The Info List - Old South Arabian

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Old South Arabian[2][3][4][5] (or Epigraphic South Arabian, or Ṣayhadic) is a group of four closely related extinct languages spoken in the far southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula. There were a number of other Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
languages (e.g. Awsānian), of which very little evidence has survived, however. A sole surviving Sayhadic language is attested in Jabal Rāziḥ in far north-west of Yemen, though the varieties of speech in neighboring areas have both Arabic
and Sayhadic features, and it is difficult to classify them as either Arabic
dialects with a Sayhadic substratum, or Sayhadic languages that have been restructured under pressure of Arabic.


1 Classification issues 2 Languages 3 Written records

3.1 Categories of written records

4 Phonology 5 History of research and teaching 6 See also 7 Bibliography 8 References

Classification issues[edit] It was originally thought that all four members of this group were dialects of one Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
language, but in the mid-twentieth century Beeston finally proved that they did in fact constitute independent languages.[6] The Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
languages were originally classified (partly on the basis of geography) as South Semitic, along with Arabic, Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian
and Ethiopian Semitic; more recently however, a new classification has come in use which places Old South Arabian, along with Arabic, Ugaritic, Aramaic and Canaanite/ Hebrew
in a Central Semitic group;[7] leaving Modern South Arabian and Ethiopic in a separate group. This new classification is based on Arabic, Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
and Northwest Semitic (Ugaritic, Aramaic and Canaanite) sharing an innovation in the verbal system, an imperfect taking the form *yVqtVl-u (the other groups have *yVqattVl); Nebes showed that Sabaean
at least had the form yVqtVl in the imperfect. Even though has been now accepted that the four main languages be considered independent, they are clearly closely related linguistically and derive from a common ancestor because they share certain morphological innovations. One of the most important isoglosses retained in all four languages is the suffixed definite article - (h)n.[8] There are however significant differences between the languages. The four main Sayhadic languages were: Sabaean, Minaeic (or Madhabic), Qatabanic, and Hadramitic. According to Alice Faber (based on Hetzron's work),[9] together with Ethiopian Semitic languages
Semitic languages
(such as the contemporary Ge'ez language) and the Modern South Arabian languages (not descended from Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
but from a sister language), they formed the western branch of the South Semitic languages. Sayhadic had its own writing system, the Ancient South Arabian Monumental Script, or Ms3nd,[10] consisting of 29 graphemes concurrently used for proto-Ge'ez in the Kingdom of D`mt, ultimately sharing a common origin with the other Semitic abjads, the Proto-Sinaitic alphabet. Inscriptions in another minuscule cursive script written on wooden sticks have also been discovered. The last inscription of these languages dates back to 554 CE, 60 years before the appearance of Islam.[11][12] Languages[edit] Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
comprised a number of languages; the following are those that have been preserved in writing (the dates follow the so-called 'Long Chronology'[clarification needed]). Besides these, at least Jabal Razih survives today.

Sabaean: the language of the kingdom of Saba and later also of Ḥimyar; also documented in the Ethiopian kingdom of Da'amot;[13] very well documented, ca. 6000 Inscriptions

Old Sabaean: 8th until 2nd century BC. Middle Sabaean: 1st century BC until the 4th century AD (the best documented language.)[14]

Ḥaramitic: the language of the area to the north of Ma'īn[15] Central Sabaean: the language of the inscriptions from the Sabaean heartland. South Sabaean: the language of the inscriptions from Radman and Ḥimyar "Pseudo-Sabaean": the literary language of Arabian tribes in Najrān, Ḥaram and Qaryat al-Fāw Late Sabaean: 5th- 6th centuries AD.

Minaean: (also called Madhabian): the language of the city states in al-Jawf − with the exception of Ḥaram − especially the later sparsely populated state of Ma'in
(recorded from the 8th until 2nd century BC). Inscriptions have also been found also outside Ma'īn in the commercial colonies of Dedan and Madā'in Ṣāliḥ, in Egypt and also on Delos. (ca. 500 inscriptions) Qatabānian: the language of the kingdom of Qatabān, recorded from the 5th century BC until the 2nd century (barely 2000 inscriptions)

Awsānian: the language of the kingdom of Awsān, poorly recorded (ca. 25 inscriptions, 8th/ 1st century BC until about the 1st century AD). Indistinguishable from Qatabānian. Other varieties such as the language of the tribe of Radmān

Ḥaḑramitic (or Haḑramitic): the language of Ḥaḑramaut, with an additional inscription from the Greek island of Delos. 5th century BC until the 4th century AD, with ca. 1000 inscriptions.

Written records[edit] Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
was written in the Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
script, a consonantal abjad deriving from the Phoenician alphabet. Compared with other parts of the ancient world, Palestine for instance, the number of surviving inscriptions is very high. Something in the region of 10,000 inscriptions exist. The Sabaean
lexicon contains about 2,500 words. Categories of written records[edit]

Inscriptions in stone

Votive inscriptions, which often preserve historical accounts of the events that led to the dedication Inscriptions on buildings: give the names of the person who commissioned the work and the historical circumstances among other things Laws and legislation Protocols and deeds Inscriptions written for atonement or repentance Graffiti on rocks

Literary texts: if large numbers of any such texts ever existed, they have been almost completely lost Inscriptions on wooden cylinders (only Middle Sabaean
and Hadramite). There are about 1000 so far; very few published, mostly from Nashshān, in Wādī Madhāb.[16]

Private texts Contracts and orders

Inscriptions on everyday objects

The inscriptions on stone display a very formal and precise wording and expression, whereas the style of the wooden inscriptions written in the cursive script is much more informal. Phonology[edit]

Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian

  Bilabial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal

 Non-emph.  Emphatic  Non-emph.  Emphatic

Plosives vcelss.       t tˀ (ṭ)     k q   ʔ ( ʾ)

vced. b     d       ɡ      

Fricatives vcelss. f θ (ṯ) θˀ (ẓ) s (s3 / ś) sˀ (ṣ) ʃ (s1 / s)   x (ḫ)   ħ (ḥ) h

vced.   ð (ḏ)   z       ɣ (ġ)   ʕ (ˀ)  

Nasals m     n              

Laterals       l          

Liquids       r              

Approximants w           j (y)        

Lateral Fricative vcless.

    ɬ (s2 / š) ɬˀ (ḍ)

History of research and teaching[edit] Although the inscriptions from ancient South Arabia
South Arabia
were already known by the 18th century, it was Wilhelm Gesenius
Wilhelm Gesenius
(1786-1842) and his student Emil Rödiger who finally undertook the deciphering of the script, actually independently of each other, in the years 1841/42. Then in the second half of the 19th century Joseph Halévy
Joseph Halévy
and Eduard Glaser brought hundreds of Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
inscriptions, possible tracings and copies back to Europe. On the basis of this large amount of material Fritz Hommel
Fritz Hommel
prepared a selection of texts in 1893 along with an attempt at a grammar. Later on the Sabaean
expert Nikolaus Rhodokanakis made especially important steps towards understanding Old South Arabic. A completely new field of Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
script and texts has been opened up since the 1970s by the discovery of wooden cylinders on which Sabaean
has been written with a pen. The unknown script and numerous incomprehensible words presented Sabaean
studies with new problems, and to this day the wooden cylinders are not completely understood. In the German-speaking world, Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
is taught in the framework of Semitic Studies, and no independent university chair has been dedicated to Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
(or Sabaean) Studies. Learning Old South Arabic
at least furthers the student’s knowledge of the characteristics of Semitic by introducing him or her to a less well-preserved example of the group. Students normally begin to learn the grammar of Old South Arabian
Old South Arabian
and then they finally read a few of the longer texts. See also[edit]

Ancient North Arabian Old Arabic Modern South Arabian
Modern South Arabian
languages Ancient South Arabian script Eduard Glaser Carl Rathjens


Short introductions and overviews

Leonid Kogan and Andrey Korotayev: Sayhadic Languages (Epigraphic South Arabian). Semitic Languages. London: Routledge, 1997, pp. 157–183. N. Nebes, P. Stein: Ancient South Arabian, in: Roger D. Woodard (Hrsg.): The Cambridge encyclopedia of the World's ancient languages Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004 ISBN 0-521-56256-2 S. 454-487 (Up to date grammatical sketch with Bibliography). Peter Stein: Ancient South Arabian. In: Stefan Weninger (Hrsg.): The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. De Gruyter Mouton, Berlin 2011, ISBN 3110186136, pp. 1042–1073.


A. F. L. Beeston: Sabaic Grammar, Manchester 1984 ISBN 0-9507885-2-X. Maria Höfner: Altsüdarabische Grammatik (Porta Linguarum Orientalium, Band 24) Leipzig, 1943. Leonid Kogan and Andrey Korotayev: Sayhadic Languages (Epigraphic South Arabian). Semitic Languages. London: Routledge, 1997, p. 157-183. N. Nebes, P. Stein: Ancient South Arabian, in: Roger D. Woodard (Hrsg.): The Cambridge encyclopedia of the World's ancient languages Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004 ISBN 0-521-56256-2 S. 454-487 (most recent grammatical overview with bibliography). Mounir Arbach: Le madhabien: lexique, onomastique et grammaire d'une langue de l'Arabie méridionale préislamique. (Tomes 1-3) Aix-en-Provence, 1993 (Includes a grammar, a lexicon and a list of Minaean personal names)


A. F. L. Beeston, M. A. Ghul, W. W. Müller, J. Ryckmans: Sabaic Dictionary / Dictionnaire sabéen /al-Muʿdscham as-Sabaʾī (Englisch-Französisch-Arabisch) Louvain-la-Neuve, 1982 ISBN 2-8017-0194-7 Joan Copeland Biella: Dictionary of Old South Arabic. Sabaean
dialect Eisenbrauns, 1982 ISBN 1-57506-919-9 S.D. Ricks: Lexicon of Inscriptional Qatabanian (Studia Pohl, 14), Pontifical Biblical Institute, Rome 1989

Collections of texts

Alessandra Avanzini: Corpus of South Arabian Inscriptions I-III. Qatabanic, Marginal Qatabanic, Awsanite Inscriptions (Arabia Antica 2). Ed. PLUS, Pisa 2004. ISBN 88-8492-263-1 Barbara Jändl: Altsüdarabische Inschriften auf Metall (Epigraphische Forschungen auf der Arabischen Halbinsel 4). Tübingen, Berlin 2009. ISBN 978-3-8030-2201-1 Jacques Ryckmans, Walter W. Müller, Yusuf M. Abdallah: Textes du Yémen antique. Inscrits sur bois (Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain 43). Institut Orientaliste, Louvain 1994. ISBN 2-87723-104-6 Peter Stein: Die altsüdarabischen Minuskelinschriften auf Holzstäbchen aus der Bayerischen Staatsbibliothek in München 1: Die Inschriften der mittel- und spätsabäischen Periode (Epigraphische Forschungen auf der Arabischen Halbinsel 5). Tübingen, 2010. ISBN 978-3-8030-2200-4


^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sayhadic". Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf ^ https://www.academia.edu/4367157/Origin_and_Classification_of_the_Ancient_South_Arabian_Languages ^ http://e-learning.tsu.ge/pluginfile.php/5868/mod_resource/content/0/dzveli_armosavluri_enebi_-ugarituli_punikuri_arameuli_ebrauli_arabuli.pdf ^ http://www.aulaorientalis.org/AuOr%20escaneado/AuOr%2028-2010/AuOr-2010-2/2/2.-Avanzini-art-corregido-pasado.pdf ^ A. F. L. Beeston: Sabaic Grammar, Manchester, 1984 ^ https://books.google.pl/books?id=F2SRqDzB50wC&pg=PA931&lpg=PA931&dq=modern+south+arabian+descendants+old+south+arabian&source=bl&ots=SQryD5wJTc&sig=b2z8GKo9zYJ97KYL4VZpjuIHaew&hl=pl&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiI7_DyrvPTAhWCDBoKHbDrAaYQ6AEIXDAJ#v=onepage&q=modern%20south%20arabian%20descendants%20old%20south%20arabian&f=false ^ (Beeston: 1987:103) ^ Faber, Alice (1997). "Genetic Subgrouping of the Semitic Languages". In Robert Hetzron. The Semitic Languages (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 0-415-05767-1.  ^ Beeston, A.F.L. (1982). Sabaic dictionary: English, French, Arabic. Louvain-la-Neuve: Editions Peeters. p. 138. n. ms³nd inscription ; inscribed votive tablet inscription; tablette votive inscrite  ^ Fattovich, Rodolfo, "Akkälä Guzay" in Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p. 169 ^ Sabaean
inscription (C 325), dated 669 of the Ḥimyarite era (=559 or 554 CE) (Leonid Kogan and Andrey Korotayev: Sayhadic Languages (Epigraphic South Arabian). Semitic Languages. London: Routledge, 1997. pg. 321). ^ A. Avanzini: Le iscrizioni sudarabiche d'Etiopia: un esempio di culture e lingue a contatto. In: Oriens antiquus, 26 (1987), Seite 201-221 ^ Dialekte nach: Peter Stein: Zur Dialektgeographie des Sabäischen. In: Journal of Semitic Studies XLIX/2. Manchester 2004 ^ Peter Stein (2007), "Materialien zur sabäischen Dialektologie: Das Problem des amiritischen ("haramitischen") Dialektes" (in German), Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft 157: pp. 13-47  ^ Leonid Kogan and Andrey Korotayev: Sayhadic Languages (Epigraphic South Arabian). Semitic Languages. London: Routledge, 1997. Pg. 221.

v t e



Language Alphabet History Romanization Numerology Influence on other languages


Nabataean alphabet Perso- Arabic
alphabet Ancient North Arabian Ancient South Arabian script

Zabūr script

numerals Eastern numerals Arabic



i‘jām Tashkil Harakat Tanwin Shaddah

Hamza Tāʾ marbūṭah


ʾAlif Bāʾ Tāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Ṯāʾ Ǧīm Ḥāʾ Ḫāʾ Dāl Ḏāl Rāʾ Zāy Sīn Šīn Ṣād Ḍād Ṭāʾ Ẓāʾ ʿAyn Ġayn Fāʾ Qāf Kāf Lām Mīm Nūn Hāʾ

Tāʾ marbūṭah

Wāw Yāʾ Hamza

Notable varieties


Proto-Arabic Old Arabic Ancient North Arabian Old South Arabian


Classical Modern Standard Maltese[a]


Nilo-Egyptian Levantine Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian dialects Hilalian dialects Moroccan Darija Tunisian Arabic Sa'idi Arabic

Mesopotamian Peninsular

Yemeni Arabic Tihamiyya Arabic

Sudanese Chadian Modern South Arabian

Ethnic / religious



Juba Arabic Nubi language Babalia Creole Arabic Maridi Arabic Maltese


Literature Names


Phonology Sun and moon letters ʾIʿrāb (inflection) Grammar Triliteral root Mater lectionis IPA Quranic Arabic

Calligraphy Script

Diwani Jawi script Kufic Rasm Mashq Hijazi script Muhaqqaq Thuluth Naskh (script) Ruqʿah script Taʿlīq script Nastaʿlīq script Shahmukhī script Sini (script)


keyboard Arabic
script in Unicode ISO/IEC 8859-6 Windows-1256 MS-DOS codepages

708 709 710 711 720 864

Mac Arabic

aSociolinguistically not Arabic

v t e

Semitic languages

East Semitic languages

Akkadian Eblaite

West Semitic and Central Semitic languages




Biblical Mishnaic Medieval Mizrahi Yemenite Sephardi Ashkenazi Samaritan Modern




Ammonite Moabite Edomite



Jewish Palestinian Samaritan Christian Palestinian Nabataean Western Neo-Aramaic


Biblical Hatran Syriac Jewish Babylonian Aramaic Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Senaya Koy Sanjaq Surat Hértevin Turoyo Mlahsô Mandaic Judeo-Aramaic Syriac Malayalam


Amorite Eteocypriot Ugaritic



Classical Modern Standard


Mashriqi (Eastern)

Arabian Peninsular

Dhofari Gulf

Bahrani Shihhi

Hejazi Najdi Omani Yemeni



Eastern Egyptian and Peninsular Bedawi



Sa'idi Arabic


Cypriot Lebanese Palestinian


North Mesopotamian Judeo-Iraqi

Sudanese Central Asian

Tajiki Uzbeki


Maghrebi (Western)

Algerian Saharan Shuwa Hassānīya Andalusian Libyan Arabic




Moroccan Arabic


Tunisian Arabic



Old Arabic Nabataean Arabic

South Semitic languages

Western South

Old South

Sabaean Minaean Qatabanian Hadramautic Awsānian



Ge'ez Tigrinya Tigre Dahalik





Silt'e (Wolane, Ulbareg, Inneqor) Zay



Gafat Soddo


Mesmes Muher West Gurage

Mesqan Ezha Chaha Gura Gumer Gyeto Ennemor Endegen

Modern South Arabian

Bathari Harsusi Hobyot Me