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In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master")[1][2] refers to any painter of skill who worked in Europe before about 1800, or a painting by such an artist. An "old master print" is an original print (for example an engraving or etching) made by an artist in the same period. The term "old master drawing" is used in the same way. In theory, "Old Master" applies only to artists who were fully trained, were Masters of their local artists' guild, and worked independently, but in practice, paintings produced by pupils or workshops are often included in the scope of the term. Therefore, beyond a certain level of competence, date rather than quality is the criterion for using the term.

Contents

1 Period covered 2 Anonymous artists 3 List of the most important Old Master
Old Master
painters

3.1 Gothic/Proto-Renaissance 3.2 Early Renaissance 3.3 High Renaissance 3.4 Venetian painting
Venetian painting
Renaissance 3.5 Sienese School 3.6 Northern Renaissance 3.7 Spanish Renaissance 3.8 Mannerism 3.9 Baroque
Baroque
painting 3.10 Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque
Baroque
painting 3.11 Rococo 3.12 British 3.13 Vedutism 3.14 Neoclassicism 3.15 Romanticism

4 See also 5 References

Period covered[edit] In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the term was often understood as having a starting date of perhaps 1450 or 1470; paintings made before that were "primitives", but this distinction is no longer made. The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
defines the term as "A pre-eminent artist of the period before the modern; esp. a pre-eminent western European painter of the 13th to 18th centuries." The first quotation given is from 1696, in the diary of John Evelyn: "My L: Pembroke..shewed me divers rare Pictures of very many of the old & best Masters, especially that of M: Angelo..,& a large booke of the best drawings of the old Masters."[3] The term is also used to refer to a painting or sculpture made by an Old Master, a usage datable to 1824.[3] There are comparable terms in Dutch, French and German; the Dutch may have been the first to make use of such a term, in the 18th century, when oude meester mostly meant painters of the Dutch Golden Age of the previous century. Les Maitres d'autrefois of 1876 by Eugene Fromentin
Eugene Fromentin
may have helped to popularize the concept, although "vieux maitres" is also used in French. The famous collection in Dresden
Dresden
at the Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister
Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister
is one of the few museums to include the term in its actual name, although many more use it in the title of departments or sections. The collection in the Dresden
Dresden
museum essentially stops at the Baroque
Baroque
period. The end date is necessarily vague – for example, Goya
Goya
(1746–1828) is certainly an Old Master,[2] though he was still painting and printmaking at his death in 1828. The term might also be used for John Constable[2] (1776–1837) or Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
(1798–1868), but usually is not. The term tends to be avoided by art historians as too vague, especially when discussing paintings, although the terms "Old Master Prints" and " Old Master
Old Master
drawings" are still used. It remains current in the art trade. Auction houses still usually divide their sales between, for example, " Old Master
Old Master
Paintings", "Nineteenth-century paintings" and "Modern paintings". Christie's
Christie's
defines the term as ranging "from the 14th to the early 19th century".[this quote needs a citation] Anonymous artists[edit] Artists, most often from early periods, whose hand has been identified by art historians, but to whom no identity can be confidently attached, are often given names by art historians such as Master E.S. (from his monogram), Master of Flémalle
Master of Flémalle
(from a previous location of a work), Master of Mary of Burgundy
Mary of Burgundy
(from a patron), Master of Latin 757 (from the shelf mark of a manuscript he illuminated), Master of the Brunswick Diptych or Master of Schloss Lichtenstein. List of the most important Old Master
Old Master
painters[edit]

Still Life with Pie, Silver Ewer and Crab by Willem Claeszoon Heda (1658) Oil on canvas Frans Hals
Frans Hals
Museum, Haarlem

Gothic/Proto-Renaissance[edit]

Cimabue
Cimabue
(Italian, 1240–1302), frescoes in the Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi Giotto
Giotto
di Bondone (Italian, 1267–1337), first Renaissance fresco painter Duccio
Duccio
(Italian, 1255–1318), Sienese painter Simone Martini
Simone Martini
(Italian, 1285–1344), Gothic painter of the Sienese School Ambrogio Lorenzetti
Ambrogio Lorenzetti
(Italian, c. 1290–1348), Gothic painter Pietro Lorenzetti
Pietro Lorenzetti
(Italian, c. 1280–1348), Sienese school Gentile da Fabriano
Gentile da Fabriano
(Italian, 1370–1427), International gothic painter Lorenzo Monaco
Lorenzo Monaco
(Italian, 1370–1425), International gothic style Masolino (Italian, c. 1383–c. 1447), Goldsmith
Goldsmith
trained painter Pisanello
Pisanello
(Italian, c. 1395–c. 1455), International gothic painter and medallist Sassetta (Italian, c. 1392–1450), Sienese International Gothic painter

Early Renaissance[edit] Main article: Early Renaissance

Paolo Uccello
Paolo Uccello
(Italian, 1397–1475), schematic use of foreshortening Fra Angelico
Fra Angelico
(Italian, 1400–1455), noted for San Marco convent frescoes Masaccio
Masaccio
(Italian, 1401–1428), Florentine painter Fra Filippo Lippi
Filippo Lippi
(Italian, 1406–1469), father of Filippino Andrea del Castagno
Andrea del Castagno
(Italian, 1410–1457) Piero della Francesca
Piero della Francesca
(Italian, 1415–1492), painter who pioneered linear perspective Benozzo Gozzoli
Benozzo Gozzoli
(Italian, 1420–1497) Alesso Baldovinetti
Alesso Baldovinetti
(Italian, 1425–1499) Vincenzo Foppa
Vincenzo Foppa
(Italian, 1425–1515)

Portrait of a young woman by Sandro Botticelli, 1480

Antonello da Messina
Antonello da Messina
(Italian, 1430–1479), painter who pioneered oil painting Cosimo Tura
Cosimo Tura
(Italian, 1430–1495) Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna
(Italian, 1431–1506), master of perspective and detail Antonio Pollaiuolo
Antonio Pollaiuolo
(Italian, 1431–1498) Francesco Cossa
Francesco Cossa
(Italian, 1435–1477) Melozzo da Forli
Melozzo da Forli
(Italian, 1438–1494) Luca Signorelli
Luca Signorelli
(Italian, 1441–1523) Perugino (Italian, c. 1446–1523) Verrocchio (Italian, c. 1435–1488) Sandro Botticelli
Sandro Botticelli
(Italian, c. 1445–1510), great Florentine master Domenico Ghirlandaio
Domenico Ghirlandaio
(Italian, 1449–1494), prolific Florentine fresco painter

High Renaissance[edit] Main article: High Renaissance

Francesco Francia
Francesco Francia
(Italian, 1450–1517) Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
(Italian, 1452–1519), acclaimed oil painter and draughtsman Pinturicchio (Italian, 1454–1513) Filippino Lippi
Filippino Lippi
(Italian, 1457–1504), son of Filippo Cima da Conegliano
Cima da Conegliano
(Italian, 1459–1517) Lorenzo Costa
Lorenzo Costa
(Italian, 1460–1535)

Sistine Chapel ceiling, Ignudi, Michelangelo, 1509

Piero di Cosimo
Piero di Cosimo
(Italian, 1462–1521) Fra Bartolommeo
Fra Bartolommeo
(Italian, 1472–1517) Michelangelo
Michelangelo
(Italian, 1475–1564), acclaimed sculptor, painter and architect Bernardino Luini
Bernardino Luini
(Italian, c. 1480–1532) Raphael (Italian, 1483–1520), acclaimed painter Il Garofalo (Italian, 1481–1559) Ridolfo Ghirlandaio
Ridolfo Ghirlandaio
(Italian, 1483–1561) Andrea del Sarto
Andrea del Sarto
(Italian; 1486–1530) Correggio (Italian, 1490–1534), Parmigiani painter noted for illusionistic frescoes and altarpiece oils Giulio Romano
Giulio Romano
(Italian, c. 1499–1546)

Venetian painting
Venetian painting
Renaissance[edit] Main article: Venetian painting

Domenico Veneziano
Domenico Veneziano
(Italian, 1400–1461) Jacopo Bellini
Jacopo Bellini
(Italian, 1400–1470) Gentile Bellini
Gentile Bellini
(Italian, 1429–1507), noted for historical scenes of Venice
Venice
and portraits of its doges Giovanni Bellini
Giovanni Bellini
(Italian, 1430–1516), pioneer of luminous oil painting Bartolommeo Vivarini
Bartolommeo Vivarini
(Italian, 1432–1499) Carlo Crivelli
Carlo Crivelli
(Italian, 1435–1495) Alvise Vivarini
Alvise Vivarini
(Italian, 1445–1503) Vittore Carpaccio
Vittore Carpaccio
(Italian, 1455–1526) Giorgione
Giorgione
(Italian, 1477–1510), pioneer of Venetian School of painting Titian
Titian
(Italian, c. 1488–1576), important Renaissance exponent of colour painting in oils and frescoes Palma Vecchio
Palma Vecchio
(Italian, 1480–1528) Lorenzo Lotto
Lorenzo Lotto
(Italian, 1480–1556) Sebastiano del Piombo
Sebastiano del Piombo
(Italian, 1485–1547) Jacopo Sansovino
Jacopo Sansovino
(Italian, 1486–1570) Jacopo Bassano
Jacopo Bassano
(Italian, 1515–1592), Mannerist painter noted for portraiture and religious genre painting Jacopo Tintoretto
Tintoretto
(Italian, 1518–1594), major Venetian painter of monumental religious works Paolo Veronese
Paolo Veronese
(Italian, c. 1528–1588), one of Venice's leading colourists

Sienese School[edit] Main article: Sienese School

Giovanni di Paolo
Giovanni di Paolo
(Italian, 1403–1482) Matteo di Giovanni
Matteo di Giovanni
(Italian, 1430–1495) Francesco di Giorgio
Francesco di Giorgio
(Italian, 1439–1502) Il Sodoma (Italian, 1477–1549) Beccafumi
Beccafumi
(Italian, 1486–1551)

Northern Renaissance[edit] Main article: Northern Renaissance

"Kreuzigung Christi" (English: "Crucifixion of Christ") by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1503

Robert Campin
Robert Campin
(Flemish, 1375–1444), Northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
artist who painted the "Mérode Altarpiece" Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck
(Flemish, c. 1390–1441), pioneer oil painter Konrad Witz
Konrad Witz
(Swiss, c. 1400–c. 1446) Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden
(Flemish, 1400–1464), Dutch artist and leading religious panel painter Stefan Lochner
Stefan Lochner
(German, c. 1410–1451), German painter of the Cologne School Petrus Christus
Petrus Christus
(Flemish, c. 1410–c. 1476) Dirk Bouts
Dirk Bouts
(Flemish, 1420–1475) Simon Marmion
Simon Marmion
(French, 1420–1489) Meister Francke
Meister Francke
(German, fl. 1424–1435) Hans Memling
Hans Memling
(German born-Flemish, 1430–1494), Flemish artist of the Bruges School Martin Schongauer
Martin Schongauer
(German, 1430–1491) Michael Pacher
Michael Pacher
(Austrian 1435–1498) Hugo van der Goes
Hugo van der Goes
(Flemish, 1440–1483), oil painter from the Netherlands Hieronymus Bosch
Hieronymus Bosch
(Flemish, 1450–1516) Gerard David
Gerard David
(Flemish, 1450–1523) Geertgen tot Sint Jans
Geertgen tot Sint Jans
(Dutch, 1460–1490) Hans Holbein the Elder (German, 1460–1524) Quentin Matsys
Quentin Matsys
(Flemish, 1466–1530) Jan Mabuse
Jan Mabuse
(Flemish, 1470–1533) Matthias Grunewald
Matthias Grunewald
(German, 1470–1528), noted for his intense expressionist religious paintings Albrecht Dürer
Albrecht Dürer
(German, 1471–1528), greatest painter and printmaker of the Northern Renaissance Lucas Cranach the Elder
Lucas Cranach the Elder
(German, 1472–1553), leading German Renaissance painter Hans Burgkmair
Hans Burgkmair
(German, 1473–1531) Jean Clouet
Jean Clouet
(French, 1475–1547) Albrecht Altdorfer
Albrecht Altdorfer
(German, 1480–1538), Danube School of painting Maitre de Moulins
Maitre de Moulins
(French, fl. 1480) Hans Baldung Grien
Hans Baldung Grien
(German, 1484–1545), German Renaissance artist Joachim Patenier
Joachim Patenier
(Flemish, 1485–1524), pioneer landscape painter of the Netherlandish Renaissance Joos van Cleve
Joos van Cleve
(Flemish, 1485–1540)

Card Players by Lucas van Leyden, c. 1508

Bernard van Orley
Bernard van Orley
(Flemish, 1488–1541) Hans Springinklee
Hans Springinklee
(German, 1490–1540) Wolf Huber
Wolf Huber
(German, 1490–1553) Lucas van Leyden
Lucas van Leyden
(Dutch, 1494–1533) Jan van Scorel
Jan van Scorel
(Dutch, 1495–1562) Hans Holbein the Younger
Hans Holbein the Younger
(German, 1497–1543), one of the greatest portrait painters Georg Pencz
Georg Pencz
(German, 1500–1550) Sebald Beham
Sebald Beham
(German, 1500–1550) Barthel Beham
Barthel Beham
(German, 1502–1540) Lucas Cranach the Younger
Lucas Cranach the Younger
(German, 1515–1586) Pieter Bruegel the Elder (Flemish, c.1525–1569), leading artist of his day Egidius Sadeler
Egidius Sadeler
(Flemish, 1570–1629)

Spanish Renaissance[edit] Main article: Spanish Renaissance

Bartolomé Bermejo
Bartolomé Bermejo
(Spanish, c. 1440–c. 1501) Alonso Berruguete
Alonso Berruguete
(Spanish, c. 1488–1561) Luis de Morales
Luis de Morales
(Spanish, 1512–1586) Alonso Sánchez Coello
Alonso Sánchez Coello
(Spanish-Portuguese, 1531–1588) El Greco (Greek-born Spanish, 1541–1614), noted for his dazzling spiritual works and portraits

Mannerism[edit] Main article: Mannerism

Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant St. John by Angelo Bronzino, c. 1545

Dosso Dossi
Dosso Dossi
(Italian, 1479–1542) Alfonso Lombardi
Alfonso Lombardi
(Italian, 1487–1537) Bartolommeo Bandinelli
Bartolommeo Bandinelli
(Italian, 1493–1560) Pontormo
Pontormo
(Italian, 1494–1556), Florentine fresco/oil painter Rosso Fiorentino
Rosso Fiorentino
(Italian, 1494–1540) Maarten van Heemskerck
Maarten van Heemskerck
(Dutch, 1498–1574) Alessandro Moretto
Alessandro Moretto
(Italian, 1498–1555) Giulio Clovio
Giulio Clovio
(Croatian-born Italian, 1498–1578) Niccolo Tribolo
Niccolo Tribolo
(Italian, 1500–1550) Parmigianino
Parmigianino
(Italian, 1503–1540), Mannerist painter/etcher from Parma Bronzino (Italian, 1503–1572) Jacob Seisenegger
Jacob Seisenegger
(Austrian, 1505–1567) Pieter Aertsen
Pieter Aertsen
(Dutch, 1508–1575) Francois Clouet
Francois Clouet
(French 1510–1572) Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari
(Italian, 1511–1575), known for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects Antonio Moro
Antonio Moro
(Flemish, 1519–1576)

The Vegetable Seller by Pieter Aertsen, 1567

Giovanni Battista Moroni
Giovanni Battista Moroni
(Italian, 1525–1578) Federico Barocci
Federico Barocci
(Italian, 1526–1612) Giuseppe Arcimboldo
Giuseppe Arcimboldo
(Italian, 1527–1593), best known for his bizarre Mannerist fruit and vegetable portraits Giambologna
Giambologna
(Italian, 1529–1608), hugely influential Mannerist sculptor Denis Calvaert
Denis Calvaert
(Flemish, 1540–1619) Scipione Pulzone
Scipione Pulzone
(Italian, 1542–1598) Bartholomeus Spranger
Bartholomeus Spranger
(Flemish, 1546–1611) Karel van Mander
Karel van Mander
(Flemish, 1548–1606) Abraham Bloemaert
Abraham Bloemaert
(Dutch, 1566–1651) Joachim Wtewael
Joachim Wtewael
(Dutch, 1566–1638) Adam Elsheimer
Adam Elsheimer
(German, 1578–1610), influential German landscape and history painter who influenced Rubens

Baroque
Baroque
painting[edit] Main article: Baroque
Baroque
painting

Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio, 1601

Antonio Tempesta
Antonio Tempesta
(Italian, 1555–1630) Lodovico Caracci
Lodovico Caracci
(Italian, 1555–1619) Bartolomeo Cesi
Bartolomeo Cesi
(Italian, 1556–1629) Agostino Caracci
Agostino Caracci
(Italian, 1557–1602) Lodovico Cigoli
Lodovico Cigoli
(Italian, 1559–1613) Bartolomeo Carducci
Bartolomeo Carducci
(Italian, 1560–1610) Annibale Carracci
Annibale Carracci
(Italian, 1560–1609) Leader of the academism Orazio Gentileschi
Orazio Gentileschi
(Italian, 1563–1639) Hans Rottenhammer
Hans Rottenhammer
(German, 1564–1625) Pieter Bruegel the Younger
Pieter Bruegel the Younger
(Flemish, 1564–1636) Francisco Pacheco
Francisco Pacheco
(Spanish, 1564–1654)

Portrait of Susanna Lunden
Portrait of Susanna Lunden
by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1622

Francisco Ribalta
Francisco Ribalta
(Spanish, 1565–1628) Jan Brueghel the Elder
Jan Brueghel the Elder
(Flemish, 1568–1625) Juan Martinez Montanes
Juan Martinez Montanes
(Spanish, 1568–1649) Caravaggio
Caravaggio
(Italian, 1573–1610), noted for his figurative realism and Tenebrism Guido Reni
Guido Reni
(Italian, 1575–1642) Peter Paul Rubens
Peter Paul Rubens
(Flemish, 1577–1640), foremost Baroque
Baroque
history painter and portraitist Adam Elsheimer
Adam Elsheimer
(German, 1578–1610) Bernardo Strozzi
Bernardo Strozzi
(Italian, 1581–1644) Juan Bautista Maíno
Juan Bautista Maíno
(Spanish, 1581-1649) Johann Liss
Johann Liss
(German, 1590–1631) Jusepe de Ribera
Jusepe de Ribera
(Spanish, 1591– 1652), Naples-based religious realist painter and printmaker Guercino
Guercino
(Italian, 1591–1666) Artemisia Gentileschi
Artemisia Gentileschi
(Italian, 1592–1656) Georges de La Tour
Georges de La Tour
(French, 1593–1652) Jacob Jordaens
Jacob Jordaens
(Flemish, 1593–1678)

Las Meninas
Las Meninas
by Diego Velázquez, 1656

Louis Le Nain
Louis Le Nain
(French, 1593–1648) Nicolas Poussin
Nicolas Poussin
(French, 1594–1665), the main classical artist of his time Pietro da Cortona
Pietro da Cortona
(Italian, 1596–1669), painter and architect Francisco de Zurbarán
Francisco de Zurbarán
(Spanish, 1598–1664), master of chiaroscuro known for his religious paintings and still lifes Gianlorenzo Bernini
Gianlorenzo Bernini
(Italian, 1598–1680), the dominant sculptor and architect of the era Antoine Le Nain
Antoine Le Nain
(French, 1599–1648) Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
(Flemish, 1599–1641), portraitist living in London Diego Velázquez
Diego Velázquez
(Spanish, 1599–1660), regarded as the greatest artist of the Spanish Golden Age Claude Lorrain
Claude Lorrain
(French, 1600–1682), landscape artist Alonso Cano
Alonso Cano
(Spanish, 1601–1667) Jan Brueghel the Younger
Jan Brueghel the Younger
(Flemish, 1601–1678) Mathieu Le Nain
Mathieu Le Nain
(French, 1607–1677) Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (Italian, 1609–1664) Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo
Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo
(Spanish, c. 1612-1667) Mattia Preti
Mattia Preti
(Italian, 1613–1699) Salvator Rosa
Salvator Rosa
(Italian, 1613–1673) Juan Carreño de Miranda
Juan Carreño de Miranda
(Spanish, 1614-1685) Carlo Dolci
Carlo Dolci
(Italian, 1616–1686) Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
Bartolomé Esteban Murillo
(Spanish, 1617–1682), one of the most influential religious painters Charles Le Brun
Charles Le Brun
(French, 1619–1690), the leading painter in the court of Louis XIV Juan de Valdés Leal
Juan de Valdés Leal
(Spanish, 1622–1690) Pedro de Mena
Pedro de Mena
(Spanish, 1628–1688) Luca Giordano
Luca Giordano
(Italian, 1634–1705)

Dutch Golden Age and Flemish Baroque
Baroque
painting[edit] Main articles: Dutch Golden Age Painting
Painting
and Flemish Baroque
Baroque
painting

The Concert by Gerard van Honthorst, 1623

Roelant Savery
Roelant Savery
(Flemish, 1576–1639) Frans Snyders
Frans Snyders
(Flemish, 1578–1657), undisputed master of Baroque still life from the Antwerp School Frans Hals
Frans Hals
(Flemish-born Dutch, 1580–1666), one of the greatest post-Renaissance portraitists Pieter Lastman
Pieter Lastman
(Dutch, 1583–1633) Hendrick Terbrugghen
Hendrick Terbrugghen
(Dutch, 1588–1629), Dutch Realist genre painter and a leading member of the Utrecht Caravaggisti Gerrit van Honthorst
Gerrit van Honthorst
(Dutch, 1590–1636) Dirck van Baburen
Dirck van Baburen
(Dutch, 1595–1624) Matthias Stom
Matthias Stom
(Dutch, 1600–1652) Adriaen Brouwer
Adriaen Brouwer
(Flemish, c. 1605–1638), noted for his tavern-based genre paintings Rembrandt
Rembrandt
van Rijn (Dutch, 1606–1669), world's greatest portrait artist Jan Lievens
Jan Lievens
(Dutch, 1607–1674) Jacob Adriaensz Backer
Jacob Adriaensz Backer
(Dutch, 1608–1651) Ferdinand Bol
Ferdinand Bol
(Dutch, 1616–1680)

Yonker Ramp and his sweetheart
Yonker Ramp and his sweetheart
by Frans Hals, 1623

Jan Havickszoon Steen
Jan Havickszoon Steen
(Dutch, 1625–1679), Leiden School, tavern genre scenes Jan Davidsz de Heem
Jan Davidsz de Heem
(Dutch, 1609–1683), still-life artist of the Utrecht/Antwerp School David Teniers the Younger
David Teniers the Younger
(Flemish, 1610–1690), Dutch Realist known for his peasant/guardroom scenes Adriaen van Ostade
Adriaen van Ostade
(Dutch, 1610–1685), peasant scene artist of the Haarlem School Govert Flinck (Dutch, 1615–1660) Gerrit Dou
Gerrit Dou
(Dutch, 1613–1675) Frans van Mieris the Elder
Frans van Mieris the Elder
(Dutch, 1635–1681) Gerard Terborch
Gerard Terborch
(Dutch, 1617–1681), Haarlem School genre painter Willem Kalf
Willem Kalf
(Dutch, 1619–1693), noted for still-life pictures Albert Cuyp
Albert Cuyp
(Dutch, 1620–1691), Dordrecht School landscape painter Samuel van Hoogstraten
Samuel van Hoogstraten
(Dutch, 1627–1678), genre painter Jan de Bray
Jan de Bray
(Dutch, 1627-1697) Jacob van Ruisdael
Jacob van Ruisdael
(Dutch, 1628–1682), Haarlem School landscape artist Gabriel Metsu
Gabriel Metsu
(Dutch, 1629–1667), intimate small-scale genre scenes Pieter de Hooch
Pieter de Hooch
(Dutch, 1629–1683), Delft School of Dutch genre painting Johannes Vermeer
Johannes Vermeer
(Dutch, 1632–1675), Delft School Dutch genre painter, little-known in his own lifetime Meindert Hobbema
Meindert Hobbema
(Dutch, 1638–1709) Aert de Gelder
Aert de Gelder
(Dutch, 1645–1727) Adriaen van der Werff
Adriaen van der Werff
(Dutch, 1659–1722) Rachel Ruysch
Rachel Ruysch
(Dutch, 1664–1750), important female flower painter from Amsterdam

Rococo[edit] Main articles: Rococo
Rococo
and Italian Rococo
Rococo
art

Giovanni Battista Piazzetta
Giovanni Battista Piazzetta
(Italian, 1682–1754), master of the fresco Jean-Antoine Watteau
Jean-Antoine Watteau
(French, 1684–1721), author of the first fête galante Giovan Battista Pittoni
Giovan Battista Pittoni
(Italian, 1687–1767), known for sacred families and children Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
(Italian, 1691–1770), known for his frescoes, as in Würzburg Residence Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin
(French, 1699–1779), important 18th-century still-life artist François Boucher
François Boucher
(French, 1703–1770), noted for female nudes Charles-André van Loo
Charles-André van Loo
(French, 1705– 1765) 18th-century historical painter of portraiture, religion, mythology, allegory, and genre scenes. Pompeo Batoni
Pompeo Batoni
(Italian, 1708–1787) Martin Johann Schmidt
Martin Johann Schmidt
(Austrian, 1718–1801), important 18th-century Austrian Late Baroque
Baroque
painter Jean-Baptiste Greuze
Jean-Baptiste Greuze
(French, 1725–1805), important 18th-century painter François-Hubert Drouais
François-Hubert Drouais
(French, 1727– 1775) Frech portraitist to the royal family, King Louis XV and Queen Marie Leczinska, and members of the nobility Jean-Honoré Fragonard
Jean-Honoré Fragonard
(French, 1732–1806) Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
Louise Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun
(French, 1755–1842), later Neoclassical

British[edit]

An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump
An Experiment on a Bird in an Air Pump
by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1768

Nicholas Hilliard
Nicholas Hilliard
(English, c. 1547–1619), goldsmith, limner, and painter best known for his portrait miniatures of Elizabethan nobility William Dobson
William Dobson
(English, 1611–1646) John Michael Wright
John Michael Wright
(English-Scottish, c. 1617–1694) Peter Lely
Peter Lely
(Dutch-born English, 1618–1680) Godfrey Kneller
Godfrey Kneller
(English, 1646–1723) James Thornhill
James Thornhill
(English, c. 1675–1734) William Hogarth
William Hogarth
(English, 1697–1764) Allan Ramsay (Scottish, 1713–1784) Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
(English, 1723–1792) Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough
(English, 1727–1788) Joseph Wright of Derby
Joseph Wright of Derby
(English, 1734–1797) George Romney (English, 1734–1802) John Opie (English, 1761–1807) Thomas Lawrence
Thomas Lawrence
(English, 1769–1830)

Vedutism[edit] Main articles: Veduta
Veduta
and Grand Tour

Canaletto
Canaletto
(Italian, 1697–1768), famous for vedutas of Venice Giovanni Paolo Panini
Giovanni Paolo Panini
(Italian, 1691–1765) Francesco Zuccarelli
Francesco Zuccarelli
(Italian, 1702–1789), known for Arcadian landscapes Francesco Guardi
Francesco Guardi
(Italian, 1712–1793), view painter of Venice
Venice
School Giambattista Piranesi
Giambattista Piranesi
(Italian, 1720–1778) Bernardo Bellotto
Bernardo Bellotto
(Italian, 1720–1780), Canaletto's nephew depicting Warsaw

Neoclassicism[edit] Main article: Neoclassicism

Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs
(German, 1728–1779), friend of Johann Joachim Winckelmann Johann Zoffany
Johann Zoffany
(German, 1733–1810) Benjamin West
Benjamin West
(American-born British, 1738–1820) Angelica Kauffman
Angelica Kauffman
(Swiss, 1741–1807) Jacques-Louis David
Jacques-Louis David
(French, 1748–1825), chief artist of the French Revolution and Napoleon Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
(French, 1780–1867)

Romanticism[edit]

Francisco Goya
Goya
(Spanish, 1746–1828) Henry Raeburn
Henry Raeburn
(Scottish, 1756–1823) William Blake
William Blake
(British, 1757–1827), symbolist religious painter, printmaker and book illustrator Antoine-Jean Gros
Antoine-Jean Gros
(French, 1771–1835), pupil of Jacques-Louis David Théodore Géricault
Théodore Géricault
(French, 1791–1824) Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
(French, 1798–1863)

See also[edit]

Maestro, the musical equivalent

References[edit]

^ The term is spelled either way in the literature. Major UK and US dictionaries, incl. the Oxford Online Dictionaries, American Heritage Dictionary, Macmillan, Cambridge, and Random House dictionaries use lowercase; Oxford English Dictionary, Collins, and Merriam-Webster dictionaries also mention the uppercase spelling. ^ a b c Old Masters Department, Christies.com. ^ a b "old master, n. and adj." OED Online. Oxford University Press, D

.