Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language
and the earliest recorded form of Low German
(spoken nowadays in Northern Germany
, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas
and parts of Eastern Europe
). It is a West Germanic
language, closely related to the Anglo-Frisian
languages. It is documented from the 8th century until the 12th century, when it gradually evolved into Middle Low German
. It was spoken throughout modern northwestern Germany, primarily in the coastal regions and in the eastern Netherlands
, a Germanic tribe that inhabited the region of Saxony
. It partially shares Anglo-Frisian
's (Old Frisian
, Old English
) Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law
which sets it apart from Low Franconian
languages, such as Dutch
The grammar of Old Saxon was fully inflected
with five grammatical case
, and instrumental
), three grammatical number
, and dual
) and three grammatical gender
, and neuter
). The dual forms occurred in the first and second persons only and referred to groups of two.
Historically, Old Saxon and Old Dutch
were considered to be distinct dialects of an otherwise unitary language rather than two languages, primarily because they were linked through a dialect continuum
spanning the modern Netherlands and Germany. However, while these two languages both shared the same historical origins and some very similar writing style
s, Old Saxon shows a slightly reduced morphology
compared to Old Dutch
, which retained some grammatical distinctions that Old Saxon abandoned. There are also various differences in their phonological evolution
, Old Saxon being classified as an Ingvaeonic language
, whereas Old Dutch is one of the Istvaeonic languages
Relation with other West Germanic languages
In the Middle Ages
, a dialect continuum
existed between Old Dutch
and Old Saxon, a continuum which has only recently been interrupted by the simultaneous dissemination of standard languages within each nation and the dissolution of folk dialects. Although they share some features, a number of differences separate Old Saxon, Old English
, and Old Dutch. One such difference is the Old Dutch utilization of ''-a'' as its plural a-stem noun ending, while Old Saxon and Old English employ ''-as'' or ''-os''. However, it seems that Middle Dutch
took the Old Saxon a-stem ending from some Middle Low German
dialects, as modern Dutch includes the plural ending ''-s'' added to certain words. Another difference is the so-called "unified plural": Old Saxon, like Old Frisian and Old English, has one verb form for all three persons in the plural, whereas Old Dutch retained three distinct forms (reduced to two in Middle Dutch).
Old Saxon (or Old Low German) probably evolved primarily from Ingvaeonic
dialects in the West Germanic
branch of Proto-Germanic
in the 5th century. However, Old Saxon, even considered as an Ingvaeonic language, is not a pure Ingvaeonic dialect like Old Frisian
and Old English, the latter two sharing some other Ingvaeonic characteristics, which Old Saxon lacked. This, in addition to the large number of West-Germanic
features that Old Saxon displayed, had led some philologists
to mistakenly think that Old Dutch and Old Saxon were variations of the same language, and that Old Saxon was an Istvaeonic
Relation to Middle Low German
Old Saxon naturally evolved into Middle Low German over the course of the 11th and 12th centuries, with a great shift from Latin
to Low German writing happening around 1150, so that the development of the language can be traced from that period.
The most striking difference between Middle Low German and Old Saxon is in a feature of speech known as vowel reduction
, which took place in most other West Germanic languages
and some Scandinavian dialects such as Danish
, reducing all unstressed vowels to schwa
. Thus, such Old Saxon words like ''gisprekan'' (spoken) or ''dagō'' (days' – gen. pl.) became ''gesprēken ''and ''dāge''.
Old Saxon did not participate in the High German consonant shift
, and thus preserves stop consonants ''p'', ''t'', ''k'' that have been shifted in Old High German
to various fricative
s and affricate
s. The Germanic diphthongs ''ai'', ''au'' consistently develop into long vowels ''ē'', ''ō'', whereas in Old High German they appear either as ''ei'', ''ou'' or ''ē'', ''ō'' depending on the following consonant.
Old Saxon, alone of the West Germanic languages except for Frisian, consistently preserves Germanic ''-j-'' after a consonant, e.g. "savior" ( goh|heilant, ang|hǣlend, got|háiljands). Germanic umlaut
, when it occurs with short ''a'', is inconsistent, e.g. or "to have" ( ang|habban). This feature was carried over into the descendant-language of Old Saxon, Middle Low German, where e.g. the adjective ''krank'' (sick, ill) had the comparative forms ''krenker'' and ''kranker''. Apart from the ''e'', however, the umlaut is not marked in writing.
The table below lists the consonants of Old Saxon. Phonemes written in parentheses represent allophone
s and are not independent phonemes.
* The voiceless spirants , , and gain voiced allophones (, , and ) when between vowels. This change is only faithfully reflected in writing for (represented with letters such as and ). The other two allophones continued to be written as before.
*Fricatives were devoiced again word-finally. Beginning in the later Old Saxon period, stops
became devoiced word-finally as well.
* Most consonants could be geminated
. Notably, geminated gave , and geminated probably gave . Geminated resulted in .
* Germanic ''*h'' is retained as in these positions and thus merges with devoiced .
* Long vowels were rare in unstressed syllables and mostly occurred due to suffixation or compounding.
* The closing diphthongs and sometimes occur in texts (especially in Genesis
), probably under the influence of Franconian
or High German dialect
s, where they replace Old Saxon developments and (which evolved from Proto-Germanic
* The situation for the front opening diphthongs is somewhat unclear in some texts. Words written with ''io'' in the Heliand
, the most extensive record of Old Saxon writing, are often found written variably with ''ia'' or even ''ie'' in most other texts, notably the later ones. The diphthong eventually merges into in almost every Middle Low German dialect.
* There also existed 'long' diphthongs , and . These were, however, treated as two-syllable sequences of a long vowel followed by a short one, not proper diphthongs.
Unlike modern English, but like Old English, Old Saxon is an inflected language
, rich in morphological
diversity. It kept several distinct cases from Proto-Germanic
: the nominative
and (vestigially in the oldest texts) instrumental
Old Saxon also had three grammatical number
, and dual
, and plural
) and three grammatical gender
, and neuter
). The dual forms occurred in the first and second persons only and referred to groups of exactly two.
Old Saxon nouns were inflected in very different ways following their classes. Here are the endings for ''dag'', "day" an a-stem masculine noun:
At the end of the Old Saxon period, distinctions between noun classes began to disappear, and endings from one were often transferred to the other declension, and vice versa. This happened to be a large process, and the most common noun classes started to cause the least represented to disappear. As a result, in Middle Low German, only the former weak n-stem and strong a-stem classes remained. These two noun inflection classes started being added to words not only following the historical belonging of this word, but also following the root of the word.
The Old Saxon verb inflection system reflects an intermediate stage between Old English and Old Dutch, and further Old High German. Unlike Old High German and Old Dutch, but similarly to Old English, it did not preserve the three different verb endings in the plural, all featured as ''-ad'' (also ''-iad'' or ''-iod'' following the different verb inflection classes). Like Old Dutch, it had only two classes of weak verb, with only a few relic verbs of the third weak class (namely four verbs: libbian
This table sums up all the seven Old Saxon strong verb classes and the three weak verb classes:
It should be noticed that the third weak verb class includes only four verbs (namely libbian
); it is a remnant of an older and larger class that was kept in Old High German.
Old Saxon syntax is mostly different from that of English
. Some were simply consequences of the greater level of nominal and verbal inflection – e.g., word order was generally freer. In addition:
*The default word order
, very close to that of modern Dutch
or modern German
*There was no ''do''-support
in questions and negatives.
*Multiple negatives could stack up in a sentence and intensify each other (negative concord
), which is not always the case in modern English, modern Dutch
, or modern German
*Sentences with subordinate clauses of the type "when X, Y" (e.g. "When I got home, I ate dinner.") did not use a ''wh-''type conjunction, but rather used a ''th-''type correlative conjunction
(e.g. ''thô X, thô Y'' in place of "when X, Y"). The ''wh-''type conjunctions were used only as interrogative pronoun
s and indefinite pronouns
*Similarly, ''wh-'' forms were not used as relative pronoun
s (as in "the man who saw me" or "the car which I bought"). Instead, an indeclinable word ''the'' was used, often in conjunction with the definite article
(which was declined for case, number and gender).
Old Saxon comes down in a number of different manuscripts whose spelling systems sometimes differ markedly. In this section, only the letters used in normalized versions of the Heliand
will be kept, and the sounds modern scholars have traditionally assigned to these letters. Where spelling deviations in other texts may point to significant pronunciation variants, this will be indicated.
In general, the spelling of Old Saxon corresponds quite well to that of the other ancient Germanic languages
, such as Old High German or Gothic
* ''c'' and ''k'' were both used for . However, it seems that, as in other West-Germanic
dialects, when was followed by ''i'' or ''e'', it had the pronunciation or . The letters ''c'' and ''x'' were preferred for the palatalisations
, ''k'' and even sometimes ''ch'' being rather used before ''u'', ''o'' or ''a'' for (''kuning'' for 'king', modern ''köning'' ; crûci for ; forsachistu for ).
* ''g'' represented or its allophone : ''brengian'' 'to bring', ''seggian'' 'to say', ''wege'' 'way' (dative).
* ''g'' seems, at least in a few dialects, to have had the pronunciation or at the beginning of a word, only when followed by ''i'' or ''e''. Thus we find ''giār'' 'year' and even ''gēr'' 'year', the latter betraying a strong Old Frisian influence.
* ''h'' represents and its allophone : ''holt'' 'wood', ''naht'' 'night' (mod. ''nacht'').
* ''i'' is used for both the vowels and and the consonant : ''ik'' 'I' (mod. ''ick, ik''), ''iār'' 'year'.
* ''qu'' and ''kw'' always represent : ''quāmun'' 'they came'.
* ''s'' represented , and between two vowels also .
* ''th'' is used to indicate : ''thōhtun'' 'they thought'. ''ð'' is used for , occasionally also written ''dh''.
* ''u'' represented the vowels and , or the consonant ~ , which was denoted sporadically across manuscripts by either ⟨ƀ⟩, ⟨b⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨v⟩, or ⟨f⟩'.
* ''uu'' was normally used to represent , predating the letter ''w''.
* ''z'' only appeared in a few texts due to Old High German
Only a few texts survive, predominantly baptismal vows the Saxons were required to perform at the behest of Charlemagne
. The only literary texts preserved are ''Heliand
'' and fragments of the Old Saxon Genesis
. There is also:
homily (''Homilie Bedas'')
* ''Credo'' (''Abrenunciatio diaboli et credo'') → Old Saxon baptismal vow.
* ''Essener Heberegister''
* Old Saxon Baptismal Vow
(german: Sächsisches Taufgelöbnis
* Penitentiary (''altsächsische Beichte, altwestfälische Beichte'')
* ''Trierer Blutsegen'' ()
* ''Spurihalz'' (''Wiener Pferdsegen'') ()
* ''Wurmsegen'' (''Wiener Wurmsegen'') (
* Psalms commentary (''Gernroder Psalmenkommentar'')
A poetic version of the Lord's Prayer
in the form of the traditional Germanic alliterative verse
is given in Old Saxon below as it appears in the ''Heliand''.
*Old Saxon Genesis
*Old Saxon Baptismal Vow
*Middle Low German
*Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law
* Euler, Wolfram (2013). ''Das Westgermanische - von der Herausbildung im 3. bis zur Aufgliederung im 7. Jahrhundert - Analyse und Rekonstruktion'' (West Germanic - from its Emergence in the 3rd up until its Dissolution in the 7th Century CE - Analyses and Reconstruction). 244 p., in German with English summary, London/Berlin 2013, .
* Ringe, Donald R.
and Taylor, Ann (2014). ''The Development of Old English - A Linguistic History of English, vol. II'', 632p. . Oxford.
Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, (5. Auflage) 2014. ("An Old Saxon Dictionary")
Einführung in das Altsächsische
(An Introduction to Old Saxon) by Roland Schuhmann (in German)copy
at the Internet Archive
* at the Internet Archive
Category:Languages of the Netherlands
Category:Languages of Germany
Category:North Sea Germanic