Old Latin, also known as Early
Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the
Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of
Classical Latin. In New and Contemporary Latin, it is called prisca
Latinitas ("ancient Latin") rather than vetus Latina ("old Latin"), as
vetus Latina is used to refer to a set of Biblical texts (which are
written in Late Latin).
The use of "old", "early" and "archaic" has been standard in
publications of Old
Latin writings since at least the 18th century.
The definition is not arbitrary, but the terms refer to writings with
spelling conventions and word forms not generally found in works
written under the Roman Empire. This article presents some of the
The earliest known specimen of the
Latin language is from the
Praeneste fibula. A new analysis performed in 2011 declared it to be
genuine "beyond any reasonable doubt" and dating from the
Orientalizing period, in the first half of the seventh century BC.
1 Philological constructs
1.1 The old-time language
1.2 The four Latins of Isidore
1.3 Old Latin
2.1 Fragments and inscriptions
2.2 Works of literature
5.2 Vowels and diphthongs
6.1.1 First declension (a)
6.1.2 Second declension (o)
6.1.3 Third declension (consonant/i)
6.1.4 Fourth declension (u)
6.1.5 Fifth declension (e)
6.2 Personal pronouns
6.3 Relative pronoun
6.4.1 Old present and perfects
7 See also
10 Further reading
11 External links
The old-time language
The concept of Old
Latin (Prisca Latinitas) is as old as the concept
of Classical Latin, both dating to at least as early as the late Roman
Republic. In that time period Cicero, along with others, noted that
the language he used every day, presumably the upper-class city Latin,
included lexical items and phrases that were heirlooms from a previous
time, which he called verborum vetustas prisca, translated as "the
old age/time of language."
During the classical period, Prisca Latinitas, Prisca Latina and other
idioms using the adjective always meant these remnants of a previous
language, which, in the Roman philology, was taken to be much older in
fact than it really was. Viri prisci, "old-time men," were the
Latium before the founding of Rome.
The four Latins of Isidore
In the Late
Latin period, when
Classical Latin was behind them, the
Latin- and Greek-speaking grammarians were faced with multiple phases,
or styles, within the language.
Isidore of Seville
Isidore of Seville reports a
classification scheme that had come into existence in or before his
time: "the four Latins" ("Latinas autem linguas quattuor esse quidam
dixerunt"). They were Prisca, spoken before the founding of Rome,
Janus and Saturn ruled Latium, to which he dated the Carmen
Saliare; Latina, dated from the time of king Latinus, in which period
he placed the laws of the Twelve Tables; Romana, essentially equal to
Classical Latin; and Mixta, "mixed"
Classical Latin and Vulgar Latin,
which is known today as Late Latin. The scheme persisted with little
change for some thousand years after Isidore.
John Wordsworth used this definition: "By Early
Latin of the whole period of the Republic, which is
separated very strikingly, both in tone and in outward form, from that
of the Empire."
Although the differences are striking and can be easily identified by
Latin readers, they are not such as to cause a language barrier. Latin
speakers of the empire had no reported trouble understanding Old
Latin, except for the few texts that must date from the time of the
kings, mainly songs. Thus, the laws of the
Twelve Tables from the
early Republic were comprehensible, but the Carmen Saliare, probably
written under Numa Pompilius, was not entirely (and still remains
An opinion concerning Old Latin, of a Roman man of letters in the
middle Republic, survives: the historian, Polybius, read "the first
Rome and Carthage", which he says "dates from the
Lucius Junius Brutus
Lucius Junius Brutus and Marcus Horatius, the first
consuls after the expulsion of the kings." Knowledge of the early
consuls is somewhat obscure, but
Polybius also states that the treaty
was formulated 28 years after
Xerxes I crossed into Greece; that is,
in 452 BC, about the time of the Decemviri, when the constitution of
Roman Republic was being defined.
Polybius says of the language of
the treaty "the ancient Roman language differs so much from the modern
that it can only be partially made out, and that after much
application by the most intelligent men".
There is no sharp distinction between Old Latin, as it was spoken for
most of the Republic, and Classical Latin, but the earlier grades into
the later. The end of the republic was too late a termination for
compilers after Wordsworth;
Charles Edwin Bennett said, "'Early Latin'
is necessarily a somewhat vague term ... Bell, De locativi in prisca
Latinitate vi et usu, Breslau, 1889, sets the later limit at 75 BC.
A definite date is really impossible, since archaic
Latin does not
terminate abruptly, but continues even down to imperial times."
Bennett's own date of 100 BC did not prevail but rather Bell's 75 BC
became the standard as expressed in the four-volume Loeb Library and
other major compendia. Over the 377 years from 452 to 75 BC, Old Latin
evolved from being partially comprehensible by classicists with study
to being easily read by scholars.
The Praeneste Fibula, the earliest known specimen of the Latin
language and date from the first half of the seventh century BC.
The Forum inscription, one of the oldest known
Latin inscriptions. It
is written boustrophedon, albeit irregularly. From a rubbing by
Latin authored works began in the 3rd century BC. These are
complete or nearly complete works under their own name surviving as
manuscripts copied from other manuscripts in whatever script was
current at the time. In addition are fragments of works quoted in
Numerous inscriptions placed by various methods (painting, engraving,
embossing) on their original media survive just as they were except
for the ravages of time. Some of these were copied from other
inscriptions. No inscription can be earlier than the introduction of
the Greek alphabet into
Italy but none survive from that early date.
The imprecision of archaeological dating makes it impossible to assign
a year to any one inscription, but the earliest survivals are probably
from the 6th century BC. Some texts, however, that survive as
fragments in the works of classical authors, had to have been composed
earlier than the republic, in the time of the monarchy. These are
Fragments and inscriptions
Latin fragments with estimated dates include:
Carmen Saliare (chant put forward in classical times as having
been sung by the Salian brotherhood formed by Numa Pompilius,
approximate date 700 BC)
Praeneste fibula (date from first half of the seventh century BC.)
The Forum inscription (illustration, right c. 550 BC under the
Duenos inscription (c. 500 BC)
The Castor-Pollux dedication (c. 500 BC)
Garigliano Bowl (c. 500 BC)
Lapis Satricanus (early 5th century BC)
The preserved fragments of the laws of the Twelve Tables
(traditionally, 449 BC, attested much later)
The Tibur pedestal (c. 400 BC)
The Scipionum Elogia
Epitaph of Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus (c. 280 BC)
Epitaph of Lucius Cornelius Scipio (consul 259 BC)
Epitaph of Publius Cornelius Scipio P.f. P.n. Africanus (died about
Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus
Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus (186 BC)
The Vase Inscription from Ardea
The Corcolle Altar fragments
The Carmen Arvale
Altar to the Unknown Divinity (92 BC)
Works of literature
The authors are as follows:
Livius Andronicus (c. 280/260 BC — c. 200 BC), translator,
founder of Roman drama
Gnaeus Naevius (c. 264 — 201 BC), dramatist, epic poet
Plautus (c. 254 — 184 BC), dramatist, composer of
Ennius (239 — c. 169 BC), poet
Pacuvius (c. 220 — 130 BC), tragic dramatist, poet
Statius Caecilius (220 — 168/166 BC), comic dramatist
Publius Terentius Afer (195/185 — 159 BC), comic dramatist
Quintus Fabius Pictor (3rd century BC), historian
Lucius Cincius Alimentus (3rd century BC), military historian
Marcius Porcius Cato (234 — 149 BC), generalist, topical writer
Gaius Acilius (2nd century BC), historian
Lucius Accius (170 — c. 86 BC), tragic dramatist, philologist
Gaius Lucilius (c. 160s — 103/102 BC), satirist
Quintus Lutatius Catulus (2nd century BC), public officer,
Aulus Furius Antias (2nd century BC), poet
Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo Vopiscus (130 BC — 87 BC), public
officer, tragic dramatist
Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis (2nd century BC), comic dramatist,
Lucius Cassius Hemina (2nd century BC), historian
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi (2nd century BC), historian
Manius Manilius (2nd century BC), public officer, jurist
Lucius Coelius Antipater (2nd century BC), jurist, historian
Sempronius Asellio (158 BC — after 91 BC), military officer,
Gaius Sempronius Tuditanus (2nd century BC), jurist
Lucius Afranius (2nd & 1st centuries BC), comic dramatist
Titus Albucius (2nd and 1st centuries BC), orator
Publius Rutilius Rufus (158 BC — after 78 BC), jurist
Lucius Aelius Stilo Praeconinus (154 — 74 BC), philologist
Quintus Claudius Quadrigarius (2nd and 1st centuries BC), historian
Valerius Antias (2nd and 1st centuries BC), historian
Lucius Cornelius Sisenna (121 — 67 BC), soldier, historian
Quintus Cornificius (2nd and 1st centuries BC), rhetorician
Main articles: History of the
Latin alphabet, and Old
Latin surviving in inscriptions is written in various forms of the
Etruscan alphabet as it evolved into the
Latin alphabet. The writing
conventions varied by time and place until classical conventions
prevailed. The works of authors in manuscript form were copied over
into the scripts current in those later times. The original writing
does not survive.
Some differences between old and classical
Latin were of spelling
only; pronunciation is thought to be essentially as in classical
Single for double consonants: Marcelus for Marcellus
Double vowels for long vowels: aara for āra
q for c before u: pequnia for pecunia
c for g: Caius for Gaius
These differences did not necessarily run concurrently with each other
and were not universal; that is, c was used for both c and g.
See also: History of Latin
Diphthong changes from Old
Latin (left) to
Classical Latin (right)
Latin had a strong stress on the first syllable of a word until
about 250 BC. All syllables other than the first were unstressed and
were subjected to greater amounts of phonological weakening. Starting
around that year, the
Classical Latin stress system began to develop.
It passed through at least one intermediate stage, found in Plautus,
in which the stress occurred on the fourth last syllable in
four-syllable words with all short syllables.
Vowels and diphthongs
Most original PIE diphthongs were preserved in stressed syllables,
including /ai/ (later ae); /ei/ (later ī); /oi/ (later ū, or
sometimes oe); /ou/ (from PIE /eu/ and /ou/; later ū).
Latin diphthong ei evolves in stages: ei > ẹ̄ > ī.
The intermediate sound ẹ̄ was simply written e but must have been
distinct from the normal long vowel ē because ẹ̄ subsequently
merged with ī while ē did not. It is generally thought that ẹ̄
was a higher sound than e (e.g. perhaps [eː] vs. [ɛː] during the
time when both sounds existed). Even after the original vowel /ei/ had
merged with ī, the old spelling ei continued to be used for a while,
with the result that ei came to stand for ī and began to be used in
the spelling of original occurrences of ī that did not evolve from ei
(e.g. in the genitive singular -ī, which is always spelled -i in the
oldest inscriptions but later on can be spelled either -i or -ei).
In unstressed syllables, *oi and *ai had already merged into ei by
historic times (except for one possible occurrence of poploe for
populī "people" in a late manuscript of one of the early songs). This
eventually evolved to ī according to the process described above.
Latin often had different short vowels than Classical Latin,
reflecting sound changes that had not yet taken place. For example,
the very early
Duenos inscription has the form duenos "good", later
found as duonos and still later bonus. A countervailing change wo >
we occurred around 150 BC in certain contexts, and many earlier forms
are found (e.g. earlier votō, voster, vorsus vs. later vetō, vester,
Latin frequently preserves original PIE (Proto-Indo-European)
thematic case endings -os and -om (later -us and -um).
Intervocalic /s/ (pronounced [z]) was preserved up through 350 BC or
so, at which point it changed into /r/ (called rhotacism). This
rhotacism had implications for declension: early classical Latin,
honos, honoris (from honos, honoses); later Classical (by analogy)
honor, honoris ("honor"). Some Old
Latin texts preserve /s/ in this
position, such as the Carmen Arvale's lases for lares. Later instances
of single /s/ between vowels are mostly due either to reduction of
early /ss/ after long vowels or diphthongs; borrowings; or late
There are many unreduced clusters, e.g. iouxmentom (later iūmentum,
"beast of burden"); losna (later lūna, "moon") < *lousna <
*/leuksnā/; cosmis (later cōmis, "courteous"); stlocum, acc. (later
Early du /dw/ becomes later b: duenos > duonos > bonus "good";
duis > bis "twice"; duellom > bellum "war".
Final /d/ occurred in ablatives (later lost) and in third-person
secondary verbs (later t).
Latin nouns are distinguished by grammatical case, with a termination,
or suffix, determining its use in the sentence: subject, predicate,
etc. A case for a given word is formed by suffixing a case ending to a
part of the word common to all its cases called a stem. Stems are
classified by their last letters as vowel or consonant. Vowel stems
are formed by adding a suffix to a shorter and more ancient segment
called a root. Consonant stems are the root (roots end in consonants).
The combination of the last letter of the stem and the case ending
often results in an ending also called a case ending or termination.
For example, the stem puella- receives a case ending -m to form the
accusative case puellam in which the termination -am is evident.
Classical Latin textbooks the declensions are named from the letter
ending the stem or First, Second, etc. to Fifth. A declension may be
illustrated by a paradigm, or listing of all the cases of a typical
word. This method is less frequently applied to Old Latin, and with
less validity. In contrast to Classical Latin, Old
Latin reflects the
evolution of the language from an unknown hypothetical ancestor spoken
in Latium. The endings are multiple. Their use depends on time and
locality. Any paradigm selected would be subject to these constraints
and if applied to the language universally would result in false
constructs, hypothetical words not attested in the Old
Nevertheless, the endings are illustrated below by quasi-classical
paradigms. Alternative endings from different stages of development
are given, but they may not be attested for the word of the paradigm.
For example, in the Second Declension, *campoe "fields" is unattested,
but poploe "peoples" is attested.
First declension (a)
The 'A-Stem' declension. The stems of nouns of this declension usually
end in –ā and are typically feminine.
This article may require cleanup to meet's quality
standards. The specific problem is: Table and text are contradicting.
Table: "Genitive: puell-ās/-āī/-ais" - Text: "late inscriptional
-aes" -- Is the genitive form -ais or -aes or did both exist?
Table: "Nominative: puell-ā" - Text: "the shortened a of the
nominative" -- Is the nominative -ā or -a or did both exist (at
different times)? Please help improve this article if you can. (June
2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
girl, maiden f.
A nominative case ending of –s in a few masculines indicates the
nominative singular case ending may have been originally –s:
paricidas for later paricida, but the –s tended to get lost. In
the nominative plural, -ī replaced original -s as in the genitive
In the genitive singular, the –s was replaced with –ī from the
second declension, the resulting diphthong shortening to –ai
subsequently becoming –ae. In a few cases the replacement did
not take place: pater familiās. Explanations of the late
inscriptional -aes are speculative. In the genitive plural, the
regular ending is –āsōm (classical –ārum by rhotacism and
shortening of final o) but some nouns borrow –om (classical –um)
from the second declension.
In the dative singular the final i is either long or short.
The ending becomes –ae, –a (Feronia) or –e (Fortune).
In the accusative singular,
Latin regularly shortens a vowel before
In the ablative singular, –d was regularly lost after a long
vowel. In the dative and ablative plural, the –abos descending
from Indo-European *–ābhos is used for feminines only (deabus).
*–ais > –eis > īs is adapted from –ois of the
In the vocative singular, an original short a merged with the
shortened a of the nominative.
The locative case would not apply to such a meaning as puella, so
Roma, which is singular, and Syracusae, which is plural, have been
substituted. The locative plural has already merged with the –eis
form of the ablative.
Second declension (o)
field, plain m.
rock, stone n.
camp-ei < -oi
camp-ei < -oi
camp-eis < -ois
sax-eis < -ois
camp-eis < -ois
sax-eis < -ois
camp-eis < -ois
sax-eis < -ois
The stems of the nouns of the o-declension end in ŏ deriving from the
o-grade of Indo-European ablaut.
Classical Latin evidences the
development ŏ > ŭ. Nouns of this declension are either masculine
Nominative singulars ending in -ros or -ris syncopate the ending:
*agros > *agrs > *agers > *agerr > ager. (The form terr
"three times" for later ter < *tris appears in Plautus.)
Many alternative spellings occur:
As mentioned above, the sound change -ei > -ẹ̄ > -ī leads to
numerous variations, including the reverse spelling ei for ī. This
spelling eventually appears in the genitive singular as well, although
-ī is earliest and the true ending; cf. populi Romanei, "of the Roman
people.", which both spellings in the same inscription.
Likewise, the sound change -os > -us and -ōm > -om > -um
affect the nominative and accusative singular, and the genitive
One very early text has genitive -osio (the Proto-Indo-European
ending) rather than -ī (an ending appearing only in
Italo-Celtic).. This form also appears in the closely
related Faliscan language.
In the genitive plural, -um (from Indo-European *-ōm) survived in
Latin "words for coins and measures"; otherwise it was
eventually replaced by -ōrum by analogy with 1st declension -ārum.
The nominative/vocative plural masculine -ei comes from the
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) pronominal ending *-oi. The original ending
-oi appears in a late spelling in the word poploe (i.e. "poploi" =
populī "people") in Sextus Pompeius Festus.
The dative/ablative/locative plural -eis comes from earlier -ois, a
merger of PIE instrumental plural *-ōis and locative plural *-oisu.
The form -ois appears in
Sextus Pompeius Festus and a few early
Praeneste Fibula has dative singular Numasioi, representing
A number of "provincial texts" have nominative plural -eis (later -īs
from 190 BC on), with an added s, by some sort of analogy with
other declensions. Sihler (1995) notes that this form appears in
literature only in pronouns and suggests that inscriptional examples
added to nouns may be artificial (i.e. not reflecting actual
In the vocative singular, some nouns lose the -e (i.e. have a zero
ending) but not necessarily the same as in classical Latin. The -e
alternates regularly with -us.
The locative was a separate case in Old
Latin but gradually became
reduced in function, and the locative singular form eventually merged
with the genitive singular by regular sound change. In the plural, the
locative was captured by the ablative case in all Italic languages
before Old Latin.
Third declension (consonant/i)
The 'Consonant-Stem' and 'I-Stem' declension. This declension contains
nouns that are masculine, feminine, and neuter. The stem ends in the
root consonant, except in the special case where it ends in -i (i-stem
declension). The i-stem, which is a vowel-stem, partially fused with
the consonant-stem in the pre-
Latin period and went further in Old
Latin. I/y and u/w can be treated either as consonants or as
vowels; hence their classification as semi-vowels. Mixed-stem
declensions are partly like consonant-stem and partly like i-stem.
Consonant-stem declensions vary slightly depending on which consonant
is root-final: stop-, r-, n-, s-, etc. The paradigms below include
a stop-stem (reg-) and an i-stem (igni-).
For the consonant declension, in the nominative singular, the -s was
affixed directly to the stem consonant, but the combination of the two
consonants produced modified nominatives over the Old
The case appears in different stages of modification in different
words diachronically. The
Latin neuter form (not shown) is the
Indo-European nominative without stem ending; for example, cor <
The genitive singular endings include -is < -es and -us <
*-os. In the genitive plural, some forms appear to affix the case
ending to the genitive singular rather than the stem: regerum <
In the dative singular, -ī succeeded -eī and -ē after 200 BC.
In the accusative singular, -em < *-ṃ after a consonant.
In the ablative singular, the -d was lost after 200 BC. In the
dative and ablative plural, the early poets sometimes used -būs.
In the locative singular, the earliest form is like the dative but
over the period assimilated to the ablative.
Fourth declension (u)
The 'U-Stem' declension. The stems of the nouns of the u-declension
end in ŭ and are masculine, feminine and neuter. In addition there is
a ū-stem declension, which contains only a few "isolated" words, such
as sūs, "pig", and is not presented here.
Fifth declension (e)
The 'E-Stem' declension. The fifth declension in Old
Latin is almost
morphologically identical to the one of Classical Latin.
While the commonest ending in the nominative in both the singular and
plural forms is '-ēs' (i.e. 'rēs, rĕī'), there have been recorded
a few instances of either a shortened 'e' with the addition of a
consonantal 'i', as in 'reis', or the abandonment of the nature of the
'e-stem' declension (i.e. 'res, rei').
The genitive in the singular functions as the second declension:
'rĕī' (the breve above the 'e' is the result of an approximant 'r'
preceding a mid-open vowel). The genitive plural, in a like manner to
the second declension, is formed primarily by '-ēsōm'
The dative is generally formed with an '-ei' in the singular, and an
'-ēbos' in the plural.
The accusative, like all the other declensions, retains the labial
'm', shortening the quantity of the theme vowel.
The ablative singular is a predictable '-ēd.' The plural is like the
The locative functions exactly in the singular as it does in the
plural, with a short '-eis' as the 1st although there are no
singular-based city names in the singular besides the occasional
Personal pronouns are among the most common thing found in Old Latin
inscriptions. In all three persons, the ablative singular ending is
identical to the accusative singular.
Suī, Himself, Herself, Etc.
In Old Latin, the relative pronoun is also another common concept,
especially in inscriptions. The forms are quite inconsistent and leave
much to be reconstructed by scholars.
queī, quaī, quod who, what
quoius, quoios, -a, -um/om
(according to gender of whatever is owned)
quoī, queī, quoieī, queī
Old present and perfects
There is little evidence of the inflection of Old
Latin verb forms and
the few surviving inscriptions hold many inconsistencies between
forms. Therefore, the forms below are ones that are both proved by
scholars through Old
Latin inscriptions, and recreated by scholars
based on other early
Indo-European languages such as Greek and Italic
dialects such as Oscan and Umbrian.
Indicative Present: Sum
Indicative Present: Facio
Indicative Perfect: Sum
Indicative Perfect: Facio
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "Old Latin".
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
^ "Archaic Latin". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English
Language: Fourth Edition.
^ Maras, Daniele F. (Winter 2012). "Scientists declare the Fibula
Praenestina and its inscription to be genuine "beyond any reasonable
doubt" (PDF). Etruscan News. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on
24 February 2012.
^ De Oratoribus, I.193.
^ Book IX.1.6.
^ Wordsworth 1874, p. v.
^ Histories III.22.
^ Bell, Andreas (1889). De Locativi in prisca latinitate vi et usu,
dissertatio inauguralis philologica. Breslau: typis Grassi, Barthi et
soc (W. Friedrich).
^ Bennett, 1910 & iii.
^ De Forest Allen (1897). p. 8. There were no such names as
Caius, Cnaius Missing or empty title= (help)
^ Allen (1897), p.6
^ Bennett, Charles Edwin (1915) [1895, 1908]. A
Latin grammar. Boston,
Chicago: Allyn and Bacon. p. 12.
^ Buck (1933), pp. 174–175.
^ Wordsworth (1874), p.45.
^ a b Buck (1933), p. 177.
^ Buck (1933), pp. 175–176.
^ a b Wordsworth (1874), p. 48.
^ a b c d Buck (1933), p. 176.
^ Buck (1933), p. 172.
^ Palmer (1988), p. 242.
^ Buck (1933), p. 173.
^ Buck (1933), pp. 99–100.
^ Lindsay (1894), p. 383.
^ Buck (1933), p. 182.
^ a b Sihler (1995), A New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin.
^ Wordsworth (1874), p.56.
^ Buck (1933), p.181.
^ Grandgent, Charles Hall (1908) . An introduction to vulgar
Latin. Heath's modern language series. Boston: D.C. Heath & Co.
^ Buck, Carl Darling (2005) . A Grammar Of Oscan And Umbrian:
With A Collection Of Inscriptions And A Glossary. Languages of
classical antiquity, vol. 5. Bristol, Pa.: Evolution Publishing.
^ Buck (1933), p. 197.
^ Buck (1933), pp. 185–193.
^ Wordsworth (1874), pp. 67–73.
^ Buck (1933), p. 185.
^ a b Bennett (1895), p. 117.
^ Roby (1872), p. 162.
^ a b Allen (1897), p. 9.
^ Gildersleeve (1900), p. 18.
^ Buck (1933), pp. 198–201.
Allen, Frederic de Forest (1897). Remnants of Early Latin. Ginn.
Bennett, Charles Edwin (1895). A
Latin Grammar: With Appendix for
Teachers and Advanced Students. Allyn and Bacon.
Bennett, Charles Edwin (1907). The
Latin Language: A Historical
Outline of Its Sounds, Inflections, and Syntax. Allyn and Bacon.
Bennett, Charles Edwin (1910). Syntax of Early Latin. Boston: Allyn
Buck, Carl Darling (1933). Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin.
Chicago: University of Chicago.
Gildersleeve, Basil Lanneau; Lodge, Gonzalez (1900). Gildersleeve's
Latin grammar (3rd ed.). New York, Boston, New Orleans, London:
University Publishing Company.
Lindsay, Wallace Martin (1894). The
Latin language: an historical
Latin sounds, stems and flexions. Oxford: Clarendon
Palmer, Leonard Robert (1988) . The
Latin language. Norman:
University of Oklahoma Press.
Roby, Henry John (1872). A grammar of the
Latin language from Plautus
to Suetonius. Volume I (2nd ed.). London: MacMillan and Co.
Wordsworth, John (1874). Fragments and specimens of early Latin, with
Introduction and Notes. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Goldberg, Sander M. 2007. "Antiquity’s antiquity." In Latinitas
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Ages of Latin
until 75 BC
75 BC – 200 AD
History of Latin
Latino sine flexione
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
historiography of the fall
Tribune of the Plebs
Frontiers and fortifications
Decorations and punishments
Conflict of the Orders
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Younger
Quintus Curtius Rufus
Seneca the Elder
Seneca the Younger
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Eusebius of Caesaria
Phlegon of Tralles
Lists and other
Cities and towns
Wars and battles
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