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OLDENBURG (OLDB) or simply OLDENBURG (German pronunciation: (_ listen ); Low German : Ollnborg_; Saterland Frisian : _Ooldenbuurich_) is an independent city in the state of Lower Saxony , Germany. During the French annexation (1811–1813) in the wake of the Napoleonic war against Britain, it was also known as _Le Vieux-Bourg_ in French. The city is situated at the Rivers Hunte and Haaren , in the northwestern region between the cities of Bremen
Bremen
in the east and Groningen (Netherlands) in the west. It has a population of 160,907 (December 2014).

The city is the place of origin of the House of Oldenburg . Before the end of the German Empire
German Empire
(1918), it was the administrative centre and residence of the monarchs of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Demography * 3 City government

* 4 Economy and infrastructure

* 4.1 Transport * 4.2 Agriculture

* 5 Cultural life

* 5.1 Recurring cultural events * 5.2 Points of interest * 5.3 Nightlife * 5.4 Lutheran community * 5.5 Jewish community

* 6 Media

* 6.1 Print * 6.2 Radio and television * 6.3 Online

* 7 Education

* 7.1 Tertiary education * 7.2 Primary and secondary education

* 8 Events * 9 International relations * 10 Sons and daughters of the city * 11 Personalities who worked in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 External links

HISTORY

Archaeological finds point to a settlement dating back to the 8th century. The place was first mentioned in 1108 as _Aldenburg_ in connection with Elimar I (also known as Egilmar I) who is now commonly seen as the first count of Oldenburg. The town gained importance due to its location at a ford of the navigable Hunte river. Oldenburg became the capital of the County of Oldenburg (later Duchy , Grand Duchy , and Free State ), a small state in the shadow of the much more powerful Hanseatic city of Bremen
Bremen
.

In the 17th century, Oldenburg
Oldenburg
was a wealthy town in a time of war and turmoil and its population and power grew considerably. In 1667, the town was struck by a disastrous plague epidemic and, shortly after, a fire destroyed Oldenburg. The Danish kings, who were also counts of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
at the time, were not much interested in the condition of the town and it lost most of its former importance. In 1773, Danish rule ended. It was only then that the destroyed buildings in the city were rebuilt in a neoclassicist style. (In German, the "neoclassicist style" of that period would usually be called _klassizistisch_, while _neoklassizistisch_ specifically refers to the classicist style of the early 20th century.) Schloss Oldenburg
Schloss Oldenburg

After German Emperor Wilhelm II was forced to abdicate following the exhaustion and defeat of the German Empire
German Empire
in World War I
World War I
, monarchic rule ended in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
as well with the abdication of Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
_(Friedrich August II von Oldenburg)_ on 11 November 1918. The Grand Duchy now became the Free State of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
_(Freistaat Oldenburg)_, with the city remaining the capital.

In the 1928 city elections, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
received 9.8% of the vote, enough for a seat on the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
city council. In the September 1930 Oldenburg
Oldenburg
state elections, the Nazi Party's share of the vote rose to 27.3%, and on May 29, 1932, the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
received 48.4% of the state election, enough to put the Nazi party in charge of forming a state government and, significantly, making Oldenburg
Oldenburg
the first state in the country to put the Nazis in power based on electoral turnout. By that autumn, a campaign of Aryanization began, forcing the sale of formerly Jewish-owed properties at steep discounts.

In 1945, after World War II
World War II
, the State of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
was part of the British zone of occupation . The British military government of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
region resided in the city. Several displaced persons camps were set up in the city that had suffered only 1.4% destruction during the bombing campaigns of World War II
World War II
. About 42,000 refugees migrated into Oldenburg, which raised the number of residents to over 100,000. In 1946, the Free State of Oldenburg was dissolved, and the area became the 'Administrative District' of Oldenburg _(Verwaltungsbezirk Oldenburg)_ as part of the newly formed federal German state of Lower Saxony _(Niedersachsen)_. The city was now capital of the district. In 1978, the district was dissolved and succeeded by the newly formed Weser-Ems administrative region _( Regierungsbezirk Weser-Ems)_, again with the city as administrative capital. The State of Lower Saxony dissolved all of the _Regierungsbezirke_ by the end of 2004 in the course of administrative reforms.

DEMOGRAPHY

Historical population of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
YEAR 1502 1667 1702 1769 1816 1828 1837 1855 1871

POPULATION ~ 2,300 ~ 4,300 ~ 5,000 6,959 6,278 6,800 9,280 11,370 13,928

RANK NATIONALITY POPULATION (2014)

1 Turkey 1,644

2 Poland 1,145

3 Iraq 1,084

4 Russia 547

5 Syria 409

6 Italy 408

7 Romania 344

8 Netherlands 289

CITY GOVERNMENT

Local elections take place every five years. The city council _(Stadtrat)_ has 50 seats. The lord mayor _(Oberbürgermeister)_ is elected directly by the citizens.

Political parties in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Oldb) and their percentages of votes in past city council elections Election year SPD Bündnis ’90/ Die Grünen CDU DIE LINKE Freie Wähler/ FW-BFO FDP Piraten Partei NPD LKR AFD

2001 40.1 13.6 30.5 3.9 2.8 8.2 – – – –

2006 32.7 21.2 26.0 7.2 5.4 6.3 – – – –

2011 34.0 27.3 20.6 6.1 3.1 3.0 2.8 1.1 – –

2016 32.68 19.13 22.21 9.88 1.53 4.84 1.17 0.62 1.19 4.76

Resulting distribution of seats in the city council Election year SPD GRüNE CDU LINKE FW FDP PIRATEN WFO NPD LKR AFD Total seats

2001 21 7 15 2 1 4 – – – – – 50

2006 16 11 13 4 3 3 – – – – – 50

2011 17 14 10 3 2 1 1 1 1 – – 50

2016 16 10 11 5 1 1 2 1 0 1 2 50

ECONOMY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

TRANSPORT

_ Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Railway Station Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Harbour

* The city centre of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is surrounded by a ring of freeways (autobahns ) consisting of A 28 , A 29 and A 293 . Because of this, Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is connected to the nationwide network of federal autobahns, as well as to the international E-road network (German: Europastraßen_) * Oldenburg Central Station , _ Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Oldb) Hauptbahnhof_, is at the intersection of the railway lines Norddeich Mole —Leer —Oldenburg— Bremen
Bremen
and Wilhelmshaven —Oldenburg—Osnabrück, with Intercity services to Berlin
Berlin
, Leipzig
Leipzig
and Dresden
Dresden
and InterCityExpress services to Frankfurt
Frankfurt
and Munich
Munich
. * Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is only about half an hour drive from Bremen
Bremen
Airport (about 50 km 31 miles). Other international airports nearby are Hamburg Airport (160 km 100 miles) and Hannover-Langenhagen Airport (170 km 106 miles). * The small Hatten Airfield, (Flugplatz Oldenburg- Hatten ICAO airport code : EDWH), is located about 17 km south-west of Oldenburg. It serves to small aircraft (private planes, gliders, balloons, and helicopters). A flight training school is also located there, and small planes can be chartered. Scenic flights can be booked as well. * Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is connected to shipping through the Küstenkanal , a ship canal connecting the rivers Ems and Weser . With 1.6 million tons of goods annually, it is the most important non-coastal harbour in Lower Saxony. * Bicycles play a very important part in personal transport.

AGRICULTURE

The city is surrounded by large agricultural areas, about 80% of which is grassland. There are farms near and even a few within city limits. Predominant agricultural activities of the region are the cultivation of livestock, especially dairy cows and other grazing animals, crops such as grains for food and animal feed, as well as asparagus, corn, and kale.

CULTURAL LIFE

"Hundehütten" (dog houses) typical architecture in Oldenburg
Oldenburg

RECURRING CULTURAL EVENTS

* _Kultursommer_ (summer of culture), series of free musical and other cultural events in the city centre during summer holiday season in July. * _CSD Nordwest (Christopher Street Day)_ parade of the regional Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender community in June, with up to 10,000 participants (since 1995). * _Stadtfest_, a three-day festival of the city centre in August/September, comprises gastronomical offerings and rock and pop music performances on various stages. * _ Oldenburg International Film Festival _, privately organised film festival in September, focussed on independent film and film makers. The festival is funded through public subsidies and private sponsoring. * _Kramermarkt_, fun fair at the Weser-Ems Halle on ten days in September/October. The tradition of this annual volksfest dates back to the 17th century, when the Kramermarkt was a market event at the end of the harvest. * _Oldenburger Kinder- und Jugendbuchmesse (KIBUM)_, an exhibition of new German language children\'s and youth literature , takes place over 11 days in November. A non-commercial fair organised by the city government in cooperation with the public library and the university library. In the course of the fair, a prize, the _Kinder- und Jugendbuchpreis_, is awarded to a debuting author or illustrator.

POINTS OF INTEREST

* Core city centre, a large pedestrianised shopping destination for the region. * Oldenburg State Theatre , oldest mainstream theatre in Oldenburg, first opened in 1833. * Schloss Oldenburg
Schloss Oldenburg
in the city centre, until 1918 residence of the monarchic rulers of Oldenburg, today a museum. A public park, the _Schlossgarten_, is nearby. * Weser-Ems Halle , exhibition and congress centre with outdoor fair area, located in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Donnerschwee. * Small EWE Arena and Large EWE Arena , two sports and event halls located near the main railway station, opened in 2005 and 2013, and seating up to 4,000 and 6,852 visitors respectively. The large arena is also home to the _ EWE Baskets Oldenburg _ basketball club.

NIGHTLIFE

* Marvin's Bar, near the harbour. Bar with foosball tables, board games, cultural magazines, fine rock music. * Umbaubar, student bar with dancing and some indie rock and concerts at the harbour. * Fiddler's Green Irish Pub * Metro, discothèque with different kinds of music. * Cubes, discothèque with different kinds of music. * Dreieck, archetypical North German "Kneipe" variation of a pub, slightly maritimely themed * Bei Beppo, cozy left-leaning pub, often featuring live artists * Amadeus, student discothéque with different kinds of music, mainly all kind of rock, pop and hip/hop

LUTHERAN COMMUNITY

Oldenburg
Oldenburg
is the seat of administration and bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
, whose preaching venue is the St Lamberti Church .

JEWISH COMMUNITY

Nathan Marcus Adler, chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Jewish community in the 19th century

The history of the Jewish community of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
dates back to the 14th century. Towards and during the 19th century, the Jews in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
were always around 1% of the total population, and by that time had acquired their own synagogue, cemetery and school. Most of them were merchants and businessmen. On 1938 Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
, the town men were led to Sachsenhausen concentration camp , among them Leo Trepp , the community Rabbi
Rabbi
who survived and later became an honorary citizen of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
and honored by a street named after him. Since 1981 an annual commemoration walk (Erinnerungsgang) has been held by Oldenburg
Oldenburg
citizens in memory of the deportation of the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Jews on November 10, 1938. Those who remained after 1938 immigrated to Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Holland or Palestine.

After World War II
World War II
, a group of survivors returned to the city and maintained a small community until it was dissolved during the 1970s. Nevertheless, due to Jewish emigration from the former USSR to Germany in the 1990s, a community of about 340 people is now maintaining its own synagogue, cemetery and other facilities. The old Jewish cemetery, which is no longer active after the opening of a new one, was desecrated twice in 2011 and 2013.

MEDIA

PRINT

* Nordwest-Zeitung (NWZ) Oldenburg-based daily newspaper, also provides local editions in neighbouring counties * Free weekly newspapers delivered to households, mainly for ads and inserts: Hunte-Report (Wednesdays+Sundays), Sonntagszeitung (Sundays). * Diabolo free weekly city magazine / listings magazine * Mox free biweekly event listings magazine (from the same publisher as Diabolo) * Alhambra-Zeitung bimonthly leftist, anti-fascist magazine * Oldenburger Stachel local alternative magazine (discontinued) * Oldenburgische Wirtschaft monthly magazine of the Oldenburg Chamber of Industry and Commerce (Industrie- und Handelskammer)

RADIO AND TELEVISION

* Oldenburg
Oldenburg
Eins non-commercial public-access cable TV and radio station (live streams available online) * Norddeutscher Rundfunk
Norddeutscher Rundfunk
(NDR) , public TV and radio broadcaster (part of the ARD ), maintains a regional studio in Oldenburg. * Radio FFN, commercial radio broadcaster, maintains a regional studio located in the NWZ building.

ONLINE

* Nordwest-Zeitung TV Local video news clips published by the Nordwest-Zeitung

EDUCATION

TERTIARY EDUCATION

THERE ARE TWO PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES IN OLDENBURG:

* The Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg was founded in 1973 based on a previous college for teacher training, the _Pädagogische Hochschule Oldenburg_, which had a history in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
dating back to 1793. The university was officially named after Carl von Ossietzky in 1991. As of 2014, it has almost 13,746 students, a scientific staff of 1,130, as well as 964 technical and administrative staff. A new faculty of medicine and health sciences was established in 2012 as part of the newly founded _European Medical School Oldenburg-Groningen_, a cooperation with the University of Groningen (Netherlands) and local hospitals. * The Jade University of Applied Sciences (Jade-Hochschule) The former _ Fachhochschule Oldenburg_ (until 1999) was founded in 1971, a merger of the previous engineering academy with the nautical college in Elsfleth . Oldenburg
Oldenburg
already had a history of construction engineering training dating back to 1882. Starting in 2000, the Fachhochschule had been part of multiple re-organisations involving several UAS (Fachhochschule) in the northwestern region. A relaunch under the name _Jade-Hochschule_ took place in 2009 (previously: _ Fachhochschule Oldenburg/Ostfriesland/Wilhelmshaven_). The Jade-Hochschule now comprises branches in three towns: Oldenburg, Elsfleth, and Wilhelmshaven . Based in Oldenburg
Oldenburg
are the departments of architecture , construction engineering and construction management , geodesy , as well as the institute of hearing aid technology and audiology . There are about 2,000 students in the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
branch. (The Elsfleth branch offers bachelor's degree courses in nautical science, international logistics, and harbour management. The Wilhelmshaven branch offers courses in engineering, business management, and media management.)

PRIVATELY MANAGED INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION:

* Founded in 2004, the IBS IT "> Isaac Friedlander Helene Lange 1899 Karl Jaspers

* Johann Liss (c.1590-c.1630) Baroque painter, active mainly in Venice * Martin Zaagmolen (??-c.1669) was a Dutch painter * Johan Samuel Augustin (1715–1785) German-Danish astronomical writer and civil servant * Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse (1790–1866) historian * Isaac Friedlander (1823–1878) an American wheat broker and California land speculator * Julius Lothar Meyer (1830 in Varel–1895) chemist * Reinhard Schlichting (1835–1897) an American manufacturer and politician in Wisconsin * Helene Lange (1848-1930), German politician, educator and suffragist * August Dinklage (1849–1920) architect and buildings official * John Henry Tihen (1861–1940) American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church * August Brauer (1863-1917), zoologist * Rudolf Heinze (1865–1928) jurist and politician * Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), philosopher and writer * Otto Schultze (1884–1966) Generaladmiral with the Kriegsmarine during World War II
World War II
* Otto Suhr (1894–1957) politician * Wilhelm Gideon (1898-1977), commander of the concentration camp Gross-Rosen * Hans Günther Aach (born 1919) botanist * Felix Gerritzen (1927-2007), football player in the German national football team * Jürgen Goslar (born 1927), actor and director * Ulrike Meinhof (1934-1976), journalist, terrorist and co-founder of the Red Army Faction * Brigitte Boehme (born 1940) lawyer and church administrator. * Thomas Schmidt-Kowalski (1949-2013), composer * Manfred Milinski (born 1950), biologist and member of the Max Planck Institute * Stefan Czapsky (born 1950) American cinematographer * Klaus Modick (born 1951), author and literary translator * Rena Niehaus (born 1954) film actress * Thomas Schütte (born 1954), sculptor and draftsman * Heiko Daxl (1957-2012), media artist and curator * Andrea Clausen (born 1959) stage actress, member of the Burgtheater ensemble. * Karsten Baumann (born 1969), former football player and current coach * Hans-Jörg Butt (born 1974), football goalkeeper * Hasnain Kazim (born 1974), journalist * Oliver Köhrmann (born 1976) handball player * Sarah Nemtsov (née Reuter, born 1980) composer

PERSONALITIES WHO WORKED IN OLDENBURG

See in particular the Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(Land) Dukes and Grand Dukes of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
for the Counts and Dukes, who were not born in Oldenburg. Princess Cecilia of Sweden in 1835

* Arp Schnitger (1648-1719), famous organ builder * Princess Cecilia of Sweden (1807–1844) (1807-1844), Princess of Sweden * Wilhelm Heinrich Schüßler (1821-1898), doctor, developer of alternative therapy with biochemical functional agents ] * Peter Suhrkamp (1891-1959), founder of the Suhrkamp-Verlag * Hermann Ehlers , (1904-1954) politician ( CDU ), President of the German Bundestag, was at the beginning of his political career a landlord in Oldenburg

*

SEE ALSO

* Straße der Megalithkultur – tourist route from Osnabrück to Oldenburg
Oldenburg
via some 33 Megalithic sites.

REFERENCES

* ^ Landesbetrieb für Statistik und Kommunikationstechnologie Niedersachsen, 102 Bevölkerung - Basis Zensus 2011, Stand 31. Dezember 2015 (Tabelle K1020014) * ^ http://www.oldenburg.de/fileadmin/oldenburg/Benutzer/PDF/40/402/0202-2014-Internet.pdf * ^ _A_ _B_ _ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Anonymous (1911). "Oldenburg". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica _. 20 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 72. * ^ Goldsmith, Martin (2014). _Alex's Wake: A Voyage of Betrayal and a Journey of Remembrance_. Da Capo Press. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-0306823220 . * ^ Ulrich Schneider: _Niedersachsen 1945_, p. 95. Hannover 1985 * ^ Source: Official results of elections published on the official website of the city of Oldenburg. * ^ http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/11684-oldenburg * ^ http://www.oldenburg.de/?id=2628 * ^ _Erinnerungsgang_ * ^ http://www.sem40.ru/index.php?newsid=239989 * ^ Statistics published on the CvO University’s web site, retrieved in 2014 * ^ Info published on the university\'s web site, retrieved in August 2012. * ^ Statistics published on the Jade-Hochschule website, retrieved in January 2012 * ^ Description of international cooperation at the official website of the city of Oldenburg
Oldenburg
(in German)

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to OLDENBURG (OLDENBURG) _.

_ Wikivoyage has

.