, Grand Duchy, and Free State), a small state in the shadow of the much more powerful Hanseatic city of Bremen.[3] In the 17th century, Oldenburg
Oldenburg
was a wealthy town in a time of war and turmoil and its population and power grew considerably. In 1667, the town was struck by a disastrous plague epidemic and, shortly after, a fire destroyed Oldenburg. The Danish kings, who were also counts of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
at the time, were not much interested in the condition of the town and it lost most of its former importance. In 1773, Danish rule ended. It was only then that the destroyed buildings in the city were rebuilt in a neoclassicist style.[3] (In German, the "neoclassicist style" of that period would usually be called klassizistisch, while neoklassizistisch specifically refers to the classicist style of the early 20th century.)

Schloss Oldenburg

After German Emperor Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate following the exhaustion and defeat of the German Empire
German Empire
in World War I, monarchic rule ended in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
as well with the abdication of Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Friedrich August II von Oldenburg) on 11 November 1918. The Grand Duchy now became the Free State of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Freistaat Oldenburg), with the city remaining the capital. In the 1928 city elections, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
received 9.8% of the vote, enough for a seat on the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
city council. In the September 1930 Oldenburg
Oldenburg
state elections, the Nazi Party's share of the vote rose to 27.3%, and on May 29, 1932, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
received 48.4% of the state election, enough to put the Nazi party in charge of forming a state government and, significantly, making Oldenburg
Oldenburg
the first state in the country to put the Nazis in power based on electoral turnout. By that autumn, a campaign of Aryanization began, forcing the sale of formerly Jewish-owned properties at steep discounts.[4] In 1945, after World War II, the State of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
was part of the British zone of occupation. The British military government of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
region resided in the city. Several displaced persons camps were set up in the city that had suffered only 1.4% destruction during the bombing campaigns of World War II.[5] About 42,000 refugees migrated into Oldenburg, which raised the number of residents to over 100,000. In 1946, the Free State of Oldenburg
Free State of Oldenburg
was dissolved, and the area became the 'Administrative District' of Oldenburg (Verwaltungsbezirk Oldenburg) as part of the newly formed federal German state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
(Niedersachsen). The city was now capital of the district. In 1978, the district was dissolved and succeeded by the newly formed Weser-Ems
Weser-Ems
administrative region (Regierungsbezirk Weser-Ems), again with the city as administrative capital. The State of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
dissolved all of the Regierungsbezirke by the end of 2004 in the course of administrative reforms. Demography[edit]

Historical population of Oldenburg

Year 1502 1667 1702 1769 1816 1828 1837 1855 1871

Population ~ 2,300 ~ 4,300 ~ 5,000 6,959 6,278 6,800 9,280 11,370 13,928

Rank Nationality Population (2014)

1 Turkey 1,644

2 Poland 1,145

3 Iraq 1,084

4 Russia 547

5 Syria 409

6 Italy 408

7 Romania 344

8 Netherlands 289

City government[edit] Local elections take place every five years. The city council (Stadtrat) has 50 seats. The lord mayor (Oberbürgermeister) is elected directly by the citizens.

Political parties in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Oldb) and their percentages of votes in past city council elections[6]

Election year SPD Bündnis ’90/ Die Grünen CDU Die Linke Freie Wähler/ FW-BFO FDP Piraten Partei NPD LKR AFD

2001 40.1 13.6 30.5 3.9 2.8 8.2 – – – –

2006 32.7 21.2 26.0 7.2 5.4 6.3 – – – –

2011 34.0 27.3 20.6 6.1 3.1 3.0 2.8 1.1 – –

2016 32.68 19.13 22.21 9.88 1.53 4.84 1.17 0.62 1.19 4.76

Resulting distribution of seats in the city council

Election year SPD Grüne CDU Linke FW FDP Piraten WFO NPD LKR AFD Total seats

2001 21 7 15 2 1 4 – – – – – 50

2006 16 11 13 4 3 3 – – – – – 50

2011 17 14 10 3 2 1 1 1 1 – – 50

2016 16 10 11 5 1 2 1 1 0 1 2 50

Economy and infrastructure[edit] Transport[edit]

Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Railway Station

Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Harbour

The city centre of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is surrounded by a ring of freeways (autobahns) consisting of A 28, A 29 and A 293. Because of this, Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is connected to the nationwide network of federal autobahns, as well as to the international E-road network (German: Europastraßen) Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Central Station, Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Oldb) Hauptbahnhof, is at the intersection of the railway lines Norddeich Mole—Leer—Oldenburg— Bremen
Bremen
and Wilhelmshaven—Oldenburg—Osnabrück, with Intercity services to Berlin, Leipzig
Leipzig
and Dresden
Dresden
and InterCityExpress
InterCityExpress
services to Frankfurt and Munich. Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is only about half an hour drive from Bremen
Bremen
Airport (about 50 km 31 miles). Other international airports nearby are Hamburg Airport
Hamburg Airport
(160 km 100 miles) and Hannover-Langenhagen Airport (170 km 106 miles). The small Hatten
Hatten
Airfield, (Flugplatz Oldenburg- Hatten
Hatten
ICAO airport code: EDWH), is located about 17 km south-west of Oldenburg. It serves to small aircraft (private planes, gliders, balloons, and helicopters). A flight training school is also located there, and small planes can be chartered. Scenic flights can be booked as well. Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is connected to shipping through the Küstenkanal, a ship canal connecting the rivers Ems and Weser. With 1.6 million tons of goods annually, it is the most important non-coastal harbour in Lower Saxony. Bicycles play a very important part in personal transport.

Agriculture[edit] The city is surrounded by large agricultural areas, about 80% of which is grassland. There are farms near and even a few within city limits. Predominant agricultural activities of the region are the cultivation of livestock, especially dairy cows and other grazing animals, crops such as grains for food and animal feed, as well as asparagus, corn, and kale. Cultural life[edit]

"Hundehütten" (dog houses) typical architecture in Oldenburg

Recurring cultural events[edit]

Kultursommer (summer of culture), series of free musical and other cultural events in the city centre during summer holiday season in July. CSD Nordwest (Christopher Street Day) parade of the regional Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender community in June, with up to 10,000 participants (since 1995). Stadtfest, a three-day festival of the city centre in August/September, comprises gastronomical offerings and rock and pop music performances on various stages. Oldenburg
Oldenburg
International Film Festival, privately organised film festival in September, focussed on independent film and film makers. The festival is funded through public subsidies and private sponsoring. Kramermarkt, fun fair at the Weser-Ems
Weser-Ems
Halle on ten days in September/October. The tradition of this annual volksfest dates back to the 17th century, when the Kramermarkt was a market event at the end of the harvest. Oldenburger Kinder- und Jugendbuchmesse (KIBUM), an exhibition of new German language
German language
children's and youth literature, takes place over 11 days in November. A non-commercial fair organised by the city government in cooperation with the public library and the university library. In the course of the fair, a prize, the Kinder- und Jugendbuchpreis, is awarded to a debuting author or illustrator.

Points of interest[edit]

Core city centre, a large pedestrianised shopping destination for the region. Oldenburg
Oldenburg
State Theatre, oldest mainstream theatre in Oldenburg, first opened in 1833. Schloss Oldenburg
Schloss Oldenburg
in the city centre, until 1918 residence of the monarchic rulers of Oldenburg, today a museum. A public park, the Schlossgarten, is nearby. Weser-Ems
Weser-Ems
Halle, exhibition and congress centre with outdoor fair area, located in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Donnerschwee. Small EWE Arena
Small EWE Arena
and Large EWE Arena, two sports and event halls located near the main railway station, opened in 2005 and 2013, and seating up to 4,000 and 6,852 visitors respectively. The large arena is also home to the EWE Baskets Oldenburg
EWE Baskets Oldenburg
basketball club.

Lutheran community[edit] Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is the seat of administration and bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg, whose preaching venue is the St Lamberti Church. Jewish community[edit]

Nathan Marcus Adler, chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Jewish community in the 19th century

The history of the Jewish community of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
dates back to the 14th century.[7] Towards and during the 19th century, the Jews in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
were always around 1% of the total population, and by that time had acquired their own synagogue, cemetery and school. Most of them were merchants and businessmen. On 1938 Kristallnacht, the town men were led to Sachsenhausen concentration camp, among them Leo Trepp, the community Rabbi
Rabbi
who survived and later became an honorary citizen of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
and honored by a street named after him.[8] Since 1981 an annual commemoration walk (Erinnerungsgang) has been held by Oldenburg
Oldenburg
citizens in memory of the deportation of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Jews on November 10, 1938.[9] Those who remained after 1938 immigrated to Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Holland or Palestine. After World War II, a group of survivors returned to the city and maintained a small community until it was dissolved during the 1970s. Nevertheless, due to Jewish emigration from the former USSR to Germany in the 1990s, a community of about 340 people is now maintaining its own synagogue, cemetery and other facilities. The old Jewish cemetery, which is no longer active after the opening of a new one, was desecrated twice in 2011 and 2013.[10] Media[edit] Print[edit]

Nordwest-Zeitung (NWZ) Oldenburg-based daily newspaper, also provides local editions in neighbouring counties Free weekly newspapers delivered to households, mainly for ads and inserts: Hunte-Report (Wednesdays+Sundays), Sonntagszeitung (Sundays). Diabolo free weekly city magazine / listings magazine Mox free biweekly event listings magazine (from the same publisher as Diabolo) Alhambra-Zeitung bimonthly leftist, anti-fascist magazine Oldenburger Stachel local alternative magazine (discontinued) Oldenburgische Wirtschaft monthly magazine of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Chamber of Industry and Commerce (Industrie- und Handelskammer)

Radio and television[edit]

Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Eins non-commercial public-access cable TV and radio station (live streams available online) Norddeutscher Rundfunk
Norddeutscher Rundfunk
(NDR), public TV and radio broadcaster (part of the ARD), maintains a regional studio in Oldenburg. Radio FFN, commercial radio broadcaster, maintains a regional studio located in the NWZ building.

Online[edit]

Nordwest-Zeitung TV Local video news clips published by the Nordwest-Zeitung

Education[edit] Tertiary education[edit] There are two public universities in Oldenburg:

The Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg
was founded in 1973 based on a previous college for teacher training, the Pädagogische Hochschule Oldenburg, which had a history in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
dating back to 1793. The university was officially named after Carl von Ossietzky
Carl von Ossietzky
in 1991. As of 2014, it has almost 13,746 students, a scientific staff of 1,130, as well as 964 technical and administrative staff.[11] A new faculty of medicine and health sciences was established in 2012 as part of the newly founded European Medical School Oldenburg-Groningen, a cooperation with the University of Groningen
Groningen
(Netherlands) and local hospitals.[12] The Jade University of Applied Sciences (Jade-Hochschule) The former Fachhochschule Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(until 1999) was founded in 1971, a merger of the previous engineering academy with the nautical college in Elsfleth. Oldenburg
Oldenburg
already had a history of construction engineering training dating back to 1882. Starting in 2000, the Fachhochschule had been part of multiple re-organisations involving several UAS (Fachhochschule) in the northwestern region. A relaunch under the name Jade-Hochschule took place in 2009 (previously: Fachhochschule Oldenburg/Ostfriesland/Wilhelmshaven). The Jade-Hochschule now comprises branches in three towns: Oldenburg, Elsfleth, and Wilhelmshaven. Based in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
are the departments of architecture, construction engineering and construction management, geodesy, as well as the institute of hearing aid technology and audiology. There are about 2,000 students in the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
branch.[13] (The Elsfleth
Elsfleth
branch offers bachelor's degree courses in nautical science, international logistics, and harbour management. The Wilhelmshaven
Wilhelmshaven
branch offers courses in engineering, business management, and media management.)

Privately managed institutions of higher education:

Founded in 2004, the IBS IT & Business School Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(former Berufsakademie Oldenburg), a college of cooperative education, offers a B.Sc. degree course in business informatics and a B.A. degree course in business studies. The dual-system course combines practical vocational training at one of the partnering local companies with periods of academic studies. The Private Fachhochschule für Wirtschaft und Technik, a regional college of cooperative education, maintains a branch in Oldenburg offering bachelor's degree courses with integrated vocational training in electrical engineering and mechatronics.

Other:

The Oldenburg
Oldenburg
branch of the Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
police academy (Polizeiakademie Niedersachsen) maintains a study facility in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
preparing candidates for a career in higher-middle-level or higher-level police service.

Primary and secondary education[edit]

Gymnasium Graf-Anton-Guenther School Wirtschaftsgymnasium Oldenburg Cäcilienschule Oldenburg Liebfrauenschule Oldenburg Herbartgymnasium Oldenburg Altes Gymnasium Oldenburg Neues Gymnasium Oldenburg Gymnasium Eversten IGS Flötenteich Helene Lange
Helene Lange
Schule Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(IGS) Realschule Hochheider Weg Real- und Hauptschule Osternburg Realschule Ofenerdiek Kath. Grundschule Lerigauweg

Events[edit] Oldenburg
Oldenburg
hosted the 2007 Fistball World Championship. International relations[edit] Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is twin towns with following cities and districts:[14]

Denmark: Taastrup, since 1978 France: Cholet, since 1985 Netherlands: Groningen, since 1989 Russia: Makhachkala, Dagestan, since 1989 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern: District of Rügen, since 1990 Israel: Mateh Asher, since 1996 England: Kingston upon Thames, since 2010

Notable natives of Oldenburg[edit] See also: List of people from Oldenburg

Isaac Friedlander

Helene Lange
Helene Lange
1899

Karl Jaspers

Johann Liss
Johann Liss
(c.1590-c.1630) Baroque painter, active mainly in Venice Martin Zaagmolen (??-c.1669) was a Dutch painter Johan Samuel Augustin (1715–1785) German-Danish astronomical writer and civil servant Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse
Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse
(1790–1866) historian Isaac Friedlander
Isaac Friedlander
(1823–1878) an American wheat broker and California land speculator Julius Lothar Meyer
Julius Lothar Meyer
(1830 in Varel–1895) chemist Reinhard Schlichting (1835–1897) an American manufacturer and politician in Wisconsin Helene Lange
Helene Lange
(1848-1930), German politician, educator and suffragist August Dinklage
August Dinklage
(1849–1920) architect and buildings official John Henry Tihen
John Henry Tihen
(1861–1940) American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church August Brauer (1863-1917), zoologist Rudolf Heinze
Rudolf Heinze
(1865–1928) jurist and politician Karl Jaspers
Karl Jaspers
(1883-1969), philosopher and writer Otto Schultze
Otto Schultze
(1884–1966) Generaladmiral
Generaladmiral
with the Kriegsmarine during World War II Otto Suhr
Otto Suhr
(1894–1957) politician Wilhelm Gideon (1898–1977), German Nazi SS commandant of the concentration camp Gross-Rosen Hermann Behrends (1907–1948), German Nazi SS officer executed for war crimes Hans Günther Aach (born 1919) botanist Felix Gerritzen (1927-2007), football player in the German national football team Jürgen Goslar (born 1927), actor and director Ulrike Meinhof
Ulrike Meinhof
(1934-1976), journalist, terrorist and co-founder of the Red Army Faction Brigitte Boehme
Brigitte Boehme
(born 1940) lawyer and church administrator. Thomas Schmidt-Kowalski (1949-2013), composer Manfred Milinski (born 1950), biologist and member of the Max Planck Institute Stefan Czapsky (born 1950) American cinematographer Klaus Modick
Klaus Modick
(born 1951), author and literary translator Rena Niehaus (born 1954) film actress Thomas Schütte
Thomas Schütte
(born 1954), sculptor and draftsman Heiko Daxl (1957-2012), media artist and curator Andrea Clausen (born 1959) stage actress, member of the Burgtheater ensemble. Karsten Baumann
Karsten Baumann
(born 1969), former football player and current coach Hans-Jörg Butt
Hans-Jörg Butt
(born 1974), football goalkeeper Hasnain Kazim (born 1974), journalist Oliver Köhrmann
Oliver Köhrmann
(born 1976) handball player Sarah Nemtsov (née Reuter, born 1980) composer

Notable personalities associated with Oldenburg[edit] See in particular the Counts, Dukes and Grand Dukes of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
for the rulers who were not born in Oldenburg.

Princess Cecilia of Sweden in 1835

Arp Schnitger
Arp Schnitger
(1648-1719), famous organ builder Princess Cecilia of Sweden (1807–1844)
Princess Cecilia of Sweden (1807–1844)
(1807-1844), Princess of Sweden Wilhelm Heinrich Schüßler
Wilhelm Heinrich Schüßler
(1821-1898), doctor, developer of alternative therapy with biochemical functional agents Peter Suhrkamp (1891-1959), founder of the Suhrkamp-Verlag Hermann Ehlers, (1904-1954) politician ( CDU), President of the German Bundestag, was at the beginning of his political career a landlord in Oldenburg

See also[edit]

Straße der Megalithkultur
Straße der Megalithkultur
– tourist route from Osnabrück
Osnabrück
to Oldenburg
Oldenburg
via some 33 Megalithic sites.

References[edit]

^ Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie Niedersachsen, 102 Bevölkerung - Basis Zensus 2011, Stand 31. Dezember 2015 (Tabelle K1020014) ^ http://www.oldenburg.de/fileadmin/oldenburg/Benutzer/PDF/40/402/0202-2014-Internet.pdf ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Anonymous (1911). "Oldenburg". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 72.  ^ Goldsmith, Martin (2014). Alex's Wake: A Voyage of Betrayal and a Journey of Remembrance. Da Capo Press. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-0306823220.  ^ Ulrich Schneider: Niedersachsen 1945, p. 95. Hannover 1985 ^ Source: Official results of elections published on the official website of the city of Oldenburg. ^ http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11684-oldenburg ^ http://www.oldenburg.de/?id=2628 ^ Erinnerungsgang ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-03-22.  ^ Statistics published on the CvO University’s web site, retrieved in 2014 ^ Info published on the university's web site, retrieved in August 2012. ^ Statistics published on the Jade-Hochschule website, retrieved in January 2012 ^ Description of international cooperation at the official website of the city of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(in German)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Oldenburg).

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Oldenburg.

Official city website Official Oldenburg
Oldenburg
tourist information centre Oldenburg International Film Festival
Oldenburg International Film Festival
website of the annual festival of independent film Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Panoramas 360-degree panning views Straßen von Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Drive-through videos of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
streets (in German) Alt Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Large collection of historical photographs of Oldenburg (in German) Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Association for Family Research e.V. genealogy of emigrants from Oldenburg Oldenburgische Landschaft (in German), Oldenburg-based public body of municipalities located within the area of the former State of Oldenburg, tasked to maintain historically significant landmarks, landscapes, and art, as well as to promote local culture.

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
in Germany

Region

Hanover

Urban districts

Braunschweig Delmenhorst Emden Oldenburg Osnabrück Salzgitter Wilhelmshaven Wolfsburg

Rural districts

Ammerland Aurich Bentheim Celle Cloppenburg Cuxhaven Diepholz Emsland Friesland Gifhorn Goslar Göttingen Hamelin-Pyrmont Harburg Heidekreis Helmstedt Hildesheim Holzminden Leer Lüchow-Dannenberg Lüneburg Nienburg Northeim Oldenburg Osnabrück Osterholz Peine Rotenburg Schaumburg Stade Uelzen Vechta Verden Wesermarsch Wittmund Wolfenbüttel

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140308252 LCCN: n80118527 GND: 4043457-6 BNF:

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